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Hagop Akiskal

Title(s)Emeritus Professor, Psychiatry
SchoolHealth Sciences
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    Biography

    Dr. Akiskal obtained his medical degree (Alpha Omega Alpha) from the American University of Beirut in 1969. Thereafter he settled in the United States and obtained his psychiatric training at the Universities of Tennessee, Memphis and Wisconsin, Madison. He was appointed Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the University of Tennessee (1972-1990), and subsequently recruited as the Senior Science Advisor to the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (1990-1994). He is presently Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the International Mood Center at the University of California at San Diego. He holds an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Lisbon. Since 1996, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Affective Disorders.

    Research Interests

    Professor Akiskal rose to prominence with his integrative theory of depression (Science, 1973). Subsequently he established chronic depressions as treatable mood disorders. His research on cyclothymia paved the way for understanding the childhood antecedents of bipolarity, and helped in the worldwide renaissance of the temperament field. His focus on subthreshold mood disorders enlarged the boundaries of bipolar disorders. He has received the Gold Medal for Pioneer Research (Society of Biological Psychiatry), the German Anna Monika Prize for Depression, the NARSAD Prize for Affective Disorders, the Jean Delay Prize for international collaborative research (World Psychiatric Association), as well as the French Jules Baillarger and the Italian Aretaeus Prizes for his research on the bipolar spectrum.

    Clinical Focus

    Professor Akiskal has pioneered in the study of outpatient mood disorders. At the University of Tennessee, he established mood clinics which have had worldwide appeal because of his philosophy of conducting clinical training and research while delivering high quality care. His clinical expertise ranges from dysthymia to bipolar spectrum disorders, as well as comorbidity, resistant depression, interface of personality with mood disorders, mixed states, anxious bipolarity, and PTSD. In 2003, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor “for exceptional national humanitarian service.” He consults and lectures internationally.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Carta MG, Preti A, Akiskal HS. Coping with the New Era: Noise and Light Pollution, Hperactivity and Steroid Hormones. Towards an Evolutionary View of Bipolar Disorders. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2018; 14:33-36. PMID: 29541149.
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    2. Tobe BTD, Crain AM, Winquist AM, Calabrese B, Makihara H, Zhao WN, Lalonde J, Nakamura H, Konopaske G, Sidor M, Pernia CD, Yamashita N, Wada M, Inoue Y, Nakamura F, Sheridan SD, Logan RW, Brandel M, Wu D, Hunsberger J, Dorsett L, Duerr C, Basa RCB, McCarthy MJ, Udeshi ND, Mertins P, Carr SA, Rouleau GA, Mastrangelo L, Li J, Gutierrez GJ, Brill LM, Venizelos N, Chen G, Nye JS, Manji H, Price JH, McClung CA, Akiskal HS, Alda M, Chuang DM, Coyle JT, Liu Y, Teng YD, Ohshima T, Mikoshiba K, Sidman RL, Halpain S, Haggarty SJ, Goshima Y, Snyder EY. Probing the lithium-response pathway in hiPSCs implicates the phosphoregulatory set-point for a cytoskeletal modulator in bipolar pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 05 30; 114(22):E4462-E4471. PMID: 28500272.
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    3. Akiskal HS. Introductory considerations Athanasios Koukopoulos: The Man, the Psychiatrist, the Original Thinker. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017 Apr; 15(3):338. PMID: 28503104.
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    4. Qiu F, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR, Greenwood TA. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 01; 207:282-290. PMID: 27741464.
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    5. Kim H, Kim W, Citrome L, Akiskal HS, Goffin KC, Miller S, Holtzman JN, Hooshmand F, Wang PW, Hill SJ, Ketter TA. More inclusive bipolar mixed depression definition by permitting overlapping and non-overlapping mood elevation symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 09; 134(3):199-206. PMID: 27137894.
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    6. Kim W, Kim H, Citrome L, Akiskal HS, Goffin KC, Miller S, Holtzman JN, Hooshmand F, Wang PW, Hill SJ, Ketter TA. More inclusive bipolar mixed depression definitions by requiring fewer non-overlapping mood elevation symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 09; 134(3):189-98. PMID: 26989836.
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    7. Borkowska A, Bielinski M, Szczesny W, Szwed K, Tomaszewska M, Kalwa A, Lesiewska N, Junik R, Golebiewski M, Sikora M, Tretyn A, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on affective temperament, depression and body mass index in obesity. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15; 184:193-7. PMID: 26093833.
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    8. de Carvalho MR, Velasques BB, Freire RC, Cagy M, Marques JB, Teixeira S, Thomaz R, Rangé BP, Piedade R, Akiskal HS, Nardi AE, Ribeiro P. Frontal cortex absolute beta power measurement in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia patients. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15; 184:176-81. PMID: 26093831.
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    9. Karam EG, Itani L, Fayyad J, Hantouche E, Karam A, Mneimneh Z, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z. Temperament and suicide: A national study. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15; 184:123-8. PMID: 26080077.
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    10. Lara DR, Bisol LW, Ottoni GL, de Carvalho HW, Banerjee D, Golshan S, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Validation of the "rule of three", the "red sign" and temperament as behavioral markers of bipolar spectrum disorders in a large sample. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 01; 183:195-204. PMID: 26021969.
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    11. Akiskal H, Katona C. Valedictory editorial. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 15; 177:iii. PMID: 25843206.
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    12. Maremmani AG, Rovai L, Rugani F, Bacciardi S, Massimetti E, Gazzarrini D, Dell'Osso L, Tang F, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I. Chronology of illness in dual diagnosis heroin addicts: The role of mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jul 01; 179:156-60. PMID: 25863912.
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    13. Maremmani AG, Bacciardi S, Gehring ND, Cambioli L, Schütz C, Akiskal HS, Jang K, Krausz M. The impact of mood symptomatology on pattern of substance use among homeless. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 01; 176:164-70. PMID: 25723559.
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    14. Carta MG, Saba L, Moro MF, Demelia E, Sorbello O, Pintus M, Pintus E, Simavorian T, Akiskal H, Demelia L. Homogeneous magnetic resonance imaging of brain abnormalities in bipolar spectrum disorders comorbid with Wilson's disease. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2015 Mar-Apr; 37(2):134-8. PMID: 25772945.
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    15. Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Moysidou S, Pantoula E, Moutou K, Panagiotidis P, Kemeridou M, Mavridou E, Loli E, Batsiari E, Preti A, Tondo L, Gonda X, Mobayed N, Akiskal K, Akiskal H, Costa P, McCrae R. Standardization of the NEO-PI-3 in the Greek general population. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2014; 13(1):36. PMID: 25505930; PMCID: PMC4263201.
    16. Fountoulakis KN, Gazouli M, Kelsoe J, Akiskal H. The pharmacodynamic properties of lurasidone and their role in its antidepressant efficacy in bipolar disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Mar; 25(3):335-42. PMID: 25596883.
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    17. Dolenc B, Dernovšek MZ, Sprah L, Tavcar R, Perugi G, Akiskal HS. Relationship between affective temperaments and aggression in euthymic patients with bipolar mood disorder and major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 15; 174:13-8. PMID: 25474481.
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    18. Lolich M, Vázquez GH, Zapata S, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Affective temperaments in tango dancers. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 01; 173:27-30. PMID: 25462392.
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    19. Eory A, Rozsa S, Gonda X, Dome P, Torzsa P, Simavorian T, Fountoulakis KN, Pompili M, Serafini G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rihmer Z, Kalabay L. The association of affective temperaments with smoking initiation and maintenance in adult primary care patients. J Affect Disord. 2015 Feb 01; 172:397-402. PMID: 25451443.
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    20. Jacobsen KK, Nievergelt CM, Zayats T, Greenwood TA, Anttila V, Akiskal HS, Haavik J, Bernt Fasmer O, Kelsoe JR, Johansson S, Oedegaard KJ. Genome wide association study identifies variants in NBEA associated with migraine in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Feb 01; 172:453-61. PMID: 25451450; PMCID: PMC4394021.
    21. Piccinni A, Veltri A, Costanzo D, Vanelli F, Franceschini C, Moroni I, Domenici L, Origlia N, Marazziti D, Akiskal HS, Dell'Osso L. Decreased plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during mixed episodes of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 15; 171:167-70. PMID: 25305432.
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    22. Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H, Gonda X, Erbuto D, Belvederi Murri M, Perugi G, Amore M, Girardi P, Pompili M. Cyclothymic temperament rather than polarity is associated with hopelessness and suicidality in hospitalized patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:161-5. PMID: 25240844.
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    23. Yuan C, Huang J, Gao K, Wu Z, Chen J, Wang Y, Hong W, Yi Z, Hu Y, Cao L, Li Z, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Wang B, Fang Y. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Short TEMPS-A and its application in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:178-84. PMID: 25243747.
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    24. Siwek M, Dudek D, Drozdowicz K, Jaeschke R, Styczen K, Arciszewska A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rybakowski JK. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in male and female subjects engaging in extreme or/and high risk sports. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:66-70. PMID: 25233241.
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    25. Leung CM, Mak AD, Xiang YT, Lee S, Yan CT, Leung T, Bessonov D, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Psychometric properties of the Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese) TEMPS-A in medical students. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:23-9. PMID: 25218733.
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    26. Lin K, Xu G, Lu W, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Lorenzo-Seva U, Guo Y, Bessonov D, Akiskal HS, So KF, Lee TM. Neuropsychological performance in melancholic, atypical and undifferentiated major depression during depressed and remitted states: a prospective longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2014 Oct; 168:184-91. PMID: 25061955.
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    27. Carta MG, Moro MF, Lorefice L, Picardi A, Trincas G, Fenu G, Cocco E, Floris F, Bessonov D, Akiskal HS, Marrosu MG. Multiple sclerosis and bipolar disorders: the burden of comorbidity and its consequences on quality of life. J Affect Disord. 2014; 167:192-7. PMID: 24995886.
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    28. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Gonda X, Erbuto D, Forte A, Ricci F, Lester D, Akiskal HS, Vázquez GH, Rihmer Z, Amore M, Girardi P. Characterization of patients with mood disorders for their prevalent temperament and level of hopelessness. J Affect Disord. 2014 Sep; 166:285-91. PMID: 25012443.
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    29. Marazziti D, Akiskal HS, Udo M, Picchetti M, Baroni S, Massimetti G, Albanese F, Dell'Osso L. Dimorphic changes of some features of loving relationships during long-term use of antidepressants in depressed outpatients. J Affect Disord. 2014 Sep; 166:151-5. PMID: 25012424.
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    30. Rybakowski JK, Kaminska K, Charytonik J, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in females with co-morbid bipolar disorder and bulimia. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug; 164:90-3. PMID: 24856559.
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    31. Ristic-Ignjatovic D, Hinic D, Bessonov D, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Ristic B. Towards validation of the short TEMPS-A in non-clinical adult population in Serbia. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug; 164:43-9. PMID: 24856552.
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    32. Xu G, Lu W, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Guo Y, Miao G, Bessonov D, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Lin K. Association of affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-a with cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2014 Jun; 161:109-15. PMID: 24751317.
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    33. Carmassi C, Akiskal HS, Bessonov D, Massimetti G, Calderani E, Stratta P, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L. Gender differences in DSM-5 versus DSM-IV-TR PTSD prevalence and criteria comparison among 512 survivors to the L'Aquila earthquake. J Affect Disord. 2014 May; 160:55-61. PMID: 24709023.
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    34. Karam EG, Sampson N, Itani L, Andrade LH, Borges G, Chiu WT, Florescu S, Horiguchi I, Zarkov Z, Akiskal H. Under-reporting bipolar disorder in large-scale epidemiologic studies. J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr; 159:147-54. PMID: 24679403.
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    35. Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Magiria M, Pantoula E, Moutou K, Kemeridou M, Mavridou E, Panagiotidis P, Loli E, Batsiari E, Preti A, Tondo L, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr; 158:19-29. PMID: 24655761.
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    36. He H, Xu G, Sun B, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Guo Y, Miao G, Rios C, Akiskal HS, Lin K. The use of 15-point hypomanic checklist in differentiating bipolar I and bipolar II disorder from major depressive disorder. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014 May-Jun; 36(3):347-51. PMID: 24461731.
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    37. Pacchiarotti I, Bond DJ, Baldessarini RJ, Nolen WA, Grunze H, Licht RW, Post RM, Berk M, Goodwin GM, Sachs GS, Tondo L, Findling RL, Youngstrom EA, Tohen M, Undurraga J, González-Pinto A, Goldberg JF, Yildiz A, Altshuler LL, Calabrese JR, Mitchell PB, Thase ME, Koukopoulos A, Colom F, Frye MA, Malhi GS, Fountoulakis KN, Vázquez G, Perlis RH, Ketter TA, Cassidy F, Akiskal H, Azorin JM, Valentí M, Mazzei DH, Lafer B, Kato T, Mazzarini L, Martínez-Aran A, Parker G, Souery D, Ozerdem A, McElroy SL, Girardi P, Bauer M, Yatham LN, Zarate CA, Nierenberg AA, Birmaher B, Kanba S, El-Mallakh RS, Serretti A, Rihmer Z, Young AH, Kotzalidis GD, MacQueen GM, Bowden CL, Ghaemi SN, Lopez-Jaramillo C, Rybakowski J, Ha K, Perugi G, Kasper S, Amsterdam JD, Hirschfeld RM, Kapczinski F, Vieta E. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) task force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Nov; 170(11):1249-62. PMID: 24030475.
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    38. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Akiskal HS, Fiedorowicz JG. Overt irritability/anger in unipolar major depressive episodes: past and current characteristics and implications for long-term course. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Nov; 70(11):1171-80. PMID: 24026579.
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    39. Carta MG, Massidda D, Moro MF, Aguglia E, Balestrieri M, Caraci F, Dell'Osso L, Di Sciascio G, Drago F, Faravelli C, Hardoy MC, Calò S, Pollice R, Fortezzo A, Akiskal H. Comparing factor structure of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ): In Italy sexual behavior is euphoric but in Asia mysterious and forbidden. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:96-103. PMID: 24238869.
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    40. Dell'osso L, Stratta P, Conversano C, Massimetti E, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rossi A, Carmassi C. Lifetime mania is related to post-traumatic stress symptoms in high school students exposed to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 Feb; 55(2):357-62. PMID: 24269194.
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    41. Pombo S, Figueira ML, da Costa NF, Ismail F, Yang G, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The burden of cyclothymia on alcohol dependence. J Affect Disord. 2013 Dec; 151(3):1090-6. PMID: 24091304.
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    42. Carmassi C, Akiskal HS, Yong SS, Stratta P, Calderani E, Massimetti E, Akiskal KK, Rossi A, Dell'Osso L. Post-traumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: estimates of prevalence and criteria comparison versus DSM-IV-TR in a non-clinical sample of earthquake survivors. J Affect Disord. 2013 Dec; 151(3):843-8. PMID: 24135508.
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    43. Maremmani AG, Rovai L, Bacciardi S, Rugani F, Pacini M, Pani PP, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal H, Maremmani I. The long-term outcomes of heroin dependent-treatment-resistant patients with bipolar 1 comorbidity after admission to enhanced methadone maintenance. J Affect Disord. 2013 Nov; 151(2):582-9. PMID: 23931828.
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    44. de Carvalho MR, Velasques BB, Freire RC, Cagy M, Marques JB, Teixeira S, Rangé BP, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Nardi AE, Akiskal HS. Alpha absolute power measurement in panic disorder with agoraphobia patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct; 151(1):259-64. PMID: 23820098.
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    45. Greenwood TA, Badner JA, Byerley W, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Remick RA, Sadovnick AD, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR. Heritability and genome-wide SNP linkage analysis of temperament in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 25; 150(3):1031-40. PMID: 23759419; PMCID: PMC3759543.
    46. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Gonda X, Serafini G, Sarno S, Erbuto D, Palermo M, Elena Seretti M, Stefani H, Lester D, Perugi G, Akiskal H, Siracusano A, Rihmer Z, Tatarelli R, Amore M, Girardi P. Affective temperaments and hopelessness as predictors of health and social functioning in mood disorder patients: a prospective follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 05; 150(2):216-22. PMID: 23684516.
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    47. Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Torzsa P, Kalabay L, Akiskal HS, Eory A. Affective temperament, history of suicide attempt and family history of suicide in general practice patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Jul; 149(1-3):350-4. PMID: 23477849.
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    48. Lin K, Xu G, Miao G, Ning Y, Ouyang H, Chen X, Hoang N, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) TEMPS-A: a population study of 985 non-clinical subjects in China. J Affect Disord. 2013 May; 147(1-3):29-33. PMID: 23384971.
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    49. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Stratta P, Massimetti G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I, Rossi A. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors. Front Psychiatry. 2012; 3:111. PMID: 23293608; PMCID: PMC3537190.
    50. Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Rugani F, Bacciardi S, Pacini M, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I. Do Akiskal & Mallya's affective temperaments belong to the domain of pathology or to that of normality? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 17(15):2065-79. PMID: 23884828.
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    51. Giovanni CM, Francesca MM, Viviane K, Brasesco MV, Bhat KM, Matthias AC, Akiskal HS. Could hypomanic traits explain selective migration? Verifying the hypothesis by the surveys on sardinian migrants. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2012; 8:175-9. PMID: 23248679.
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    52. Dell'Osso L, Carmassi C, Massimetti G, Stratta P, Riccardi I, Capanna C, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Rossi A. Age, gender and epicenter proximity effects on post-traumatic stress symptoms in L'Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors. J Affect Disord. 2013 Apr 05; 146(2):174-80. PMID: 23098626.
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    53. Gois C, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. The relationship between temperament, diabetes and depression. J Affect Disord. 2012 Oct; 142 Suppl:S67-71. PMID: 23062859.
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    54. Maremmani I, Maremmani AG, Rugani F, Rovai L, Pacini M, Bacciardi S, Deltito J, Dell'osso L, Akiskal HS. Clinical presentations of substance abuse in bipolar heroin addicts at time of treatment entry. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Sep 03; 11(1):23. PMID: 22943591; PMCID: PMC3473306.
    55. Rovai L, Leonardi A, Bacciardi S, Maremmani AG, Rugani F, dell'Osso L, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I. Discriminant and convergent validity of TEMPS-A[P]. Correlation with Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32) during a stressful situation. J Affect Disord. 2013 Mar 20; 146(1):142-5. PMID: 22917939.
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    56. Gois C, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. Depressive temperament, distress, psychological adjustment and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 20; 143(1-3):1-4. PMID: 22901331.
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    57. Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Leonardi A, Bacciardi S, Rugani F, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal HS, Maremmani I. TEMPS-A[P] temperament profile related to professional choice. Differences between applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian Air Force or Navy. J Affect Disord. 2013 Feb 15; 145(1):106-10. PMID: 22884231.
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    58. Dolenc B, Sprah L, Dernovšek MZ, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A): temperament profiles in Slovenian university students. J Affect Disord. 2013 Jan 25; 144(3):253-62. PMID: 22868062.
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    59. Velasques B, Bittencourt J, Diniz C, Teixeira S, Basile LF, Inácio Salles J, Novis F, Angélica Silveira L, de Assis da Silva R, de Lima Teixeira A, Nardi AE, Akiskal HS, Cagy M, Piedade R, Cheniaux E, Kapczinki F, Ribeiro P. Changes in saccadic eye movement (SEM) and quantitative EEG parameter in bipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Mar 05; 145(3):378-85. PMID: 22832171.
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    60. Carta MG, Mura G, Lecca ME, Moro MF, Bhat KM, Angermeyer MC, Hardoy M, Akiskal HS. Decreases in depression over 20 years in a mining area of Sardinia: due to selective migration? J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 10; 141(2-3):255-60. PMID: 22575287.
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    61. Skala K, Kapusta ND, Schlaff G, Unseld M, Erfurth A, Lesch OM, Walter H, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Suicidal ideation and temperament: an investigation among college students. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 10; 141(2-3):399-405. PMID: 22475473.
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    62. Omrani A, Holtzman NS, Akiskal HS, Ghaemi SN. Ibn Imran's 10th century Treatise on Melancholy. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 10; 141(2-3):116-9. PMID: 22386476.
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    63. Greenwood TA, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Kelsoe JR. Genome-wide association study of temperament in bipolar disorder reveals significant associations with three novel Loci. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 15; 72(4):303-10. PMID: 22365631; PMCID: PMC3925336.
    64. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal H, Coryell W, Fawcett J, Fiedorowicz JG, Solomon DA, Keller MB. Prevalence and clinical significance of subsyndromal manic symptoms, including irritability and psychomotor agitation, during bipolar major depressive episodes. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):440-8. PMID: 22314261; PMCID: PMC3677770.
    65. Fountoulakis KN, Pantoula E, Siamouli M, Moutou K, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Iacovides A, Akiskal H. Development of the Risk Assessment Suicidality Scale (RASS): a population-based study. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):449-57. PMID: 22301115.
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    66. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Serafini G, Akiskal H, Amore M, Niolu C, Sher L, Tatarelli R, Perugi G, Girardi P. Cyclothymic-depressive-anxious temperament pattern is related to suicide risk in 346 patients with major mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb; 136(3):405-11. PMID: 22177743.
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    67. Oedegaard KJ, Dilsaver SC, Hundal O, Riise T, Lund A, Akiskal HS, Fasmer OB. Are migraine and bipolar disorders comorbid phenomena?: findings from a pharmacoepidemiological study using the Norwegian Prescription Database. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011 Dec; 31(6):734-9. PMID: 22020352.
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    68. Vellante M, Zucca G, Preti A, Sisti D, Rocchi MB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Creativity and affective temperaments in non-clinical professional artists: an empirical psychometric investigation. J Affect Disord. 2011 Dec; 135(1-3):28-36. PMID: 21820743.
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    69. Woodruff E, Genaro LT, Landeira-Fernandez J, Cheniaux E, Laks J, Jean-Louis G, Nardi AE, Versiani MC, Akiskal HS, Mendlowicz MV. Validation of the Brazilian brief version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: the brief TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. J Affect Disord. 2011 Nov; 134(1-3):65-76. PMID: 21782248.
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    70. Perugi G, Del Carlo A, Benvenuti M, Fornaro M, Toni C, Akiskal K, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal H. Impulsivity in anxiety disorder patients: is it related to comorbid cyclothymia? J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct; 133(3):600-6. PMID: 21665290.
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    71. Pompili M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H, Amore M, Gonda X, Innamorati M, Lester D, Perugi G, Serafini G, Telesforo L, Tatarelli R, Girardi P. Temperaments mediate suicide risk and psychopathology among patients with bipolar disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 53(3):280-5. PMID: 21641589.
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    72. Gois C, Barbosa A, Ferro A, Santos AL, Sousa F, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. The role of affective temperaments in metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Affect Disord. 2011 Nov; 134(1-3):52-8. PMID: 21641045.
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    73. Maremmani I, Perugi G, Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Pacini M, Canonico PL, Carbonato P, Mencacci C, Muscettola G, Pani L, Torta R, Vampini C, Akiskal HS. Are "social drugs" (tobacco, coffee and chocolate) related to the bipolar spectrum? J Affect Disord. 2011 Sep; 133(1-2):227-33. PMID: 21605911.
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    74. Fountoulakis KN, Kelsoe JR, Akiskal H. Receptor targets for antidepressant therapy in bipolar disorder: an overview. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):222-38. PMID: 21601292.
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    75. Fountoulakis KN, Pantoula E, Siamouli M, Moutou K, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Iacovides A, Akiskal H. [Development of the Risk Assessment Suicidality Scale (RASS): a population-based study]. Psychiatriki. 2011 Apr-Jun; 22(2):132-47. PMID: 21888186.
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    76. Oedegaard KJ, Riise T, Dilsaver SC, Lund A, Akiskal HS, Fasmer OB, Hundal Ø. A pharmaco-epidemiological study of migraine and antidepressant medications: complete one year data from the Norwegian population. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):198-204. PMID: 20889212.
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    77. Morvan Y, Tibaoui F, Bourdel MC, Lôo H, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Krebs MO. Confirmation of the factorial structure of temperamental autoquestionnaire TEMPS-A in non-clinical young adults and relation to current state of anxiety, depression and to schizotypal traits. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jun; 131(1-3):37-44. PMID: 21333358.
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    78. Perugi G, Fornaro M, Akiskal HS. Are atypical depression, borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder overlapping manifestations of a common cyclothymic diathesis? World Psychiatry. 2011 Feb; 10(1):45-51. PMID: 21379356; PMCID: PMC3048510.
    79. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Serafini G, Forte A, Cittadini A, Mancinelli I, Calabró G, Dominici G, Lester D, Akiskal HS, Rihmer Z, Iacorossi G, Girardi N, Talamo A, Tatarelli R. Suicide attempters in the emergency department before hospitalization in a psychiatric ward. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2011 Jan; 47(1):23-34. PMID: 21418070.
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    80. Gonda X, Vázquez GH, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. From putative genes to temperament and culture: cultural characteristics of the distribution of dominant affective temperaments in national studies. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jun; 131(1-3):45-51. PMID: 21195481.
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    81. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Arduino G, Maremmani AG, Schiavi E, Perugi G, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Temperamental traits of women applying for a type of job that has been characterized historically by male identity: the military career as case study. J Affect Disord. 2011 Apr; 130(1-2):275-9. PMID: 21056474.
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    82. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Harro J, Pompili M, Akiskal HS, Bagdy G, Rihmer Z. The possible contributory role of the S allele of 5-HTTLPR in the emergence of suicidality. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul; 25(7):857-66. PMID: 20837566.
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    83. Serafini G, Pompili M, Innamorati M, Fusar-Poli P, Akiskal HS, Rihmer Z, Lester D, Romano A, de Oliveira IR, Strusi L, Ferracuti S, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Affective temperamental profiles are associated with white matter hyperintensity and suicidal risk in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):47-55. PMID: 20708276.
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    84. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Arduino G, Montagnari A, Abbenante D, Popovic D, Maremmani AG, Perugi G, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Discriminant and convergent validity of TEMPS-A[P] correlation with MMPI and the emotional-affective state following a stressful situation. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):27-33. PMID: 20708277.
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    85. Correa R, Akiskal H, Gilmer W, Nierenberg AA, Trivedi M, Zisook S. Is unrecognized bipolar disorder a frequent contributor to apparent treatment resistant depression? J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec; 127(1-3):10-8. PMID: 20655113.
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    86. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Besnier N, Adida M, Hantouche EG, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. "Folie circulaire" vs "Folie à double forme": contribution from a French national study. Eur Psychiatry. 2011 Sep; 26(6):375-80. PMID: 20619615.
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    87. Parker G, Fink M, Shorter E, Taylor MA, Akiskal H, Berrios G, Bolwig T, Brown WA, Carroll B, Healy D, Klein DF, Koukopoulos A, Michels R, Paris J, Rubin RT, Spitzer R, Swartz C. Issues for DSM-5: whither melancholia? The case for its classification as a distinct mood disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Jul; 167(7):745-7. PMID: 20595426; PMCID: PMC3733615.
    88. Iliceto P, Pompili M, Girardi P, Lester D, Vincenti C, Rihmer Z, Tatarelli R, Akiskal HS. Hopelessness, temperament, and health perception in heroin addicts. J Addict Dis. 2010 Jul; 29(3):352-8. PMID: 20635284.
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    89. Oedegaard KJ, Greenwood TA, Johansson S, Jacobsen KK, Halmoy A, Fasmer OB, Akiskal HS, Haavik J, Kelsoe JR. A genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder and comorbid migraine. Genes Brain Behav. 2010 Oct; 9(7):673-80. PMID: 20528957; PMCID: PMC2970709.
    90. Karam EG, Salamoun MM, Yeretzian JS, Mneimneh ZN, Karam AN, Fayyad J, Hantouche E, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. The role of anxious and hyperthymic temperaments in mental disorders: a national epidemiologic study. World Psychiatry. 2010 Jun; 9(2):103-10. PMID: 20671899; PMCID: PMC2911090.
    91. Kawamura Y, Liu X, Akiyama T, Shimada T, Otowa T, Sakai Y, Kakiuchi C, Umekage T, Sasaki T, Akiskal HS. The association between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and affective temperaments, as measured by TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec; 127(1-3):31-7. PMID: 20488544.
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    92. Vázquez GH, Gonda X, Zaratiegui R, Lorenzo LS, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Hyperthymic temperament may protect against suicidal ideation. J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec; 127(1-3):38-42. PMID: 20466435.
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    93. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Rihmer Z, Laszik A, Akiskal HS, Bagdy G. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2010 May 07; 9:21. PMID: 20459664; PMCID: PMC2880317.
    94. Kawamura Y, Akiyama T, Shimada T, Minato T, Umekage T, Noda Y, Ukawa K, Hashidume C, Sakai Y, Otowa T, Sasaki T, Akiskal HS. Six-year stability of affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. Psychopathology. 2010; 43(4):240-7. PMID: 20424505.
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    95. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Pacini M, Arduino G, Montagnari A, Abbenante D, Maremmani AG, Giulio P, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. TEMPS-A[p] temperament profile related to professional choice: A study in 1548 applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian air force. J Affect Disord. 2010 Aug; 124(3):314-8. PMID: 20417972.
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    96. Camacho A, Simmons AN, Ng B, Matthews SC, Akiskal HS. A factor analysis of different temperament domains in a border region in rural Southern California. J Affect Disord. 2010 Oct; 126(1-2):46-8. PMID: 20392499; PMCID: PMC3782388.
    97. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Gagliano A, D'Amico F, Akiskal HS. Pharmacological response in juvenile bipolar disorder subtypes: A naturalistic retrospective examination. Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 15; 177(1-2):192-8. PMID: 20381170.
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    98. Perugi G, Frare F, Toni C, Tusini G, Vannucchi G, Akiskal HS. Adjunctive valproate in panic disorder patients with comorbid bipolar disorder or otherwise resistant to standard antidepressants: a 3-year "open" follow-up study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010 Oct; 260(7):553-60. PMID: 20238120.
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    99. Perugi G, Toni C, Maremmani I, Tusini G, Ramacciotti S, Madia A, Fornaro M, Akiskal HS. The influence of affective temperaments and psychopathological traits on the definition of bipolar disorder subtypes: a study on bipolar I Italian national sample. J Affect Disord. 2012 Jan; 136(1-2):e41-e49. PMID: 20129674.
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    100. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Lamanna F, Pani PP, Perugi G, Deltito J, Salloum IM, Akiskal H. Mood stabilizers in the treatment of substance use disorders. CNS Spectr. 2010 Feb; 15(2):95-109. PMID: 20414155.
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    101. Srivastava S, Childers ME, Baek JH, Strong CM, Hill SJ, Warsett KS, Wang PW, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Ketter TA. Toward interaction of affective and cognitive contributors to creativity in bipolar disorders: a controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep; 125(1-3):27-34. PMID: 20085848.
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    102. Masi G, Millepiedi S, Perugi G, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Mucci M, Akiskal HS. A naturalistic exploratory study of the impact of demographic, phenotypic and comorbid features in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopathology. 2010; 43(2):69-78. PMID: 20068377.
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    103. Rihmer Z, Akiskal KK, Rihmer A, Akiskal HS. Current research on affective temperaments. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 23(1):12-8. PMID: 19809321.
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    104. Preti A, Vellante M, Zucca G, Tondo L, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The Italian version of the validated short TEMPS-A: the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jan; 120(1-3):207-12. PMID: 19327844.
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    105. Figueira ML, Caeiro L, Ferro A, Cordeiro R, Duarte PM, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Temperament in Portuguese university students as measured by TEMPS-A: implications for professional choice. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):30-5. PMID: 19910054.
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    106. Borkowska A, Rybakowski JK, Drozdz W, Bielinski M, Kosmowska M, Rajewska-Rager A, Bucinski A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Polish validation of the TEMPS-A: the profile of affective temperaments in a college student population. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):36-41. PMID: 19880192.
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    107. Oedegaard KJ, Greenwood TA, Lunde A, Fasmer OB, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR. A genome-wide linkage study of bipolar disorder and co-morbid migraine: replication of migraine linkage on chromosome 4q24, and suggestion of an overlapping susceptibility region for both disorders on chromosome 20p11. J Affect Disord. 2010 Apr; 122(1-2):14-26. PMID: 19819557.
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    108. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Besnier N, Adida M, Hantouche E, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. Suicidal behaviour in a French Cohort of major depressive patients: characteristics of attempters and nonattempters. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):87-94. PMID: 19800131.
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    109. Pompili M, Iliceto P, Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Lester D, Akiskal HS, Girardi P, Ferracuti S, Tatarelli R. Suicide risk and personality traits in physically and/or sexually abused acute psychiatric inpatients: a preliminary study. Psychol Rep. 2009 Oct; 105(2):554-68. PMID: 19928616.
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    110. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche EG, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. Psychopathological correlates of lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I patients: findings from a French national cohort. Psychopathology. 2009; 42(6):380-6. PMID: 19776668.
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    111. Pani PP, Maremmani I, Trogu E, Gessa GL, Ruiz P, Akiskal HS. Delineating the psychic structure of substance abuse and addictions: should anxiety, mood and impulse-control dysregulation be included? J Affect Disord. 2010 May; 122(3):185-97. PMID: 19584019.
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    112. Nierenberg AA, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Hirschfeld RM, Merikangas KR, Petukhova M, Kessler RC. Bipolar disorder with frequent mood episodes in the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Nov; 15(11):1075-87. PMID: 19564874.
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    113. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. The modified SCID Hypomania Module (SCID-Hba): a detailed systematic phenomenologic probing. J Affect Disord. 2009 Oct; 117(3):131-6. PMID: 19552962.
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    114. Sakai Y, Akiyama T, Kawamura Y, Matsumoto S, Tominaga M, Kurabayashi L, Miyake Y, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Temperament and melancholic type: path analysis of a prospective study of depressive mood change in a nonclinical population. Psychopathology. 2009; 42(4):249-56. PMID: 19521141.
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    115. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Giupponi G, Pycha R, Rihmer Z, Del Casale A, Manfredi G, Celentano A, Fiori Nastro P, Ferracuti S, Girardi P, Tatarelli R, Akiskal HS. [Predicting risk of suicide in bipolar and unipolar depression: correlation between temperament and personality]. Nervenarzt. 2009 Mar; 80(3):315-23. PMID: 19104766.
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    116. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal HS. Is a family history of bipolar disorder a risk factor for migraine among affectively ill patients? Psychopathology. 2009; 42(2):119-23. PMID: 19246955.
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    117. Oedegaard KJ, Syrstad VE, Morken G, Akiskal HS, Fasmer OB. A study of age at onset and affective temperaments in a Norwegian sample of patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2009 Nov; 118(1-3):229-33. PMID: 19243836.
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    118. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Popovic D, Romano A, Maremmani AG, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments in heroin addiction. J Affect Disord. 2009 Oct; 117(3):186-92. PMID: 19201034.
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    119. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Migraine in affectively ill Mexican adolescents. World Psychiatry. 2009 Feb; 8(1):37-9. PMID: 20157635; PMCID: PMC2821071.
    120. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Lester D, Akiskal HS, Rihmer Z, del Casale A, Amore M, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Substance abuse, temperament and suicide risk: evidence from a case-control study. J Addict Dis. 2009; 28(1):13-20. PMID: 19197591.
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    121. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Migraine headache in affectively ill latino adults of mexican american origin is associated with bipolarity. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 11(6):302-6. PMID: 20098521.
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    122. Rihmer A, Rozsa S, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Affective temperaments, as measured by TEMPS-A, among nonviolent suicide attempters. J Affect Disord. 2009 Jul; 116(1-2):18-22. PMID: 19036456.
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    123. Toni C, Perugi G, Frare F, Tusini G, Fountoulakis KN, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The clinical-familial correlates and naturalistic outcome of panic-disorder-agoraphobia with and without lifetime bipolar II comorbidity. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov 13; 7:23. PMID: 19014559; PMCID: PMC2600819.
    124. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal HS. "Mixed hypomania" in children and adolescents: is it a pediatric bipolar phenotype with extreme diurnal variation between depression and hypomania? J Affect Disord. 2009 Jul; 116(1-2):12-7. PMID: 19007995.
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    125. Lunde AV, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Oedegaard KJ. The relationship of bulimia and anorexia nervosa with bipolar disorder and its temperamental foundations. J Affect Disord. 2009 Jun; 115(3):309-14. PMID: 19007998.
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    126. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche E, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. Risk factors associated with lifetime suicide attempts in bipolar I patients: findings from a French National Cohort. Compr Psychiatry. 2009 Mar-Apr; 50(2):115-20. PMID: 19216887.
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    127. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Juhasz G, Rihmer Z, Lazary J, Laszik A, Akiskal HS, Bagdy G. Association of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR with neuroticism-related traits and temperaments in a psychiatrically healthy population. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Mar; 259(2):106-13. PMID: 18806915.
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    128. Tandon R, Javed A, Deva P, Weizman A, Kronfol Z, D'Souza R, Gangadhar BN, Kapur S, Akiskal H, Tsuang M, Keshavan M. Disaster mental health in Asia and the Asian Journal of Psychiatry. Asian J Psychiatr. 2008 Sep; 1(1):5-6. PMID: 23050978.
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    129. Fountoulakis KN, Akiskal HS. Focus on bipolar illness. CNS Spectr. 2008 Sep; 13(9):762. PMID: 18849895.
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    130. Dorey JM, Beauchet O, Thomas Antérion C, Rouch I, Krolak-Salmon P, Gaucher J, Gonthier R, Akiskal HS. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and bipolar spectrum disorders: review of the evidence of a relationship and treatment implications. CNS Spectr. 2008 Sep; 13(9):796-803. PMID: 18849899.
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    131. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche EG, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. Factors associated with rapid cycling in bipolar I manic patients: findings from a French national study. CNS Spectr. 2008 Sep; 13(9):780-7. PMID: 18849897.
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    132. Pompili M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal HS, Innamorati M, Iliceto P, Akiskal KK, Lester D, Narciso V, Ferracuti S, Tatarelli R, De Pisa E, Girardi P. Temperament and personality dimensions in suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatric inpatients. Psychopathology. 2008; 41(5):313-21. PMID: 18635934.
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    133. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche E, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. Toward the delineation of mania subtypes in the French National EPIMAN-II Mille Cohort. Comparisons with prior cluster analytic investigations. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Dec; 258(8):497-504. PMID: 18574610.
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    134. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Rihmer Z, Lazary J, Laszik A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS, Bagdy G. Towards a genetically validated new affective temperament scale: a delineation of the temperament phenotype of 5-HTTLPR using the TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2009 Jan; 112(1-3):19-29. PMID: 18455241.
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    135. Figueira ML, Caeiro L, Ferro A, Severino L, Duarte PM, Abreu M, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Validation of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A): Portuguese-Lisbon version. J Affect Disord. 2008 Dec; 111(2-3):193-203. PMID: 18440648.
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    136. Evans LM, Akiskal HS, Greenwood TA, Nievergelt CM, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, Schork NJ, Kelsoe JR. Suggestive linkage of a chromosomal locus on 18p11 to cyclothymic temperament in bipolar disorder families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Apr 05; 147(3):326-32. PMID: 18081158.
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    137. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal HS, Coryell W, Leon AC, Maser JD, Solomon DA. Residual symptom recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorders and rapid episode relapse/recurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Apr; 65(4):386-94. PMID: 18391127.
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    138. Oedegaard KJ, Neckelmann D, Benazzi F, Syrstad VE, Akiskal HS, Fasmer OB. Dissociative experiences differentiate bipolar-II from unipolar depressed patients: the mediating role of cyclothymia and the Type A behaviour speed and impatience subscale. J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun; 108(3):207-16. PMID: 18077000.
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    139. Akiskal H. The field of affectiveology at the new millennium: clinically relevant advances as reflected in books (1998-2007). J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):1-4. PMID: 18187206.
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    140. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Manning JS, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Pain complaints in latino adults of mexican origin with and without major depressive episode: a cross-sectional study. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 10(3):191-6. PMID: 18615171; PMCID: PMC2446491.
    141. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Differential patterns of lifetime multiple anxiety disorder comorbidity between Latino adults with bipolar I and major depressive disorders. Bull Menninger Clin. 2008; 72(2):130-48. PMID: 18637749.
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    142. Fasmer OB, Akiskal HS, Hugdahl K, Oedegaard KJ. Non-right-handedness is associated with migraine and soft bipolarity in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun; 108(3):217-24. PMID: 18160136.
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    143. Akiskal H. Targeting suicide prevention to modifiable risk factors: has bipolar II been overlooked? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Dec; 116(6):395-402. PMID: 17997720.
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    144. Vázquez GH, Kahn C, Schiavo CE, Goldchluk A, Herbst L, Piccione M, Saidman N, Ruggeri H, Silva A, Leal J, Bonetto GG, Zaratiegui R, Padilla E, Vilapriño JJ, Calvó M, Guerrero G, Strejilevich SA, Cetkovich-Bakmas MG, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Bipolar disorders and affective temperaments: a national family study testing the "endophenotype" and "subaffective" theses using the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires. J Affect Disord. 2008 May; 108(1-2):25-32. PMID: 18006072.
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    145. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Solomon DA, Maser JD, Coryell W, Endicott J, Akiskal HS. Psychosocial disability and work role function compared across the long-term course of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 2008 May; 108(1-2):49-58. PMID: 18006071.
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    146. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Pani PP, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal H. The mental status of 1090 heroin addicts at entry into treatment: should depression be considered a 'dual diagnosis'? Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 13; 6:31. PMID: 17999769; PMCID: PMC2216008.
    147. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Continuous distribution of atypical depressive symptoms between major depressive and bipolar II disorders: dose-response relationship with bipolar family history. Psychopathology. 2008; 41(1):39-42. PMID: 17952020.
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    148. Ng B, Camacho A, Lara DR, Brunstein MG, Pinto OC, Akiskal HS. A case series on the hypothesized connection between dementia and bipolar spectrum disorders: bipolar type VI? J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):307-15. PMID: 17889374.
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    149. Pompili M, Girardi P, Tatarelli R, Iliceto P, De Pisa E, Tondo L, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. TEMPS-A (Rome): psychometric validation of affective temperaments in clinically well subjects in mid- and south Italy. J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):63-75. PMID: 17884175.
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    150. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. How best to identify a bipolar-related subtype among major depressive patients without spontaneous hypomania: superiority of age at onset criterion over recurrence and polarity? J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):77-88. PMID: 17854907.
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    151. Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Affective temperament: a mediating variable between environment and clinical depression? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 64(9):1096-7. PMID: 17768275.
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    152. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Post-traumatic stress disorder among adolescents with bipolar disorder and its relationship to suicidality. Bipolar Disord. 2007 Sep; 9(6):649-55. PMID: 17845281.
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    153. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Duchêne LC, Gury C, Lancrenon S. Validation of a severity threshold for the Mania Rating Scale: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Psychopathology. 2007; 40(6):453-60. PMID: 17709976.
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    154. Rózsa S, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Szili I, Rihmer A, Ko N, Németh A, Pestality P, Bagdy G, Alhassoon O, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. A study of affective temperaments in Hungary: internal consistency and concurrent validity of the TEMPS-A against the TCI and NEO-PI-R. J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb; 106(1-2):45-53. PMID: 17706791.
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    155. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Toni C, Mucci M, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Akiskal HS. Bipolar co-morbidity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and treatment implications. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007 Aug; 17(4):475-86. PMID: 17822342.
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    156. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal H. Cocaine abuse and the bipolar spectrum in 1090 heroin addicts: clinical observations and a proposed pathophysiologic model. J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb; 106(1-2):55-61. PMID: 17669508.
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    157. Yerevanian BI, Koek RJ, Mintz J, Akiskal HS. Bipolar pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior Part 2. The impact of antidepressants. J Affect Disord. 2007 Nov; 103(1-3):13-21. PMID: 17617467.
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    158. Maremmani I, Pani PP, Canoniero S, Pacini M, Perugi G, Rihmer Z, Akiskal HS. Is the bipolar spectrum the psychopathological substrate of suicidality in heroin addicts? Psychopathology. 2007; 40(5):269-77. PMID: 17622705.
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    159. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Toni C, Mucci M, Bertini N, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Clinical and research implications of panic-bipolar comorbidity in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2007 Sep 30; 153(1):47-54. PMID: 17602754.
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    160. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence. J Affect Disord. 2007 Jun; 100(1-3):1-6. PMID: 17499855.
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    161. Fountoulakis KN, Vieta E, Bouras C, Notaridis G, Giannakopoulos P, Kaprinis G, Akiskal H. A systematic review of existing data on long-term lithium therapy: neuroprotective or neurotoxic? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Mar; 11(2):269-87. PMID: 17506922.
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    162. Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, Kessler RC. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May; 64(5):543-52. PMID: 17485606.
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    163. Vázquez GH, Nasetta S, Mercado B, Romero E, Tifner S, Ramón Mdel L, Garelli V, Bonifacio A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Validation of the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires: Spanish psychometric validation of affective temperaments in a population study of Argentina. J Affect Disord. 2007 Jun; 100(1-3):23-9. PMID: 17306377.
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    164. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. A mixed state core for melancholia: an exploration in history, art and clinical science. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007; (433):44-9. PMID: 17280570.
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    165. Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Wang PS. Considering the costs of bipolar depression. Behav Healthc. 2007 Jan; 27(1):45-7. PMID: 17310917.
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    166. Akiskal HS. The emergence of the bipolar spectrum: validation along clinical-epidemiologic and familial-genetic lines. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2007; 40(4):99-115. PMID: 18227781.
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    167. Azorin JM, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Hantouche E, Châtenet-Duchêne L, Gury C, Lancrenon S. Is psychosis in DSM-IV mania due to severity? The relevance of selected demographic and comorbid social-phobic features. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Jan; 115(1):29-34. PMID: 17201863.
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    168. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. Biphasic course in bipolar II outpatients: prevalence and clinical correlates of a cyclic pattern described by Baillarger and Falret in hospitalised patients in 1854. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):183-7. PMID: 16427131.
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    169. Azorin JM, Akiskal H, Hantouche E. The mood-instability hypothesis in the origin of mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent psychotic distinction in mania: validation in a French National Study of 1090 patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):215-23. PMID: 16427134.
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    170. van Valkenburg C, Kluznik JC, Speed N, Akiskal HS. Cyclothymia and labile personality: is all folie circulaire? J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):177-81. PMID: 16427135.
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    171. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. The duration of hypomania in bipolar-II disorder in private practice: methodology and validation. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):189-96. PMID: 16427136.
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    172. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Azorin JM, Châtenet-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. Clinical and psychometric characterization of depression in mixed mania: a report from the French National Cohort of 1090 manic patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):225-32. PMID: 16427703.
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    173. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of a cyclothymic behavioral endophenotype: which traits tap the familial diathesis for bipolar II disorder? J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):233-7. PMID: 16427137.
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    174. Akiskal HS. Special issue on circular insanity and beyond: historic contributions of French psychiatry to contemporary concepts and research on bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):141-3. PMID: 17123632.
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    175. Krebs MO, Kazes M, Olié JP, Loo H, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The French version of the validated short TEMPS-A: the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):271-3. PMID: 17123631.
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    176. Haustgen T, Akiskal H. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):149-63. PMID: 17092563.
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    177. Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Guyer M, Hirschfeld RM, Merikangas KR, Stang PE. Validity of the assessment of bipolar spectrum disorders in the WHO CIDI 3.0. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):259-69. PMID: 16997383; PMCID: PMC1821426.
    178. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, Tusini G. Bipolar II and anxious reactive "comorbidity": toward better phenotypic characterization suitable for genotyping. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):239-47. PMID: 16973219.
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    179. Karam EG, Mneimneh ZN, Salamoun MM, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Suitability of the TEMPS-A for population-based studies: ease of administration and stability of affective temperaments in its Lebanese version. J Affect Disord. 2007 Feb; 98(1-2):45-53. PMID: 16949160.
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    180. Akiskal HS, Vázquez GH. [Widening the borders of the bipolar disorder: validation of the concept of bipolar spectrum]. Vertex. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(69):340-6. PMID: 17088954.
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    181. Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg P, Hirschfeld RM, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Simon GE, Wang PS. Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep; 163(9):1561-8. PMID: 16946181.
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    182. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Benazzi F. Dose-response relationship between number of comorbid anxiety disorders in adolescent bipolar/unipolar disorders, and psychosis, suicidality, substance abuse and familiality. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):249-58. PMID: 16904187.
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    183. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche EG, Fraud JP, Gury C, Allilaire JF. Validating the bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: overview of the phenomenology and relative prevalence of its clinical prototypes. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):197-205. PMID: 16824616.
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    184. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Does the FDA proposed list of possible correlates of suicidality associated with antidepressants apply to an adult private practice population? J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):105-10. PMID: 16766043.
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    185. Lara DR, Pinto O, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Toward an integrative model of the spectrum of mood, behavioral and personality disorders based on fear and anger traits: I. Clinical implications. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):67-87. PMID: 16730070.
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    186. Lara DR, Akiskal HS. Toward an integrative model of the spectrum of mood, behavioral and personality disorders based on fear and anger traits: II. Implications for neurobiology, genetics and psychopharmacological treatment. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):89-103. PMID: 16712943.
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    187. Rihmer Z, Akiskal H. Do antidepressants t(h)reat(en) depressives? Toward a clinically judicious formulation of the antidepressant-suicidality FDA advisory in light of declining national suicide statistics from many countries. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):3-13. PMID: 16712945.
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    188. Maremmani I, Perugi G, Pacini M, Akiskal HS. Toward a unitary perspective on the bipolar spectrum and substance abuse: opiate addiction as a paradigm. J Affect Disord. 2006 Jul; 93(1-3):1-12. PMID: 16675028.
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    189. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche E. Validating the soft bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: the prominence of BP-II 1/2. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):207-13. PMID: 16647762.
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    190. Akiskal HS. Paula Clayton: her role in the Development of the Field of Affectiveology. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):1-2. PMID: 16697905.
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    191. Akiskal HS, Kilzieh N, Maser JD, Clayton PJ, Schettler PJ, Traci Shea M, Endicott J, Scheftner W, Hirschfeld RM, Keller MB. The distinct temperament profiles of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):19-33. PMID: 16635528.
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    192. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent [major] depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):45-54. PMID: 16488021.
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    193. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal HS. The clinical phenotypes of juvenile bipolar disorder: toward a validation of the episodic-chronic-distinction. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 01; 59(7):603-10. PMID: 16487492.
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    194. Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Zsombok T, Bagdy G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2006 Apr; 91(2-3):125-31. PMID: 16464506.
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    195. Balázs J, Benazzi F, Rihmer Z, Rihmer A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression: implications for suicide prevention. J Affect Disord. 2006 Apr; 91(2-3):133-8. PMID: 16458364.
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    196. Perugi G, Toni C, Passino MC, Akiskal KK, Kaprinis S, Akiskal HS. Bulimia nervosa in atypical depression: the mediating role of cyclothymic temperament. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):91-7. PMID: 16436300.
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    197. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Endicott J, Leon AC, Solomon DA, Coryell W, Maser JD, Keller MB. Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: a prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Dec; 62(12):1322-30. PMID: 16330720.
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    198. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. Psychometric delineation of the most discriminant symptoms of depressive mixed states. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30; 141(1):81-8. PMID: 16313969.
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    199. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Toward a clinical delineation of dysphoric hypomania - operational and conceptual dilemmas. Bipolar Disord. 2005 Oct; 7(5):456-64. PMID: 16176439.
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    200. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Psychopathologic correlates of suicidal ideation in major depressive outpatients: is it all due to unrecognized (bipolar) depressive mixed states? Psychopathology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 38(5):273-80. PMID: 16179814.
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    201. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. Mixed states: the most common outpatient presentation of bipolar depressed adolescents? Psychopathology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 38(5):268-72. PMID: 16179813.
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    202. Sánchez-Moreno J, Barrantes-Vidal N, Vieta E, Martínez-Arán A, Saiz-Ruiz J, Montes JM, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Process of adaptation to Spanish of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Scale. Self applied version (TEMPS-A). Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2005 Sep-Oct; 33(5):325-30. PMID: 16155815.
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    203. Karam EG, Mneimneh Z, Salamoun M, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Psychometric properties of the Lebanese-Arabic TEMPS-A: a national epidemiologic study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Aug; 87(2-3):169-83. PMID: 16023731.
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    204. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Rihmer Z, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Gender, suicidality and bipolar mixed states in adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jul; 87(1):11-6. PMID: 15944138.
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    205. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Optimizing the detection of bipolar II disorder in outpatient private practice: toward a systematization of clinical diagnostic wisdom. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jul; 66(7):914-21. PMID: 16013908.
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    206. Akiskal H, Katona C. Good news to share: backlog no more. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jul; 87(1):1-2. PMID: 15939480.
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    207. McElroy SL, Kotwal R, Keck PE, Akiskal HS. Comorbidity of bipolar and eating disorders: distinct or related disorders with shared dysregulations? J Affect Disord. 2005 Jun; 86(2-3):107-27. PMID: 15935230.
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    208. Akiskal HS, Fuller MA, Hirschfeld RM, Keck PE, Ketter TA, Weisler RH. Reassessing carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar disorder: clinical implications of new data. CNS Spectr. 2005 Jun; 10(6):suppl 1-11; discuss 12-3; quiz 14-5. PMID: 16041864.
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    209. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F, Perugi G, Rihmer Z. Agitated "unipolar" depression re-conceptualized as a depressive mixed state: implications for the antidepressant-suicide controversy. J Affect Disord. 2005 Apr; 85(3):245-58. PMID: 15780694.
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    210. Akiskal HS, Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR, Gillin JC, Smith TL. TEMPS-A: validation of a short version of a self-rated instrument designed to measure variations in temperament. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):45-52. PMID: 15780675.
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    211. Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Michael N, Boenigk I, Hellweg I, Signoretta S, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Distribution and gender effects of the subscales of a German version of the temperament autoquestionnaire briefTEMPS-M in a university student population. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):71-6. PMID: 15780677.
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    212. Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Hellweg I, Boenigk I, Michael N, Akiskal HS. Studies on a German (Münster) version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: construction and validation of the briefTEMPS-M. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):53-69. PMID: 15780676.
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    213. Matsumoto S, Akiyama T, Tsuda H, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Noda T, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Reliability and validity of TEMPS-A in a Japanese non-clinical population: application to unipolar and bipolar depressives. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):85-92. PMID: 15780679.
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    214. Akiyama T, Tsuda H, Matsumoto S, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Noda T, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The proposed factor structure of temperament and personality in Japan: combining traits from TEMPS-A and MPT. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):93-100. PMID: 15780680.
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    215. Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):231-9. PMID: 15780693.
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    216. Kesebir S, Vahip S, Akdeniz F, Yüncü Z, Alkan M, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A in patients with bipolar I disorder and their first-degree relatives: a controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):127-33. PMID: 15780683.
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    217. Akiskal KK, Savino M, Akiskal HS. Temperament profiles in physicians, lawyers, managers, industrialists, architects, journalists, and artists: a study in psychiatric outpatients. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):201-6. PMID: 15780690.
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    218. Vázquez GH, Akiskal H. [The temperament evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire, Argentine version (TEMPS-A Buenos Aires)]. Vertex. 2005 Mar-Apr; 16(60):89-94. PMID: 15912215.
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    219. Moore DJ, Atkinson JH, Akiskal H, Gonzalez R, Wolfson T, Grant I. Temperament and risky behaviors: a pathway to HIV? J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):191-200. PMID: 15780689.
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    220. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Haykal RF, Manning JS, Connor PD. TEMPS-A: progress towards validation of a self-rated clinical version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):3-16. PMID: 15780671.
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    221. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. TEMPS: Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):1-2. PMID: 15780670.
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    222. Camacho A, Akiskal HS. Proposal for a bipolar-stimulant spectrum: temperament, diagnostic validation and therapeutic outcomes with mood stabilizers. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):217-30. PMID: 15780692.
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    223. Evans L, Akiskal HS, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, Kelsoe JR. Familiality of temperament in bipolar disorder: support for a genetic spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):153-68. PMID: 15780686.
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    224. Signoretta S, Maremmani I, Liguori A, Perugi G, Akiskal HS. Affective temperament traits measured by TEMPS-I and emotional-behavioral problems in clinically-well children, adolescents, and young adults. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):169-80. PMID: 15780687.
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    225. Blöink R, Brieger P, Akiskal HS, Marneros A. Factorial structure and internal consistency of the German TEMPS-A scale: validation against the NEO-FFI questionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):77-83. PMID: 15780678.
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    226. Akiskal HS, Akiskal K, Allilaire JF, Azorin JM, Bourgeois ML, Sechter D, Fraud JP, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S, Perugi G, Hantouche EG. Validating affective temperaments in their subaffective and socially positive attributes: psychometric, clinical and familial data from a French national study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):29-36. PMID: 15780673.
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    227. Vahip S, Kesebir S, Alkan M, Yazici O, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Affective temperaments in clinically-well subjects in Turkey: initial psychometric data on the TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):113-25. PMID: 15780682.
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    228. Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Kelsoe JR, Akiskal HS. A comparison of recovered bipolar patients, healthy relatives of bipolar probands, and normal controls using the short TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):147-51. PMID: 15780685.
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    229. Kochman FJ, Hantouche EG, Ferrari P, Lancrenon S, Bayart D, Akiskal HS. Cyclothymic temperament as a prospective predictor of bipolarity and suicidality in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):181-9. PMID: 15780688.
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    230. Sakai Y, Akiyama T, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Tsuda H, Kurabayashi L, Tominaga M, Noda T, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Temperament and job stress in Japanese company employees. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):101-12. PMID: 15780681.
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    231. Maremmani I, Akiskal HS, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Perugi G, Cloninger R. The relationship of Kraepelian affective temperaments (as measured by TEMPS-I) to the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ). J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):17-27. PMID: 15780672.
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    232. Chiaroni P, Hantouche EG, Gouvernet J, Azorin JM, Akiskal HS. The cyclothymic temperament in healthy controls and familially at risk individuals for mood disorder: endophenotype for genetic studies? J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):135-45. PMID: 15780684.
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    233. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS. Toward a validation of a tripartite concept of a putative anxious temperament: psychometric data from a French national general medical practice study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):37-43. PMID: 15780674.
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    234. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Lancrenon S, Chatenêt-Duchêne L. Mood stabilizer augmentation in apparently "unipolar" MDD: predictors of response in the naturalistic French national EPIDEP study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):243-9. PMID: 15708422.
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    235. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Irritable-hostile depression: further validation as a bipolar depressive mixed state. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):197-207. PMID: 15708417.
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    236. Mendlowicz MV, Akiskal HS, Kelsoe JR, Rapaport MH, Jean-Louis G, Gillin JC. Temperament in the clinical differentiation of depressed bipolar and unipolar major depressive patients. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):219-23. PMID: 15708419.
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    237. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal HS. High rate of unrecognized bipolar mixed states among destitute Hispanic adolescents referred for "major depressive disorder". J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):179-86. PMID: 15708415.
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    238. Akiskal HS. Bipolar depression: focus on phenomenology. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):105-6. PMID: 15708406.
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    239. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Atypical depression: a variant of bipolar II or a bridge between unipolar and bipolar II? J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):209-17. PMID: 15708418.
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    240. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. A downscaled practical measure of mood lability as a screening tool for bipolar II. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):225-32. PMID: 15708420.
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    241. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS. Bipolar II vs. unipolar depression: psychopathologic differentiation by dimensional measures. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):127-32. PMID: 15708409.
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    242. Akiskal HS. Searching for behavioral indicators of bipolar II in patients presenting with major depressive episodes: the "red sign," the "rule of three" and other biographic signs of temperamental extravagance, activation and hypomania. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):279-90. PMID: 15708427.
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    243. Akiskal HS. The dark side of bipolarity: detecting bipolar depression in its pleomorphic expressions. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):107-15. PMID: 15708407.
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    244. Dilsaver SC, Wu X, Akiskal HS, Manning JS. Pain complaints in adolescent patients with affective disorders versus adolescent psychiatric controls. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2005; 7(4):150-4. PMID: 16163397; PMCID: PMC1192432.
    245. Akiskal HS. Demystifying borderline personality: critique of the concept and unorthodox reflections on its natural kinship with the bipolar spectrum. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004 Dec; 110(6):401-7. PMID: 15521823.
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    246. Baker RW, Brown E, Akiskal HS, Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Schuh LM, Trzepacz PT, Watkin JG, Tohen M. Efficacy of olanzapine combined with valproate or lithium in the treatment of dysphoric mania. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec; 185:472-8. PMID: 15572737.
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    247. Chiaroni P, Hantouche EG, Gouvernet J, Azorin JM, Akiskal HS. [Hyperthymic and depressive temperaments study in controls, as a function of their familial loading for mood disorders]. Encephale. 2004 Nov-Dec; 30(6):509-15. PMID: 15738852.
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    248. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal HS. Preschool-onset mania: incidence, phenomenology and family history. J Affect Disord. 2004 Oct; 82 Suppl 1:S35-43. PMID: 15571788.
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    249. Toni C, Perugi G, Frare F, Mata B, Akiskal HS. Spontaneous treatment discontinuation in panic disorder patients treated with antidepressants. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004 Aug; 110(2):130-7. PMID: 15233713.
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    250. Soldani F, Ghaemi SN, Tondo L, Akiskal HS, Goodwin FK. Relapse after antidepressant discontinuation. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul; 161(7):1312-3; author reply 1313. PMID: 15229079.
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    251. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Validating Kraepelin's two types of depressive mixed states: "depression with flight of ideas" and "excited depression". World J Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr; 5(2):107-13. PMID: 15179670.
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    252. Benazzi F, Koukopoulos A, Akiskal HS. Toward a validation of a new definition of agitated depression as a bipolar mixed state (mixed depression). Eur Psychiatry. 2004 Apr; 19(2):85-90. PMID: 15051107.
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    253. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal HS. Obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity: focus on children and adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2004 Mar; 78(3):175-83. PMID: 15013241.
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    254. Akiskal HS. [From circular insanity (in double form) to the bipolar spectrum: the chronic tendency for depressive recurrence]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2004; 188(2):285-96; discussion 296. PMID: 15506719.
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    255. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal HS. Predictors of treatment nonresponse in bipolar children and adolescents with manic or mixed episodes. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004; 14(3):395-404. PMID: 15650495.
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    256. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. Depressive episodes and symptoms dominate the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2003 Dec; 5(6):417-8. PMID: 14609495.
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    257. Dilsaver SC, Henderson-Fuller S, Akiskal HS. Occult mood disorders in 104 consecutively presenting children referred for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a community mental health clinic. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Oct; 64(10):1170-6; quiz, 1274-6. PMID: 14658964.
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    258. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal HS, Maser J, Coryell W, Solomon D, Endicott J, Keller M. Long-term symptomatic status of bipolar I vs. bipolar II disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Jun; 6(2):127-37. PMID: 12890306.
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    259. Hantouche EG, Angst J, Demonfaucon C, Perugi G, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. Cyclothymic OCD: a distinct form? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jun; 75(1):1-10. PMID: 12781344.
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    260. Masi G, Toni C, Perugi G, Travierso MC, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Akiskal HS. Externalizing disorders in consecutively referred children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2003 May-Jun; 44(3):184-9. PMID: 12764705.
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    261. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Endicott J, Maser JD, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Keller MB. A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Mar; 60(3):261-9. PMID: 12622659.
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    262. Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Pascale RR, Perugi G, Akiskal HS. Phenomenology and comorbidity of dysthymic disorder in 100 consecutively referred children and adolescents: beyond DSM-IV. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Mar; 48(2):99-105. PMID: 12655907.
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    263. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Maser J, Rice JA, Solomon DA, Keller MB. The comparative clinical phenotype and long term longitudinal episode course of bipolar I and II: a clinical spectrum or distinct disorders? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):19-32. PMID: 12507734.
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    264. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Allilaire JF. Bipolar II with and without cyclothymic temperament: "dark" and "sunny" expressions of soft bipolarity. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):49-57. PMID: 12507737.
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    265. Hantouche EG, Angst J, Akiskal HS. Factor structure of hypomania: interrelationships with cyclothymia and the soft bipolar spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):39-47. PMID: 12507736.
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    266. Akiskal HS, Azorin JM, Hantouche EG. Proposed multidimensional structure of mania: beyond the euphoric-dysphoric dichotomy. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):7-18. PMID: 12507733.
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    267. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. Refining the evaluation of bipolar II: beyond the strict SCID-CV guidelines for hypomania. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):33-8. PMID: 12507735.
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    268. Perugi G, Toni C, Travierso MC, Akiskal HS. The role of cyclothymia in atypical depression: toward a data-based reconceptualization of the borderline-bipolar II connection. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):87-98. PMID: 12507741.
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    269. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Allilaire JF, Sechter D, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. Validating antidepressant-associated hypomania (bipolar III): a systematic comparison with spontaneous hypomania (bipolar II). J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):65-74. PMID: 12507739.
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    270. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. The dual factor structure of self-rated MDQ hypomania: energized-activity versus irritable-thought racing. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):59-64. PMID: 12507738.
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    271. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):113-22. PMID: 12507744.
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    272. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population: re-analysis of the ECA database taking into account subthreshold cases. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):123-31. PMID: 12507745.
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    273. Akiskal HS. Validating 'hard' and 'soft' phenotypes within the bipolar spectrum: continuity or discontinuity? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):1-5. PMID: 12507732.
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    274. Perugi G, Toni C, Frare F, Travierso MC, Hantouche E, Akiskal HS. Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar comorbidity: a systematic exploration of clinical features and treatment outcome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1129-34. PMID: 12523872.
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    275. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal HS. The prevalence, clinical relevance, and public health significance of subthreshold depressions. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):685-98. PMID: 12462855.
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    276. Perugi G, Akiskal HS. The soft bipolar spectrum redefined: focus on the cyclothymic, anxious-sensitive, impulse-dyscontrol, and binge-eating connection in bipolar II and related conditions. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):713-37. PMID: 12462857.
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    277. Perugi G, Toni C, Frare F, Ruffolo G, Moretti L, Torti C, Akiskal HS. Effectiveness of adjunctive gabapentin in resistant bipolar disorder: is it due to anxious-alcohol abuse comorbidity? J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Dec; 22(6):584-91. PMID: 12454558.
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    278. Maser JD, Akiskal HS. Spectrum concepts in major mental disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):xi-xiii. PMID: 12462854.
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    279. Armenian HK, Morikawa M, Melkonian AK, Hovanesian A, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Risk factors for depression in the survivors of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. J Urban Health. 2002 Sep; 79(3):373-82. PMID: 12200506; PMCID: PMC3456783.
    280. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Endicott J, Maser J, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Rice JA, Keller MB. The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jun; 59(6):530-7. PMID: 12044195.
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    281. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. The clinical and public health relevance of current research on subthreshold depressive symptoms to elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002 May-Jun; 10(3):233-8. PMID: 11994210.
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    282. Hantouche EG, Demonfaucon C, Angst J, Perugi G, Allilaire JF, Akiskal HS. [Cyclothymic obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical characteristics of a neglected and under-recognized entity]. Presse Med. 2002 Apr 13; 31(14):644-8. PMID: 11995382.
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    283. Akiskal HS, Brieger P, Mundt C, Angst J, Marneros A. [Temperament and affective disorders. The TEMPS-A Scale as a convergence of European and US-American concepts]. Nervenarzt. 2002 Mar; 73(3):262-71. PMID: 11963262.
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    284. Akiskal HS. The bipolar spectrum--the shaping of a new paradigm in psychiatry. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002 Feb; 4(1):1-3. PMID: 11814388.
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    285. Perugi G, Frare F, Madaro D, Maremmani I, Akiskal HS. Alcohol abuse in social phobic patients: is there a bipolar connection? J Affect Disord. 2002 Feb; 68(1):33-9. PMID: 11869780.
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    286. Maser JD, Akiskal HS, Schettler P, Scheftner W, Mueller T, Endicott J, Solomon D, Clayton P. Can temperament identify affectively ill patients who engage in lethal or near-lethal suicidal behavior? A 14-year prospective study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2002; 32(1):10-32. PMID: 11931008.
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    287. Hantouche EG, Kochman F, Demonfaucon C, Barrot I, Millet B, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. [Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: confirmation of results of the "ABC-OCD" survey in 2 populations of patient members versus non-members of an association]. Encephale. 2002 Jan-Feb; 28(1):21-8. PMID: 11963340.
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    288. Hantouche EG, Allilaire JP, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Sechter D, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S, Akiskal HS. The feasibility of self-assessment of dysphoric mania in the French national EPIMAN study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):97-103. PMID: 11869756.
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    289. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Micheli C, Toni C, Madaro D. Clinical characterization of depressive mixed state in bipolar-I patients: Pisa-San Diego collaboration. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):105-14. PMID: 11869757.
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    290. Vieta E, Gastó C, Colom F, Reinares M, Martínez-Arán A, Benabarre A, Akiskal HS. Role of risperidone in bipolar II: an open 6-month study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):213-9. PMID: 11869771.
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    291. Coryell W, Leon AC, Turvey C, Akiskal HS, Mueller T, Endicott J. The significance of psychotic features in manic episodes: a report from the NIMH collaborative study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):79-88. PMID: 11869754.
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    292. Benazzi F, Akiskal HS. Delineating bipolar II mixed states in the Ravenna-San Diego collaborative study: the relative prevalence and diagnostic significance of hypomanic features during major depressive episodes. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):115-22. PMID: 11869758.
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    293. Bauer MS, Williford WO, Dawson EE, Akiskal HS, Altshuler L, Fye C, Gelenberg A, Glick H, Kinosian B, Sajatovic M. Principles of effectiveness trials and their implementation in VA Cooperative Study #430: 'Reducing the efficacy-effectiveness gap in bipolar disorder'. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):61-78. PMID: 11869753.
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    294. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Sechter D, Allilaire JF, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. Toward a refined phenomenology of mania: combining clinician-assessment and self-report in the French EPIMAN study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):89-96. PMID: 11869755.
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    295. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Toni C, Simonini E, Gemignani A. The temporal relationship between anxiety disorders and (hypo)mania: a retrospective examination of 63 panic, social phobic and obsessive-compulsive patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):199-206. PMID: 11869769.
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    296. Niculescu AB, Akiskal HS. Sex hormones, Darwinism, and depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Nov; 58(11):1083-4; author reply 1085-6. PMID: 11695957.
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    297. Masi G, Toni C, Perugi G, Mucci M, Millepiedi S, Akiskal HS. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a neglected comorbidity. Can J Psychiatry. 2001 Nov; 46(9):797-802. PMID: 11761630.
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    298. Perugi G, Nassini S, Maremmani I, Madaro D, Toni C, Simonini E, Akiskal HS. Putative clinical subtypes of social phobia: a factor-analytical study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001 Oct; 104(4):280-8. PMID: 11722303.
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    299. Perugi G, Frare F, Toni C, Mata B, Akiskal HS. Bipolar II and unipolar comorbidity in 153 outpatients with social phobia. Compr Psychiatry. 2001 Sep-Oct; 42(5):375-81. PMID: 11559864.
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    300. Akiskal HS. [The spectre of mania]. Encephale. 2001 Sep-Oct; 27(5):491-2. PMID: 11760700.
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    301. Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, Frare F, Akiskal H. Adjunctive dopamine agonists in treatment-resistant bipolar II depression: an open case series. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 Jul; 34(4):137-41. PMID: 11518474.
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    302. Niculescu AB, Akiskal HS. Proposed endophenotypes of dysthymia: evolutionary, clinical and pharmacogenomic considerations. Mol Psychiatry. 2001 Jul; 6(4):363-6. PMID: 11443518.
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    303. Perugi G, Maremmani I, Toni C, Madaro D, Mata B, Akiskal HS. The contrasting influence of depressive and hyperthymic temperaments on psychometrically derived manic subtypes. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Apr 15; 101(3):249-58. PMID: 11311928.
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    304. Allilaire JF, Hantouche EG, Sechter D, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Lancrenon S, Châtenet-Duchêne L, Akiskal HS. [Frequency and clinical aspects of bipolar II disorder in a French multicenter study: EPIDEP]. Encephale. 2001 Mar-Apr; 27(2):149-58. PMID: 11407267.
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    305. Toni C, Perugi G, Mata B, Madaro D, Maremmani I, Akiskal HS. Is mood-incongruent manic psychosis a distinct subtype? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001; 251(1):12-7. PMID: 11315512.
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    306. Akiskal HS. Dysthymia and cyclothymia in psychiatric practice a century after Kraepelin. J Affect Disord. 2001 Jan; 62(1-2):17-31. PMID: 11172870.
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    307. Leon AC, Solomon DA, Mueller TI, Endicott J, Posternak M, Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal HS, Keller MB. A brief assessment of psychosocial functioning of subjects with bipolar I disorder: the LIFE-RIFT. Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation-Range Impaired Functioning Tool. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000 Dec; 188(12):805-12. PMID: 11191580.
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    308. Akiskal HS, Bourgeois ML, Angst J, Post R, Möller H, Hirschfeld R. Re-evaluating the prevalence of and diagnostic composition within the broad clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2000 Sep; 59 Suppl 1:S5-S30. PMID: 11121824.
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    309. Judd LL, Paulus MJ, Schettler PJ, Akiskal HS, Endicott J, Leon AC, Maser JD, Mueller T, Solomon DA, Keller MB. Does incomplete recovery from first lifetime major depressive episode herald a chronic course of illness? Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Sep; 157(9):1501-4. PMID: 10964869.
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    310. Toni C, Perugi G, Frare F, Mata B, Vitale B, Mengali F, Recchia M, Serra G, Akiskal HS. A prospective naturalistic study of 326 panic-agoraphobic patients treated with antidepressants. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000 Jul; 33(4):121-31. PMID: 10958260.
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    311. Armenian HK, Morikawa M, Melkonian AK, Hovanesian AP, Haroutunian N, Saigh PA, Akiskal K, Akiskal HS. Loss as a determinant of PTSD in a cohort of adult survivors of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia: implications for policy. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000 Jul; 102(1):58-64. PMID: 10892611.
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    312. Coryell W, Akiskal H, Leon AC, Turvey C, Solomon D, Endicott J. Family history and symptom levels during treatment for bipolar I affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jun 15; 47(12):1034-42. PMID: 10862802.
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    313. Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Gillin JC, Akiskal HS, Furlanetto LM, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR. Sociodemographic predictors of temperament and character. J Psychiatr Res. 2000 May-Jun; 34(3):221-6. PMID: 10867117.
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    314. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Zeller PJ, Paulus M, Leon AC, Maser JD, Endicott J, Coryell W, Kunovac JL, Mueller TI, Rice JP, Keller MB. Psychosocial disability during the long-term course of unipolar major depressive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Apr; 57(4):375-80. PMID: 10768699.
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    315. Arndt S, Turvey C, Coryell WH, Dawson JD, Leon AC, Akiskal HS. Charting patients' course: a comparison of statistics used to summarize patient course in longitudinal and repeated measures studies. J Psychiatr Res. 2000 Mar-Apr; 34(2):105-13. PMID: 10758251.
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    316. Akiskal HS. Temperament and mood disorders. Harv Ment Health Lett. 2000 Feb; 16(8):5-6. PMID: 10637021.
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    317. Perugi G, Micheli C, Akiskal HS, Madaro D, Socci C, Quilici C, Musetti L. Polarity of the first episode, clinical characteristics, and course of manic depressive illness: a systematic retrospective investigation of 320 bipolar I patients. Compr Psychiatry. 2000 Jan-Feb; 41(1):13-8. PMID: 10646613.
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    318. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. Delineating the longitudinal structure of depressive illness: beyond clinical subtypes and duration thresholds. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000 Jan; 33(1):3-7. PMID: 10721877.
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    319. Serretti A, Jori MC, Casadei G, Ravizza L, Smeraldi E, Akiskal H. Delineating psychopathologic clusters within dysthymia: a study of 512 out-patients without major depression. J Affect Disord. 1999 Nov; 56(1):17-25. PMID: 10626776.
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    320. Perugi G, Toni C, Akiskal HS. Anxious-bipolar comorbidity. Diagnostic and treatment challenges. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):565-83, viii. PMID: 10550856.
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    321. Kilzieh N, Akiskal HS. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. An overview of research and clinical experience. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):585-607. PMID: 10550857.
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    322. Manning JS, Haykal RF, Akiskal HS. The role of bipolarity in depression in the family practice setting. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):689-703, x. PMID: 10550863.
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    323. Akiskal HS. The decade of the patient. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Sep; 100(3):165-6. PMID: 10493081.
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    324. Akiskal HS, Pinto O. The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):517-34, vii. PMID: 10550853.
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    325. Perugi G, Nassini S, Socci C, Lenzi M, Toni C, Simonini E, Akiskal HS. Avoidant personality in social phobia and panic-agoraphobic disorder: a comparison. J Affect Disord. 1999 Aug; 54(3):277-82. PMID: 10467971.
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    326. Haykal RF, Akiskal HS. The long-term outcome of dysthymia in private practice: clinical features, temperament, and the art of management. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Aug; 60(8):508-18. PMID: 10485632.
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    327. Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, Sartini S, Simonini E, Akiskal H. Clinical experience using adjunctive gabapentin in treatment-resistant bipolar mixed states. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1999 Jul; 32(4):136-41. PMID: 10505483.
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    328. Marazziti D, Akiskal HS, Rossi A, Cassano GB. Alteration of the platelet serotonin transporter in romantic love. Psychol Med. 1999 May; 29(3):741-5. PMID: 10405096.
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    329. Turvey CL, Coryell WH, Arndt S, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Endicott J, Mueller T, Keller M, Akiskal H. Polarity sequence, depression, and chronicity in bipolar I disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999 Mar; 187(3):181-7. PMID: 10086475.
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    330. Turvey CL, Coryell WH, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Endicott J, Keller MB, Akiskal H. Long-term prognosis of bipolar I disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Feb; 99(2):110-9. PMID: 10082186.
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    331. Brunello N, Akiskal H, Boyer P, Gessa GL, Howland RH, Langer SZ, Mendlewicz J, Paes de Souza M, Placidi GF, Racagni G, Wessely S. Dysthymia: clinical picture, extent of overlap with chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropharmacological considerations, and new therapeutic vistas. J Affect Disord. 1999 Jan-Mar; 52(1-3):275-90. PMID: 10357046.
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    332. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Ramacciotti S, Nassini S, Toni C, Milanfranchi A, Musetti L. Depressive comorbidity of panic, social phobic, and obsessive-compulsive disorders re-examined: is there a bipolar II connection? J Psychiatr Res. 1999 Jan-Feb; 33(1):53-61. PMID: 10094240.
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    333. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Rossi L, Paiano A, Quilici C, Madaro D, Musetti L, Cassano GB. Chronic mania. Family history, prior course, clinical picture and social consequences. Br J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec; 173:514-8. PMID: 9926081.
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    334. Pinto OC, Akiskal HS. Lamotrigine as a promising approach to borderline personality: an open case series without concurrent DSM-IV major mood disorder. J Affect Disord. 1998 Dec; 51(3):333-43. PMID: 10333987.
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    335. Placidi GF, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Akiskal HS. A prospective study of stability and change over 2 years of affective temperaments in 14-18 year-old Italian high school students. J Affect Disord. 1998 Nov; 51(2):199-208. PMID: 10743853.
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    336. Akiskal HS. The childhood roots of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 1998 Nov; 51(2):75-6. PMID: 10743839.
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    337. von Zerssen D, Akiskal HS. Personality factors in affective disorders: historical developments and current issues with special reference to the concepts of temperament and character. J Affect Disord. 1998 Oct; 51(1):1-5. PMID: 9879798.
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    338. Akiskal HS, Placidi GF, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Gervasi R, Mallya G, Puzantian VR. TEMPS-I: delineating the most discriminant traits of the cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in a nonpatient population. J Affect Disord. 1998 Oct; 51(1):7-19. PMID: 9879799.
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    339. Winokur G, Turvey C, Akiskal H, Coryell W, Solomon D, Leon A, Mueller T, Endicott J, Maser J, Keller M. Alcoholism and drug abuse in three groups--bipolar I, unipolars and their acquaintances. J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):81-9. PMID: 9858067.
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    340. Kato T, Winokur G, Coryell W, Rice J, Endicott J, Keller MB, Akiskal HS. Failure to demonstrate parent-of-origin effect in transmission of bipolar II disorder. J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):135-41. PMID: 9858073.
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    341. Akiskal HS, Hantouche EG, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Sechter D, Allilaire JF, Lancrenon S, Fraud JP, Châtenet-Duchêne L. Gender, temperament, and the clinical picture in dysphoric mixed mania: findings from a French national study (EPIMAN). J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):175-86. PMID: 9858077.
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    342. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Lancrenon S, Allilaire JF, Sechter D, Azorin JM, Bourgeois M, Fraud JP, Châtenet-Duchêne L. Systematic clinical methodology for validating bipolar-II disorder: data in mid-stream from a French national multi-site study (EPIDEP). J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):163-73. PMID: 9858076.
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    343. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Maser JD, Zeller PJ, Endicott J, Coryell W, Paulus MP, Kunovac JL, Leon AC, Mueller TI, Rice JA, Keller MB. Major depressive disorder: a prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse. J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):97-108. PMID: 9858069.
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    344. Perretta P, Akiskal HS, Nisita C, Lorenzetti C, Zaccagnini E, Della Santa M, Cassano GB. The high prevalence of bipolar II and associated cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments in HIV-patients. J Affect Disord. 1998 Sep; 50(2-3):215-24. PMID: 9858080.
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    345. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Maser JD, Zeller PJ, Endicott J, Coryell W, Paulus MP, Kunovac JL, Leon AC, Mueller TI, Rice JA, Keller MB. A prospective 12-year study of subsyndromal and syndromal depressive symptoms in unipolar major depressive disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Aug; 55(8):694-700. PMID: 9707379.
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    346. Coryell W, Solomon D, Leon AC, Akiskal HS, Keller MB, Scheftner WA, Mueller T. Lithium discontinuation and subsequent effectiveness. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Jul; 155(7):895-8. PMID: 9659853.
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    347. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Lattanzi L, Cecconi D, Mastrocinque C, Patronelli A, Vignoli S, Bemi E. The high prevalence of "soft" bipolar (II) features in atypical depression. Compr Psychiatry. 1998 Mar-Apr; 39(2):63-71. PMID: 9515190.
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    348. Placidi GF, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Gervasi R, Maremmani I, Akiskal HS. The semi-structured affective temperament interview (TEMPS-I). Reliability and psychometric properties in 1010 14-26-year old students. J Affect Disord. 1998 Jan; 47(1-3):1-10. PMID: 9476738.
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    349. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Gemignani A, Pfanner C, Presta S, Milanfranchi A, Lensi P, Ravagli S, Maremmani I, Cassano GB. Episodic course in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998; 248(5):240-4. PMID: 9840370.
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    350. Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of generalized anxiety disorder as an anxious temperament type. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1998; 393:66-73. PMID: 9777050.
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    351. Perugi G, Toni C, Benedetti A, Simonetti B, Simoncini M, Torti C, Musetti L, Akiskal HS. Delineating a putative phobic-anxious temperament in 126 panic-agoraphobic patients: toward a rapprochement of European and US views. J Affect Disord. 1998 Jan; 47(1-3):11-23. PMID: 9476739.
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    352. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Pfanner C, Presta S, Gemignani A, Milanfranchi A, Lensi P, Ravagli S, Cassano GB. The clinical impact of bipolar and unipolar affective comorbidity on obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 1997 Oct; 46(1):15-23. PMID: 9387083.
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    353. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Giannotti D, Frare F, Di Vaio S, Cassano GB. Gender-related differences in body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia). J Nerv Ment Dis. 1997 Sep; 185(9):578-82. PMID: 9307620.
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    354. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Paulus MP. The role and clinical significance of subsyndromal depressive symptoms (SSD) in unipolar major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 1997 Aug; 45(1-2):5-17; discussion 17-8. PMID: 9268771.
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    355. Akiskal HS, Judd LL, Gillin JC, Lemmi H. Subthreshold depressions: clinical and polysomnographic validation of dysthymic, residual and masked forms. J Affect Disord. 1997 Aug; 45(1-2):53-63. PMID: 9268775.
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    356. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Micheli C, Musetti L, Paiano A, Quilici C, Rossi L, Cassano GB. Clinical subtypes of bipolar mixed states: validating a broader European definition in 143 cases. J Affect Disord. 1997 May; 43(3):169-80. PMID: 9186787.
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    357. Manning JS, Haykal RF, Connor PD, Akiskal HS. On the nature of depressive and anxious states in a family practice setting: the high prevalence of bipolar II and related disorders in a cohort followed longitudinally. Compr Psychiatry. 1997 Mar-Apr; 38(2):102-8. PMID: 9056129.
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    358. Perugi G, Giannotti D, Frare F, Vaio SD, Valori E, Maggi L, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Prevalence, phenomenology and comorbidity of body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia) in a clinical population. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 1997; 1(2):77-82. PMID: 24936660.
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    359. Akiskal HS. [Need for recognizing bipolar disorders in all its forms]. Encephale. 1997 Jan; 23 Spec No 1:1. PMID: 9172972.
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    360. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS. [Tools for clinical evaluation of affective temperaments]. Encephale. 1997 Jan; 23 Spec No 1:27-34. PMID: 9172976.
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    361. Akiskal HS, Bolis CL, Cazzullo C, Costa e Silva JA, Gentil V, Lecrubier Y, Licinio J, Linden M, Lopez-Ibor JJ, Ndiaye IP, Pani L, Prilipko L, Robertson MM, Robinson RG, Starkstein SE, Thomas P, Wang Y, Wong ML. Dysthymia in neurological disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Dec; 1(6):478-91. PMID: 9154250.
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    362. Marazziti D, Palego L, Dell'Osso L, Batistini A, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Platelet sulfotransferase in different psychiatric disorders. Psychiatry Res. 1996 Nov 15; 65(2):73-8. PMID: 9122288.
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    363. Akiskal HS. George Winokur: the man, the clinical scientist, the editor. J Affect Disord. 1996 Sep 09; 40(1-2):5-6. PMID: 8882908.
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    364. Lensi P, Cassano GB, Correddu G, Ravagli S, Kunovac JL, Akiskal HS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Familial-developmental history, symptomatology, comorbidity and course with special reference to gender-related differences. Br J Psychiatry. 1996 Jul; 169(1):101-7. PMID: 8818377.
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    365. Perretta P, Nisita C, Zaccagnini E, Lorenzetti C, Nuccorini A, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Psychopathology in 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with mostly intravenous drug use history. Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Jul-Aug; 37(4):267-72. PMID: 8826691.
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    366. Young MA, Fogg LF, Scheftner W, Fawcett J, Akiskal H, Maser J. Stable trait components of hopelessness: baseline and sensitivity to depression. J Abnorm Psychol. 1996 May; 105(2):155-65. PMID: 8722997.
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    367. Winokur G, Coryell W, Endicott J, Keller M, Akiskal H, Solomon D. Familial alcoholism in manic-depressive (bipolar) disease. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Apr 09; 67(2):197-201. PMID: 8723047.
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    368. Coryell W, Leon A, Winokur G, Endicott J, Keller M, Akiskal H, Solomon D. Importance of psychotic features to long-term course in major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Apr; 153(4):483-9. PMID: 8599395.
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    369. Akiskal HS. The prevalent clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders: beyond DSM-IV. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996 Apr; 16(2 Suppl 1):4S-14S. PMID: 8707999.
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    370. Toni C, Cassano GB, Perugi G, Murri L, Mancino M, Petracca A, Akiskal H, Roth SM. Psychosensorial and related phenomena in panic disorder and in temporal lobe epilepsy. Compr Psychiatry. 1996 Mar-Apr; 37(2):125-33. PMID: 8654062.
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    371. Klerman GL, Leon AC, Wickramaratne P, Warshaw MG, Mueller TI, Weissman MM, Akiskal H. The role of drug and alcohol abuse in recent increases in depression in the US. Psychol Med. 1996 Mar; 26(2):343-51. PMID: 8685290.
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    372. Perretta P, Nisita C, Zaccagnini E, Lorenzetti C, Nuccorini A, Cassano G, McNair D, Akiskal H. Feasibility of pharmacotherapy in HIV-related affective spectrum disorders: an open trial with fluvoxamine. Eur Psychiatry. 1996; 11(1):40-5. PMID: 19698420.
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    373. Akiskal HS. [The bipolar spectrum: research and clinical perspectives]. Encephale. 1995 Dec; 21 Spec No 6:3-11. PMID: 8582314.
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    374. Coryell W, Endicott J, Winokur G, Akiskal H, Solomon D, Leon A, Mueller T, Shea T. Characteristics and significance of untreated major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Aug; 152(8):1124-9. PMID: 7625458.
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    375. Winokur G, Coryell W, Endicott J, Akiskal H, Keller M, Maser JD, Warshaw M. Familial depression versus depression identified in a control group: are they the same? Psychol Med. 1995 Jul; 25(4):797-806. PMID: 7480457.
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    376. Akiskal HS. Developmental pathways to bipolarity: are juvenile-onset depressions pre-bipolar? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995 Jun; 34(6):754-63. PMID: 7608049.
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    377. Akiskal HS. [Pathologic personality, temperament and treatment]. Encephale. 1995 Mar; 21 Spec No 2:47-9. PMID: 7588180.
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    378. Winokur G, Coryell W, Akiskal HS, Maser JD, Keller MB, Endicott J, Mueller T. Alcoholism in manic-depressive (bipolar) illness: familial illness, course of illness, and the primary-secondary distinction. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar; 152(3):365-72. PMID: 7864261.
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    379. Coryell W, Endicott J, Maser JD, Keller MB, Leon AC, Akiskal HS. Long-term stability of polarity distinctions in the affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar; 152(3):385-90. PMID: 7864264.
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    380. Nelson E, Rice J, Rochberg N, Endicott J, Coryell W, Akiskal HS. Affective illness in family members and matched controls. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1995 Mar; 91(3):146-51. PMID: 7625186.
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    381. Akiskal HS, Maser JD, Zeller PJ, Endicott J, Coryell W, Keller M, Warshaw M, Clayton P, Goodwin F. Switching from 'unipolar' to bipolar II. An 11-year prospective study of clinical and temperamental predictors in 559 patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995 Feb; 52(2):114-23. PMID: 7848047.
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    382. Marazziti D, Toni C, Pedri S, Bonuccelli U, Pavese N, Nuti A, Muratorio A, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Headache, panic disorder and depression: comorbidity or a spectrum? Neuropsychobiology. 1995; 31(3):125-9. PMID: 7609860.
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    383. Neimeyer RA, Baker KD, Haykal RF, Akiskal HS. Patterns of symptomatic change in depressed patients in a private inpatient mood disorders program. Bull Menninger Clin. 1995; 59(4):460-71. PMID: 8535385.
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    384. Akiskal HS. Toward a temperament-based approach to depression: implications for neurobiologic research. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1995; 49:99-112. PMID: 7653337.
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    385. Coryell W, Winokur G, Maser JD, Akiskal HS, Keller MB, Endicott J. Recurrently situational (reactive) depression: a study of course, phenomenology and familial psychopathology. J Affect Disord. 1994 Jul; 31(3):203-10. PMID: 7963073.
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    386. Mueller TI, Lavori PW, Keller MB, Swartz A, Warshaw M, Hasin D, Coryell W, Endicott J, Rice J, Akiskal H. Prognostic effect of the variable course of alcoholism on the 10-year course of depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 May; 151(5):701-6. PMID: 8166311.
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    387. Kovacs M, Akiskal HS, Gatsonis C, Parrone PL. Childhood-onset dysthymic disorder. Clinical features and prospective naturalistic outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 May; 51(5):365-74. PMID: 8179460.
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    388. Coryell W, Akiskal HS, Leon AC, Winokur G, Maser JD, Mueller TI, Keller MB. The time course of nonchronic major depressive disorder. Uniformity across episodes and samples. National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression--Clinical Studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 May; 51(5):405-10. PMID: 8179464.
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    389. Akiskal HS. Dysthymic and cyclothymic depressions: therapeutic considerations. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 Apr; 55 Suppl:46-52. PMID: 8077176.
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    390. Winokur G, Coryell W, Akiskal HS, Endicott J, Keller M, Mueller T. Manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder: the course in light of a prospective ten-year follow-up of 131 patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994 Feb; 89(2):102-10. PMID: 8178659.
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    391. Coryell W, Winokur G, Shea T, Maser JD, Endicott J, Akiskal HS. The long-term stability of depressive subtypes. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Feb; 151(2):199-204. PMID: 8296889.
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    392. Perugi G, Akiskal HS, Musetti L, Simonini E, Cassano GB. Social adjustment in panic-agoraphobic patients reconsidered. Br J Psychiatry. 1994 Jan; 164(1):88-93. PMID: 8137115.
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    393. Akiskal HS. Dysthymia: clinical and external validity. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1994; 383:19-23. PMID: 7942064.
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    394. Akiskal HS. The temperamental borders of affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1994; 379:32-7. PMID: 8010149.
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    395. Winokur G, Coryell W, Endicott J, Akiskal H. Further distinctions between manic-depressive illness (bipolar disorder) and primary depressive disorder (unipolar depression) Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Aug; 150(8):1176-81. PMID: 8328560.
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    396. Moldin SO, Scheftner WA, Rice JP, Nelson E, Knesevich MA, Akiskal H. Association between major depressive disorder and physical illness. Psychol Med. 1993 Aug; 23(3):755-61. PMID: 8234581.
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    397. Savino M, Perugi G, Simonini E, Soriani A, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Affective comorbidity in panic disorder: is there a bipolar connection? J Affect Disord. 1993 Jul; 28(3):155-63. PMID: 8408978.
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    398. Akiskal H. [Dysthymic disorder and its treatment]. Encephale. 1993 Jul; 19 Spec No 2:375-8. PMID: 8281904.
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    399. Winokur G, Coryell W, Keller M, Endicott J, Akiskal H. A prospective follow-up of patients with bipolar and primary unipolar affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993 Jun; 50(6):457-65. PMID: 8498880.
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    400. Cassano GB, Akiskal HS, Savino M, Soriani A, Musetti L, Perugi G. Single episode of major depressive disorder. First episode of recurrent mood disorder or distinct subtype of late-onset depression? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993; 242(6):373-80. PMID: 8323988.
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    401. Dell'Osso L, Akiskal HS, Freer P, Barberi M, Placidi GF, Cassano GB. Psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar mixed states: comparisons with manic and schizoaffective disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993; 243(2):75-81. PMID: 8218430.
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    402. Lavori PW, Warshaw M, Klerman G, Mueller TI, Leon A, Rice J, Akiskal H. Secular trends in lifetime onset of MDD stratified by selected sociodemographic risk factors. J Psychiatr Res. 1993 Jan-Mar; 27(1):95-109. PMID: 8515394.
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    403. Cassano GB, Akiskal HS, Savino M, Musetti L, Perugi G. Proposed subtypes of bipolar II and related disorders: with hypomanic episodes (or cyclothymia) and with hyperthymic temperament. J Affect Disord. 1992 Oct; 26(2):127-40. PMID: 1447430.
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    404. Cassano GB, Akiskal HS, Perugi G, Musetti L, Savino M. The importance of measures of affective temperaments in genetic studies of mood disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 1992 Oct; 26(4):257-68. PMID: 1491352.
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    405. Akiskal HS. [The depressive patient before depression]. Encephale. 1992 Sep; 18 Spec No 4:485-9. PMID: 1308843.
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    406. Akiskal HS. Commentary on malizia-bridges. J Psychopharmacol. 1992 Jan; 6(2):156. PMID: 22291341.
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    407. Marazziti D, Ambrogi F, Vanacore R, Mignani V, Savino M, Palego L, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Immune cell imbalance in major depressive and panic disorders. Neuropsychobiology. 1992; 26(1-2):23-6. PMID: 1282223.
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    408. Akiskal HS, Weise RE. The clinical spectrum of so-called "minor" depressions. Am J Psychother. 1992 Jan; 46(1):9-22. PMID: 1543256.
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    409. Cassano GB, Savino M, Perugi G, Musetti L, Akiskal HS. Major depressive episode: unipolar and bipolar II. Encephale. 1992 Jan; 18 Spec No 1:15-8. PMID: 1600898.
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    410. Akiskal HS. The distinctive mixed states of bipolar I, II, and III. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992; 15 Suppl 1 Pt A:632A-633A. PMID: 1498979.
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    411. Mauri M, Borri C, Giannotti D, Zambotto S, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Psychotic symptom patterns and the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Psychopathology. 1992; 25(1):5-10. PMID: 1603910.
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    412. Brown CS, Rakel RE, Wells BG, Downs JM, Akiskal HS. A practical update on anxiety disorders and their pharmacologic treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1991 May; 151(5):873-84. PMID: 2025136.
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    413. Dell'Osso L, Placidi GF, Nassi R, Freer P, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. The manic-depressive mixed state: familial, temperamental and psychopathologic characteristics in 108 female inpatients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1991; 240(4-5):234-9. PMID: 1828997.
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    414. Akiskal HS. Chronic depression. Bull Menninger Clin. 1991; 55(2):156-71. PMID: 2043895.
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    415. Perugi G, Musetti L, Simonini E, Piagentini F, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Gender-mediated clinical features of depressive illness. The importance of temperamental differences. Br J Psychiatry. 1990 Dec; 157:835-41. PMID: 2289093.
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    416. Haykal RF, Akiskal HS. Bupropion as a promising approach to rapid cycling bipolar II patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990 Nov; 51(11):450-5. PMID: 2121720.
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    417. Nisita C, Petracca A, Akiskal HS, Galli L, Gepponi I, Cassano GB. Delimitation of generalized anxiety disorder: clinical comparisons with panic and major depressive disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 1990 Sep-Oct; 31(5):409-15. PMID: 2225799.
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    418. Perugi G, Simonini E, Savino M, Mengali F, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Primary and secondary social phobia: psychopathologic and familial differentiations. Compr Psychiatry. 1990 May-Jun; 31(3):245-52. PMID: 2340719.
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    419. Cassano GB, Perugi G, Musetti L, Akiskal HS. The nature of depression presenting concomitantly with panic disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1989 Nov-Dec; 30(6):473-82. PMID: 2684498.
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    420. Marazziti D, Placidi GF, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Lack of specificity of reduced platelet imipramine binding in different psychiatric conditions. Psychiatry Res. 1989 Oct; 30(1):21-9. PMID: 2594868.
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    421. Musetti L, Perugi G, Soriani A, Rossi VM, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Depression before and after age 65. A re-examination. Br J Psychiatry. 1989 Sep; 155:330-6. PMID: 2611542.
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    422. Downs JM, Downs AD, Rosenthal TL, Deal N, Akiskal HS. Increased plasma tricyclic antidepressant concentrations in two patients concurrently treated with fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989 Jun; 50(6):226-7. PMID: 2785987.
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    423. Akiskal HS. New insights into the nature and heterogeneity of mood disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989 May; 50 Suppl:6-10; discussion 11-2. PMID: 2654131.
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    424. Akiskal HS, Cassano GB, Musetti L, Perugi G, Tundo A, Mignani V. Psychopathology, temperament, and past course in primary major depressions. 1. Review of evidence for a bipolar spectrum. Psychopathology. 1989; 22(5):268-77. PMID: 2690170.
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    425. Lenzi A, Lazzerini F, Placidi GF, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Predictors of compliance with lithium and carbamazepine regimens in the long-term treatment of recurrent mood and related psychotic disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1989 Jan; 22(1):34-7. PMID: 2652160.
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    426. Cassano GB, Akiskal HS, Musetti L, Perugi G, Soriani A, Mignani V. Psychopathology, temperament, and past course in primary major depressions. 2. Toward a redefinition of bipolarity with a new semistructured interview for depression. Psychopathology. 1989; 22(5):278-88. PMID: 2602525.
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    427. Perugi G, Maremmani I, McNair DM, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Differential changes in areas of social adjustment from depressive episodes through recovery. J Affect Disord. 1988 Jul-Aug; 15(1):39-43. PMID: 2970491.
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    428. Placidi G, Lenzi A, Lazzerini F, Dell'Osso L, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. Exploration of the clinical profile of rubidium chloride in depression: a systematic open trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988 Jun; 8(3):184-8. PMID: 3379141.
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    429. Cassano GB, Musetti L, Perugi G, Soriani A, Mignani V, McNair DM, Akiskal HS. A proposed new approach to the clinical subclassification of depressive illness. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1988 Jan; 21(1):19-23. PMID: 3362961.
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    430. Akiskal HS, Mallya G. Criteria for the "soft" bipolar spectrum: treatment implications. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987; 23(1):68-73. PMID: 3602332.
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    431. Insel TR, Akiskal HS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder with psychotic features: a phenomenologic analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 1986 Dec; 143(12):1527-33. PMID: 3789205.
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    432. Placidi GF, Lenzi A, Lazzerini F, Cassano GB, Akiskal HS. The comparative efficacy and safety of carbamazepine versus lithium: a randomized, double-blind 3-year trial in 83 patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986 Oct; 47(10):490-4. PMID: 3093468.
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    433. Reimao R, Lemmi H, Akiskal H, Cocke E. Obstructive sleep apnea treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: a systematic follow-up study. South Med J. 1986 Sep; 79(9):1064-6. PMID: 3749988.
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    434. Davis GC, Akiskal HS. Descriptive, biological, and theoretical aspects of borderline personality disorder. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1986 Jul; 37(7):685-92. PMID: 2873097.
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    435. Lilienfeld SO, Van Valkenburg C, Larntz K, Akiskal HS. The relationship of histrionic personality disorder to antisocial personality and somatization disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1986 Jun; 143(6):718-22. PMID: 3717392.
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    436. De Lisio G, Maremmani I, Perugi G, Cassano GB, Deltito J, Akiskal HS. Impairment of work and leisure in depressed outpatients. A preliminary communication. J Affect Disord. 1986 Mar-Apr; 10(2):79-84. PMID: 2873159.
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    437. Akiskal HS. A developmental perspective on recurrent mood disorders: a review of studies in man. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1986; 22(3):579-86. PMID: 3797565.
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    438. Reimão R, Lemmi H, Akiskal H, Cocke E. [Polysomnographic follow-up of sleep apneas after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 1985 Dec; 43(4):360-4. PMID: 3833137.
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    439. Akiskal HS. A proposed clinical approach to chronic and "resistant" depressions: evaluation and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985 Oct; 46(10 Pt 2):32-7. PMID: 3930475.
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    440. Akiskal HS, Downs J, Jordan P, Watson S, Daugherty D, Pruitt DB. Affective disorders in referred children and younger siblings of manic-depressives. Mode of onset and prospective course. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985 Oct; 42(10):996-1003. PMID: 4037989.
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    441. Akiskal HS, Yerevanian BI, Davis GC, King D, Lemmi H. The nosologic status of borderline personality: clinical and polysomnographic study. Am J Psychiatry. 1985 Feb; 142(2):192-8. PMID: 3970243.
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    442. Akiskal HS, Chen SE, Davis GC, Puzantian VR, Kashgarian M, Bolinger JM. Borderline: an adjective in search of a noun. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985 Feb; 46(2):41-8. PMID: 3968045.
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    443. Akiskal HS. Interaction of biologic and psychologic factors in the origin of depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1985; 319:131-9. PMID: 2864792.
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    444. Akiskal HS. Approach to chronic and treatment-resistant depressions. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1985; 40:159-63. PMID: 4025035.
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    445. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Dickson H, King D, Yerevanian B, Van Valkenburg C. Chronic depressions. Part 2. Sleep EEG differentiation of primary dysthymic disorders from anxious depressions. J Affect Disord. 1984 Jun; 6(3-4):287-95. PMID: 6235260.
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    446. VanValkenburg C, Akiskal HS, Puzantian V, Rosenthal T. Anxious depressions. Clinical, family history, and naturalistic outcome--comparisons with panic and major depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 1984 Feb; 6(1):67-82. PMID: 6231331.
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    447. Akiskal HS. The interface of chronic depression with personality and anxiety disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1984; 20(3):393-8. PMID: 6473639.
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    448. Weissman MM, Akiskal HS. The role of psychotherapy in chronic depressions: a proposal. Compr Psychiatry. 1984 Jan-Feb; 25(1):23-31. PMID: 6365432.
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    449. Van Valkenburg C, Akiskal HS, Puzantian V. Depression spectrum disease or character spectrum disorder? A clinical study of major depressives with familial alcoholism or sociopathy. Compr Psychiatry. 1983 Nov-Dec; 24(6):589-95. PMID: 6653099.
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    450. Baer RK, Muecke MM, Nasr S, Lahmeyer HW, Gaviria FM, Dysken MW, Akiskal HS, Dilsaver SC, Greden JF. Clinical psychiatry conference: biological and family indicators in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983 Oct; 44(10):372-8. PMID: 6417114.
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    451. Akiskal HS, Arana GW, Baldessarini RJ, Barreira PJ. A clinical report of thymoleptic-responsive atypical paranoid psychoses. Am J Psychiatry. 1983 Sep; 140(9):1187-90. PMID: 6614226.
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    452. Akiskal HS, Tashjian R. Affective disorders: II. Recent advances in laboratory and pathogenetic approaches. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1983 Sep; 34(9):822-30. PMID: 6413357.
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    453. Akiskal HS, Webb WL. Affective disorders: I. Recent advances in clinical conceptualization. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1983 Aug; 34(8):695-702. PMID: 6352453.
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    454. Akiskal HS, Hirschfeld RM, Yerevanian BI. The relationship of personality to affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983 Jul; 40(7):801-10. PMID: 6344834.
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    455. Akiskal HS, Cassano GB. The impact of therapeutic advances in widening the nosologic boundaries of affective disorders: clinical and research implications. Pharmacopsychiatria. 1983 Jul; 16(4):111-8. PMID: 6634936.
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    456. Akiskal HS, Walker P, Puzantian VR, King D, Rosenthal TL, Dranon M. Bipolar outcome in the course of depressive illness. Phenomenologic, familial, and pharmacologic predictors. J Affect Disord. 1983 May; 5(2):115-28. PMID: 6222091.
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    457. Khuri R, Akiskal HS. Suicide prevention: the necessity of treating contributory psychiatric disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1983 Mar; 6(1):193-207. PMID: 6889172.
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    458. Cassano GB, Maggini C, Akiskal HS. Short-term, subchronic, and chronic sequelae of affective disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1983 Mar; 6(1):55-67. PMID: 6889176.
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    459. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H. Clinical, neuroendocrine, and sleep EEG diagnosis of "unusual" affective presentations: a practical review. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1983 Mar; 6(1):69-83. PMID: 6412218.
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    460. Andreasen NC, Akiskal HS. The specificity of Bleulerian and Schneiderian symptoms: a critical reevaluation. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1983 Mar; 6(1):41-54. PMID: 6889175.
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    461. Jamison KR, Akiskal HS. Medication compliance in patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1983 Mar; 6(1):175-92. PMID: 6889171.
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    462. Akiskal HS. Diagnosis and classification of affective disorders: new insights from clinical and laboratory approaches. Psychiatr Dev. 1983; 1(2):123-60. PMID: 6371797.
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    463. Akiskal HS. Dysthymic disorder: psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes. Am J Psychiatry. 1983 Jan; 140(1):11-20. PMID: 6336637.
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    464. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Yerevanian B, King D, Belluomini J. The utility of the REM latency test in psychiatric diagnosis: a study of 81 depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Res. 1982 Aug; 7(1):101-10. PMID: 6957895.
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    465. Akiskal HS. Factors associated with incomplete recovery in primary depressive illness. J Clin Psychiatry. 1982 Jul; 43(7):266-71. PMID: 7085586.
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    466. King D, Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Wilson W, Belluomini J, Yerevanian BI. REM density in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric from medical-neurologic disorders: a replication. Psychiatry Res. 1981 Dec; 5(3):267-76. PMID: 6948309.
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    467. Akiskal HS, King D, Rosenthal TL, Robinson D, Scott-Strauss A. Chronic depressions. Part 1. Clinical and familial characteristics in 137 probands. J Affect Disord. 1981 Sep; 3(3):297-315. PMID: 6456296.
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    468. Rosenthal TL, Akiskal HS, Scott-Strauss A, Rosenthal RH, David M. Familial and developmental factors in characterological depressions. J Affect Disord. 1981 Jun; 3(2):183-92. PMID: 6454712.
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    469. Akiskal HS. Subaffective disorders: dysthymic, cyclothymic and bipolar II disorders in the "borderline" realm. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1981 Apr; 4(1):25-46. PMID: 7232236.
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    470. Akiskal HS. External validating criteria for psychiatric diagnosis: their application in affective disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1980 Dec; 41(12 Pt 2):6-15. PMID: 7440527.
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    471. Akiskal HS, Rosenthal TL, Haykal RF, Lemmi H, Rosenthal RH, Scott-Strauss A. Characterological depressions. Clinical and sleep EEG findings separating 'subaffective dysthymias' from 'character spectrum disorders'. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980 Jul; 37(7):777-83. PMID: 7396655.
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    472. Akiskal HS, Rosenthal RH, Rosenthal TL, Kashgarian M, Khani MK, Puzantian VR. Differentiation of primary affective illness from situational, symptomatic, and secondary depressions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979 Jun; 36(6):635-43. PMID: 444017.
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    473. Akiskal HS, Bitar AH, Puzantian VR, Rosenthal TL, Walker PW. The nosological status of neurotic depression: a prospective three- to four-year follow-up examination in light of the primary-secondary and unipolar-bipolar dichotomies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978 Jun; 35(6):756-66. PMID: 655773.
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    474. Akiskal HS, Djenderedjian AM, Rosenthal RH, Khani MK. Cyclothymic disorder: validating criteria for inclusion in the bipolar affective group. Am J Psychiatry. 1977 Nov; 134(11):1227-33. PMID: 910973.
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    475. Akiskal HS, McKinney WT. Overview of recent research in depression. Integration of ten conceptual models into a comprehensive clinical frame. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1975 Mar; 32(3):285-305. PMID: 1092281.
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    476. Akiskal HS, Beard JD, Fink RD, Knott DH. Diuretic-antidepressant combination in alcoholic depressives--preliminary findings. Dis Nerv Syst. 1974 May; 35(5):207-11. PMID: 17894103.
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    477. Akiskal HS, McKinney WT. Depressive disorders: toward a unified hypothesis. Science. 1973 Oct 05; 182(4107):20-9. PMID: 4199732.
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    478. Akiskal HS, McKinney WT. Psychiatry and pseudopsychiatry. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973 Mar; 28(3):367-73. PMID: 4688626.
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