Hagop Akiskal

Title(s)Emeritus Professor, Psychiatry
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Dr. Akiskal obtained his medical degree (Alpha Omega Alpha) from the American University of Beirut in 1969. Thereafter he settled in the United States and obtained his psychiatric training at the Universities of Tennessee, Memphis and Wisconsin, Madison. He was appointed Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the University of Tennessee (1972-1990), and subsequently recruited as the Senior Science Advisor to the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (1990-1994). He is presently Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the International Mood Center at the University of California at San Diego. He holds an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Lisbon. Since 1996, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Affective Disorders.

    Research Interests

    Professor Akiskal rose to prominence with his integrative theory of depression (Science, 1973). Subsequently he established chronic depressions as treatable mood disorders. His research on cyclothymia paved the way for understanding the childhood antecedents of bipolarity, and helped in the worldwide renaissance of the temperament field. His focus on subthreshold mood disorders enlarged the boundaries of bipolar disorders. He has received the Gold Medal for Pioneer Research (Society of Biological Psychiatry), the German Anna Monika Prize for Depression, the NARSAD Prize for Affective Disorders, the Jean Delay Prize for international collaborative research (World Psychiatric Association), as well as the French Jules Baillarger and the Italian Aretaeus Prizes for his research on the bipolar spectrum.

    Clinical Focus

    Professor Akiskal has pioneered in the study of outpatient mood disorders. At the University of Tennessee, he established mood clinics which have had worldwide appeal because of his philosophy of conducting clinical training and research while delivering high quality care. His clinical expertise ranges from dysthymia to bipolar spectrum disorders, as well as comorbidity, resistant depression, interface of personality with mood disorders, mixed states, anxious bipolarity, and PTSD. In 2003, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor “for exceptional national humanitarian service.” He consults and lectures internationally.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. The field of affectiveology at the new millennium: clinically relevant advances as reflected in books (1998-2007). J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):1-4. Akiskal H. PMID: 18187206.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. A mixed state core for melancholia: an exploration in history, art and clinical science. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007; (433):44-9. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. PMID: 17280570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Special issue on circular insanity and beyond: historic contributions of French psychiatry to contemporary concepts and research on bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):141-3. Akiskal HS. PMID: 17123632.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Bipolar II and anxious reactive "comorbidity": toward better phenotypic characterization suitable for genotyping. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):239-47. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, Tusini G. PMID: 16973219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. [Widening the borders of the bipolar disorder: validation of the concept of bipolar spectrum]. Vertex. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(69):340-6. Akiskal HS, Vázquez GH. PMID: 17088954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Validating the bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: overview of the phenomenology and relative prevalence of its clinical prototypes. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):197-205. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche EG, Fraud JP, Gury C, Allilaire JF. PMID: 16824616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Does the FDA proposed list of possible correlates of suicidality associated with antidepressants apply to an adult private practice population? J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):105-10. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 16766043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Validating the soft bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: the prominence of BP-II 1/2. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):207-13. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche E. PMID: 16647762.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. The distinct temperament profiles of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):19-33. Akiskal HS, Kilzieh N, Maser JD, Clayton PJ, Schettler PJ, Traci Shea M, Endicott J, Scheftner W, Hirschfeld RM, Keller MB. PMID: 16635528.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent [major] depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):45-54. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 16488021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Toward a clinical delineation of dysphoric hypomania - operational and conceptual dilemmas. Bipolar Disord. 2005 Oct; 7(5):456-64. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 16176439.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Psychopathologic correlates of suicidal ideation in major depressive outpatients: is it all due to unrecognized (bipolar) depressive mixed states? Psychopathology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 38(5):273-80. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 16179814.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. TEMPS-A: validation of a short version of a self-rated instrument designed to measure variations in temperament. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):45-52. Akiskal HS, Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR, Gillin JC, Smith TL. PMID: 15780675.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Validating affective temperaments in their subaffective and socially positive attributes: psychometric, clinical and familial data from a French national study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):29-36. Akiskal HS, Akiskal K, Allilaire JF, Azorin JM, Bourgeois ML, Sechter D, Fraud JP, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S, Perugi G, Hantouche EG. PMID: 15780673.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Searching for behavioral indicators of bipolar II in patients presenting with major depressive episodes: the "red sign," the "rule of three" and other biographic signs of temperamental extravagance, activation and hypomania. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):279-90. Akiskal HS. PMID: 15708427.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. The dark side of bipolarity: detecting bipolar depression in its pleomorphic expressions. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):107-15. Akiskal HS. PMID: 15708407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Atypical depression: a variant of bipolar II or a bridge between unipolar and bipolar II? J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):209-17. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 15708418.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Validating Kraepelin's two types of depressive mixed states: "depression with flight of ideas" and "excited depression". World J Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr; 5(2):107-13. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 15179670.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Validating 'hard' and 'soft' phenotypes within the bipolar spectrum: continuity or discontinuity? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):1-5. Akiskal HS. PMID: 12507732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Proposed multidimensional structure of mania: beyond the euphoric-dysphoric dichotomy. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):7-18. Akiskal HS, Azorin JM, Hantouche EG. PMID: 12507733.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Bipolar II with and without cyclothymic temperament: "dark" and "sunny" expressions of soft bipolarity. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):49-57. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Allilaire JF. PMID: 12507737.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):113-22. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. PMID: 12507744.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. The bipolar spectrum--the shaping of a new paradigm in psychiatry. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002 Feb; 4(1):1-3. Akiskal HS. PMID: 11814388.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Toward a refined phenomenology of mania: combining clinician-assessment and self-report in the French EPIMAN study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):89-96. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Sechter D, Allilaire JF, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. PMID: 11869755.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Dysthymia and cyclothymia in psychiatric practice a century after Kraepelin. J Affect Disord. 2001 Jan; 62(1-2):17-31. Akiskal HS. PMID: 11172870.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Re-evaluating the prevalence of and diagnostic composition within the broad clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2000 Sep; 59 Suppl 1:S5-S30. Akiskal HS, Bourgeois ML, Angst J, Post R, Möller H, Hirschfeld R. PMID: 11121824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 133     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):517-34, vii. Akiskal HS, Pinto O. PMID: 10550853.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 67     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. TEMPS-I: delineating the most discriminant traits of the cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in a nonpatient population. J Affect Disord. 1998 Oct; 51(1):7-19. Akiskal HS, Placidi GF, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Gervasi R, Mallya G, Puzantian VR. PMID: 9879799.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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