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    Larry Squire

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentPsychiatry
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #9116-B
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-642-3628
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      Biography

      Dr. Squire received his undergraduate degree from Oberlin College, his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Brain and Cognitive Sciences), and did postdoctoral study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine before coming to UCSD. His publications include approximately 500 research articles and two books: Memory and Brain (Oxford Press, 1987) and Memory: From Mind to Molecules with Eric Kandel (Roberts and Co., 2009). He is also Senior Editor of the textbook, Fundamental Neuroscience, now in its 4th Edition and Editor-in-Chief of The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography (now in eight volumes). He served as President of the Society for Neuroscience (1993-1994) and is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and The Institute of Medicine. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the William Middleton Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Metropolitan Life Award for Medical Research, the Karl Lashley Award (American Philosophical Society), the Herbert Crosby Warren Medal (Society of Experimental Psychologists), the Award for Scientific Reviewing (National Academy of Sciences), and the Goldman-Rakic Prize (Brain and Behavior Research Foundation).

      Research Interests

      Dr. Squire’s research concerns the organization and structure of mammalian memory (humans and rodents) at the level of neural systems and cognition. A part of the research involves studies of identified neurological patients with impaired memory. The research program also involves rodents, particularly with respect to questions about the anatomy of memory and the function of the brain systems that support memory. In addition, the facility for functional imaging at UCSD is affording the possibility of studying brain systems of human memory in normal volunteers.

      Clinical Focus

      Consultation for neuropsychological evaluation of memory impairment, effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory, and other kinds of behavioral assessment.


      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      CSR&D Research Career Scientist Award
      VA IK6CX001644Oct 1, 2017 - Sep 30, 2024
      Role: Principal Investigator
      The Neuropsychology of Memory
      VA I01CX000359Oct 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Memory Systems of the Brain
      NIH/NIMH R01MH024600Jan 1, 1979 - Jun 30, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MEMORY AS AFFECTED BY INJURY DISEASE AND ECT
      NIH/NIMH R37MH024600Jan 1, 1979 - Dec 31, 1999
      Role: Principal Investigator

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Urgolites ZJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Medial temporal lobe and topographical memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 08; 114(32):8626-8630. PMID: 28739918.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Squire L. Memory for relations in the short term and the long term after medial temporal lobe damage. Hippocampus. 2017 May; 27(5):608-612. PMID: 28188665.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Smith CN, Squire L. When eye movements express memory for old and new scenes in the absence of awareness and independent of hippocampus. Learn Mem. 2017 Feb; 24(2):95-103. PMID: 28096499.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Urgolites ZJ, Kim S, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Map reading, navigating from maps, and the medial temporal lobe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Dec 13; 113(50):14289-14293. PMID: 27911842.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Dede AJ, Frascino JC, Wixted JT, Squire L. Learning and remembering real-world events after medial temporal lobe damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Nov 22; 113(47):13480-13485. PMID: 27821761.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Dede AJ, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Autobiographical memory, future imagining, and the medial temporal lobe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Nov 22; 113(47):13474-13479. PMID: 27821735.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Sapiurka M, Squire L, Clark RE. Distinct roles of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in spatial and nonspatial memory. Hippocampus. 2016 Dec; 26(12):1515-1524. PMID: 27576311.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Urgolites ZJ, Smith CN, Squire L. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments. Learn Mem. 2015 Nov; 22(11):557-62. PMID: 26472645; PMCID: PMC4749729 [Available on 11/01/16].
      9. Squire L, Genzel L, Wixted JT, Morris RG. Memory consolidation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015 Aug 03; 7(8):a021766. PMID: 26238360.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Kim S, Dede AJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 14; 112(15):4767-72. PMID: 25825712; PMCID: PMC4403152.
      11. Squire L, Dede AJ. Conscious and unconscious memory systems. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015 Mar 02; 7(3):a021667. PMID: 25731765.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Hales JB, Broadbent NJ, Velu PD, Squire L, Clark RE. Hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and complex visual discriminations in rats and humans. Learn Mem. 2015 Feb; 22(2):83-91. PMID: 25593294; PMCID: PMC4341362.
      13. Hales JB, Schlesiger MI, Leutgeb JK, Squire L, Leutgeb S, Clark RE. Medial entorhinal cortex lesions only partially disrupt hippocampal place cells and hippocampus-dependent place memory. Cell Rep. 2014 Nov 06; 9(3):893-901. PMID: 25437546; PMCID: PMC4294707.
      14. Smith CN, Jeneson A, Frascino JC, Kirwan CB, Hopkins RO, Squire L. When recognition memory is independent of hippocampal function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 08; 111(27):9935-40. PMID: 24958865; PMCID: PMC4103374.
      15. Wixted JT, Squire L, Jang Y, Papesh MH, Goldinger SD, Kuhn JR, Smith KA, Treiman DM, Steinmetz PN. Sparse and distributed coding of episodic memory in neurons of the human hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9621-6. PMID: 24979802; PMCID: PMC4084456.
      16. Smith CN, Urgolites ZJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Comparison of explicit and incidental learning strategies in memory-impaired patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 07; 111(1):475-9. PMID: 24367093; PMCID: PMC3890873.
      17. Dede AJ, Squire L, Wixted JT. A novel approach to an old problem: analysis of systematic errors in two models of recognition memory. Neuropsychologia. 2014 Jan; 52:51-6. PMID: 24184486; PMCID: PMC4079078.
      18. Kim S, Borst G, Thompson WL, Hopkins RO, Kosslyn SM, Squire L. Sparing of spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions. Learn Mem. 2013 Oct 17; 20(11):657-63. PMID: 24136183; PMCID: PMC3799416.
      19. Knutson AR, Hopkins RO, Squire L. A pencil rescues impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. Learn Mem. 2013 Oct 15; 20(11):607-10. PMID: 24129096; PMCID: PMC3799417.
      20. Smith CN, Frascino JC, Hopkins RO, Squire L. The nature of anterograde and retrograde memory impairment after damage to the medial temporal lobe. Neuropsychologia. 2013 Nov; 51(13):2709-14. PMID: 24041667; PMCID: PMC3837701.
      21. Clark RE, Squire L. Similarity in form and function of the hippocampus in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 18; 110 Suppl 2:10365-70. PMID: 23754372; PMCID: PMC3690603.
      22. Insausti R, Annese J, Amaral DG, Squire L. Human amnesia and the medial temporal lobe illuminated by neuropsychological and neurohistological findings for patient E.P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 21; 110(21):E1953-62. PMID: 23620517; PMCID: PMC3666743.
      23. Dede AJ, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Hippocampal damage impairs recognition memory broadly, affecting both parameters in two prominent models of memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 16; 110(16):6577-82. PMID: 23576763; PMCID: PMC3631653.
      24. Kim S, Sapiurka M, Clark RE, Squire L. Contrasting effects on path integration after hippocampal damage in humans and rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19; 110(12):4732-7. PMID: 23404706; PMCID: PMC3606992.
      25. Knutson AR, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Visual discrimination performance, memory, and medial temporal lobe function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 07; 109(32):13106-11. PMID: 22826243; PMCID: PMC3420216.
      26. Jeneson A, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Visual working memory capacity and the medial temporal lobe. J Neurosci. 2012 Mar 07; 32(10):3584-9. PMID: 22399780; PMCID: PMC3349278.
      27. Jeneson A, Squire L. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function. Learn Mem. 2012 Jan; 19(1):15-25. PMID: 22180053; PMCID: PMC3246590.
      28. Smith CN, Wixted JT, Squire L. The hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity when memories are strong. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 02; 31(44):15693-702. PMID: 22049412; PMCID: PMC3220416.
      29. Song Z, Jeneson A, Squire L. Medial temporal lobe function and recognition memory: a novel approach to separating the contribution of recollection and familiarity. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 02; 31(44):16026-32. PMID: 22049444; PMCID: PMC3227550.
      30. Wixted JT, Squire L. Confusion abounds about confounds: response to Diana and Ranganath. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011 Aug; 15(8):338-9. PMID: 21764356.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Wixted JT, Squire L. The familiarity/recollection distinction does not illuminate medial temporal lobe function: response to Montaldi and Mayes. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011 Aug; 15(8):340-1. PMID: 21763175; PMCID: PMC3457644.
      32. Song Z, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Impaired capacity for familiarity after hippocampal damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 07; 108(23):9655-60. PMID: 21606344; PMCID: PMC3111286.
      33. Jeneson A, Mauldin KN, Hopkins RO, Squire L. The role of the hippocampus in retaining relational information across short delays: the importance of memory load. Learn Mem. 2011; 18(5):301-5. PMID: 21502337; PMCID: PMC3083641.
      34. Clark RE, Reinagel P, Broadbent NJ, Flister ED, Squire L. Intact performance on feature-ambiguous discriminations in rats with lesions of the perirhinal cortex. Neuron. 2011 Apr 14; 70(1):132-40. PMID: 21482362; PMCID: PMC3089973.
      35. Wixted JT, Squire L. The medial temporal lobe and the attributes of memory. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011 May; 15(5):210-7. PMID: 21481629; PMCID: PMC3085543.
      36. Song Z, Wixted JT, Smith CN, Squire L. Different nonlinear functions in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex relating functional MRI activity to memory strength. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 05; 108(14):5783-8. PMID: 21436048; PMCID: PMC3078356.
      37. Kim S, Jeneson A, van der Horst AS, Frascino JC, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Memory, visual discrimination performance, and the human hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 16; 31(7):2624-9. PMID: 21325530; PMCID: PMC3072247.
      38. Squire L, Wixted JT. The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since H.M. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2011; 34:259-88. PMID: 21456960; PMCID: PMC3192650.
      39. Broadbent NJ, Squire L, Clark RE. Sustained dorsal hippocampal activity is not obligatory for either the maintenance or retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Hippocampus. 2010 Dec; 20(12):1366-75. PMID: 19921702; PMCID: PMC3072238.
      40. Wixted JT, Mickes L, Squire L. Measuring recollection and familiarity in the medial temporal lobe. Hippocampus. 2010 Nov; 20(11):1195-205. PMID: 20848603; PMCID: PMC2975576.
      41. Squire L, van der Horst AS, McDuff SG, Frascino JC, Hopkins RO, Mauldin KN. Role of the hippocampus in remembering the past and imagining the future. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 02; 107(44):19044-8. PMID: 20956323; PMCID: PMC2973863.
      42. Jeneson A, Mauldin KN, Squire L. Intact working memory for relational information after medial temporal lobe damage. J Neurosci. 2010 Oct 13; 30(41):13624-9. PMID: 20943903; PMCID: PMC2975488.
      43. Jeneson A, Kirwan CB, Squire L. Recognition without awareness: an elusive phenomenon. Learn Mem. 2010 Sep; 17(9):454-9. PMID: 20810620; PMCID: PMC2948874.
      44. Smith CN, Frascino JC, Kripke DL, McHugh PR, Treisman GJ, Squire L. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Aug; 48(10):2833-40. PMID: 20493889; PMCID: PMC2914200.
      45. Wixted JT, Squire L. The role of the human hippocampus in familiarity-based and recollection-based recognition memory. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Dec 31; 215(2):197-208. PMID: 20412819; PMCID: PMC2939282.
      46. Clark RE, Squire L. An animal model of recognition memory and medial temporal lobe amnesia: history and current issues. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Jul; 48(8):2234-44. PMID: 20144894; PMCID: PMC2975590.
      47. Jeneson A, Kirwan CB, Hopkins RO, Wixted JT, Squire L. Recognition memory and the hippocampus: A test of the hippocampal contribution to recollection and familiarity. Learn Mem. 2010 Jan; 17(1):63-70. PMID: 20047986; PMCID: PMC2807179.
      48. Wais PE, Squire L, Wixted JT. In search of recollection and familiarity signals in the hippocampus. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010 Jan; 22(1):109-23. PMID: 19199424; PMCID: PMC2888779.
      49. Broadbent NJ, Gaskin S, Squire L, Clark RE. Object recognition memory and the rodent hippocampus. Learn Mem. 2010 Jan; 17(1):5-11. PMID: 20028732; PMCID: PMC2807177.
      50. Kirwan CB, Wixted JT, Squire L. A demonstration that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 05; 107(1):344-8. PMID: 19966306; PMCID: PMC2806702.
      51. Squire L. Memory and brain systems: 1969-2009. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14; 29(41):12711-6. PMID: 19828780; PMCID: PMC2791502.
      52. Kirwan CB, Shrager Y, Squire L. Medial temporal lobe activity can distinguish between old and new stimuli independently of overt behavioral choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25; 106(34):14617-21. PMID: 19706549; PMCID: PMC2732796.
      53. Jessberger S, Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, Clemenson GD, Consiglio A, Lie DC, Squire L, Gage FH. Dentate gyrus-specific knockdown of adult neurogenesis impairs spatial and object recognition memory in adult rats. Learn Mem. 2009 Feb; 16(2):147-54. PMID: 19181621; PMCID: PMC2661246.
      54. Smith CN, Squire L. Medial temporal lobe activity during retrieval of semantic memory is related to the age of the memory. J Neurosci. 2009 Jan 28; 29(4):930-8. PMID: 19176802; PMCID: PMC2670190.
      55. Squire L. The legacy of patient H.M. for neuroscience. Neuron. 2009 Jan 15; 61(1):6-9. PMID: 19146808; PMCID: PMC2649674.
      56. Smith CN, Squire L. Experience-dependent eye movements reflect hippocampus-dependent (aware) memory. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 26; 28(48):12825-33. PMID: 19036976; PMCID: PMC2614323.
      57. Kirwan CB, Wixted JT, Squire L. Activity in the medial temporal lobe predicts memory strength, whereas activity in the prefrontal cortex predicts recollection. J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 15; 28(42):10541-8. PMID: 18923030; PMCID: PMC2590932.
      58. Shrager Y, Kirwan CB, Squire L. Activity in both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex predicts the memory strength of subsequently remembered information. Neuron. 2008 Aug 28; 59(4):547-53. PMID: 18760691; PMCID: PMC2614916.
      59. Wixted JT, Squire L. Constructing receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) with experimental animals: cautionary notes. Learn Mem. 2008 Sep; 15(9):687-90. PMID: 18772256.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Shrager Y, Kirwan CB, Squire L. Neural basis of the cognitive map: path integration does not require hippocampus or entorhinal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 19; 105(33):12034-8. PMID: 18687893; PMCID: PMC2575247.
      61. Shrager Y, Levy DA, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Working memory and the organization of brain systems. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 30; 28(18):4818-22. PMID: 18448658; PMCID: PMC2426968.
      62. Kirwan CB, Bayley PJ, Galván VV, Squire L. Detailed recollection of remote autobiographical memory after damage to the medial temporal lobe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 19; 105(7):2676-80. PMID: 18252820; PMCID: PMC2268195.
      63. Squire L, Wixted JT, Clark RE. Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007 Nov; 8(11):872-83. PMID: 17948032; PMCID: PMC2323975.
      64. Kennedy DP, Squire L. An analysis of calendar performance in two autistic calendar savants. Learn Mem. 2007 Aug; 14(8):533-8. PMID: 17686947; PMCID: PMC1951792.
      65. Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, Squire L. The hippocampus and spatial memory: findings with a novel modification of the water maze. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 20; 27(25):6647-54. PMID: 17581951; PMCID: PMC2553679.
      66. Squire L. Neuroscience. Rapid consolidation. Science. 2007 Apr 06; 316(5821):57-8. PMID: 17412942; PMCID: PMC2271071.
      67. Broadbent NJ, Squire L, Clark RE. Rats depend on habit memory for discrimination learning and retention. Learn Mem. 2007 Mar; 14(3):145-51. PMID: 17351137; PMCID: PMC1838555.
      68. Squire L, Bayley PJ. The neuroscience of remote memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007 Apr; 17(2):185-96. PMID: 17336513; PMCID: PMC2277361.
      69. Shrager Y, Bayley PJ, Bontempi B, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Spatial memory and the human hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 20; 104(8):2961-6. PMID: 17296931; PMCID: PMC1815289.
      70. Bayley PJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. The fate of old memories after medial temporal lobe damage. J Neurosci. 2006 Dec 20; 26(51):13311-7. PMID: 17182781; PMCID: PMC2424208.
      71. Gold JJ, Squire L. The anatomy of amnesia: neurohistological analysis of three new cases. Learn Mem. 2006 Nov-Dec; 13(6):699-710. PMID: 17101872; PMCID: PMC1783623.
      72. Smith CN, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Experience-dependent eye movements, awareness, and hippocampus-dependent memory. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 01; 26(44):11304-12. PMID: 17079658; PMCID: PMC2424210.
      73. Gold JJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus. Learn Mem. 2006 Sep-Oct; 13(5):644-9. PMID: 16980546; PMCID: PMC1635407.
      74. Squire L. Lost forever or temporarily misplaced? The long debate about the nature of memory impairment. Learn Mem. 2006 Sep-Oct; 13(5):522-9. PMID: 17015849; PMCID: PMC1635408.
      75. Gold JJ, Smith CN, Bayley PJ, Shrager Y, Brewer JB, Stark CE, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: concordant findings from fMRI and memory-impaired patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 13; 103(24):9351-6. PMID: 16751272; PMCID: PMC1482613.
      76. Broadbent NJ, Squire L, Clark RE. Reversible hippocampal lesions disrupt water maze performance during both recent and remote memory tests. Learn Mem. 2006 Mar-Apr; 13(2):187-91. PMID: 16585794; PMCID: PMC1409837.
      77. Squire L, Shrager Y, Levy DA. Lack of evidence for a role of medial temporal lobe structures in visual perception. Learn Mem. 2006 Mar; 13(2):106-107. PMID: 17106485.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Shrager Y, Gold JJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Intact visual perception in memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. J Neurosci. 2006 Feb 22; 26(8):2235-40. PMID: 16495450; PMCID: PMC1665646.
      79. Wais PE, Wixted JT, Hopkins RO, Squire L. The hippocampus supports both the recollection and the familiarity components of recognition memory. Neuron. 2006 Feb 02; 49(3):459-66. PMID: 16446148; PMCID: PMC1457095.
      80. Squire L, Bayley PJ. The neuroanatomy of very remote memory. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Feb; 5(2):112-3. PMID: 16426987; PMCID: PMC1635409.
      81. Smith C, Squire L. Declarative memory, awareness, and transitive inference. J Neurosci. 2005 Nov 02; 25(44):10138-46. PMID: 16267221; PMCID: PMC1457087.
      82. Messinger A, Squire L, Zola SM, Albright TD. Neural correlates of knowledge: stable representation of stimulus associations across variations in behavioral performance. Neuron. 2005 Oct 20; 48(2):359-71. PMID: 16242414; PMCID: PMC1480361.
      83. Bayley PJ, Frascino JC, Squire L. Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature. 2005 Jul 28; 436(7050):550-3. PMID: 16049487; PMCID: PMC1457096.
      84. Bayley PJ, Gold JJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. The neuroanatomy of remote memory. Neuron. 2005 Jun 02; 46(5):799-810. PMID: 15924865; PMCID: PMC1459336.
      85. Smith CN, Clark RE, Manns JR, Squire L. Acquisition of differential delay eyeblink classical conditioning is independent of awareness. Behav Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 119(1):78-86. PMID: 15727514; PMCID: PMC2773180.
      86. Levy DA, Shrager Y, Squire L. Intact visual discrimination of complex and feature-ambiguous stimuli in the absence of perirhinal cortex. Learn Mem. 2005 Jan-Feb; 12(1):61-6. PMID: 15647593; PMCID: PMC548497.
      87. Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, Squire L. Impaired remote spatial memory after hippocampal lesions despite extensive training beginning early in life. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(3):340-6. PMID: 15744736; PMCID: PMC2754396.
      88. Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, Squire L. Hippocampus and remote spatial memory in rats. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(2):260-72. PMID: 15523608; PMCID: PMC2754168.
      89. Bayley PJ, Squire L. Failure to acquire new semantic knowledge in patients with large medial temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(2):273-80. PMID: 15523609; PMCID: PMC2772096.
      90. Gold JJ, Squire L. Quantifying medial temporal lobe damage in memory-impaired patients. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(1):79-85. PMID: 15390163; PMCID: PMC2754383.
      91. Clark RE, Squire L. The importance of awareness for eyeblink conditioning is conditional: theoretical comment on Bellebaum and Daum (2004). Behav Neurosci. 2004 Dec; 118(6):1466-8. PMID: 15598158.
        View in: PubMed
      92. Levy DA, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Impaired odor recognition memory in patients with hippocampal lesions. Learn Mem. 2004 Nov-Dec; 11(6):794-6. PMID: 15537736; PMCID: PMC534708.
      93. Squire L. Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2004 Nov; 82(3):171-7. PMID: 15464402.
        View in: PubMed
      94. Broadbent NJ, Squire L, Clark RE. Spatial memory, recognition memory, and the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Oct 05; 101(40):14515-20. PMID: 15452348; PMCID: PMC521976.
      95. Kritchevsky M, Chang J, Squire L. Functional amnesia: clinical description and neuropsychological profile of 10 cases. Learn Mem. 2004 Mar-Apr; 11(2):213-26. PMID: 15054137; PMCID: PMC379692.
      96. Squire L, Stark CE, Clark RE. The medial temporal lobe. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004; 27:279-306. PMID: 15217334.
        View in: PubMed
      97. Levy DA, Manns JR, Hopkins RO, Gold JJ, Broadbent NJ, Squire L. Impaired visual and odor recognition memory span in patients with hippocampal lesions. Learn Mem. 2003 Nov-Dec; 10(6):531-6. PMID: 14657265; PMCID: PMC305469.
      98. Manns JR, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Semantic memory and the human hippocampus. Neuron. 2003 Apr 10; 38(1):127-33. PMID: 12691670.
        View in: PubMed
      99. Bayley PJ, Hopkins RO, Squire L. Successful recollection of remote autobiographical memories by amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. Neuron. 2003 Apr 10; 38(1):135-44. PMID: 12691671.
        View in: PubMed
      100. Zola S, Squire L. Genetics of childhood disorders: XLIX. Learning and memory, part 2: multiple memory systems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Apr; 42(4):504-6. PMID: 12649640.
        View in: PubMed
      101. Manns JR, Hopkins RO, Reed JM, Kitchener EG, Squire L. Recognition memory and the human hippocampus. Neuron. 2003 Jan 09; 37(1):171-80. PMID: 12526782.
        View in: PubMed
      102. Stark CE, Squire L. Hippocampal damage equally impairs memory for single items and memory for conjunctions. Hippocampus. 2003; 13(2):281-92. PMID: 12699335; PMCID: PMC2754398.
      103. Clark RE, Manns JR, Squire L. Classical conditioning, awareness, and brain systems. Trends Cogn Sci. 2002 Dec 01; 6(12):524-531. PMID: 12475713.
        View in: PubMed
      104. Stark CE, Bayley PJ, Squire L. Recognition memory for single items and for associations is similarly impaired following damage to the hippocampal region. Learn Mem. 2002 Sep-Oct; 9(5):238-42. PMID: 12359833; PMCID: PMC187132.
      105. Bayley PJ, Squire L. Medial temporal lobe amnesia: Gradual acquisition of factual information by nondeclarative memory. J Neurosci. 2002 Jul 01; 22(13):5741-8. PMID: 12097527; PMCID: PMC2821083.
      106. Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, Zola SM, Squire L. Anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia for a nonspatial memory task after lesions of hippocampus and subiculum. J Neurosci. 2002 Jun 01; 22(11):4663-9. PMID: 12040072.
        View in: PubMed
      107. Schmolck H, Kensinger EA, Corkin S, Squire L. Semantic knowledge in patient H.M. and other patients with bilateral medial and lateral temporal lobe lesions. Hippocampus. 2002; 12(4):520-33. PMID: 12201637.
        View in: PubMed
      108. Manns JR, Clark RE, Squire L. Standard delay eyeblink classical conditioning is independent of awareness. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2002 Jan; 28(1):32-7. PMID: 11868232.
        View in: PubMed
      109. Squire L, Schmolck H, Stark SM. Impaired auditory recognition memory in amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. Learn Mem. 2001 Sep-Oct; 8(5):252-6. PMID: 11584071; PMCID: PMC311381.
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