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    Garland, Cedric Dr.

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Public Health
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0963
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-0520
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      Dr. Garland is an adjunct professor in the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Garland is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He has a Doctor of Public Health degree from UCSD and studied epidemiology at Johns Hopkins. His goal is to eradicate cancer. Dr. Garland is the author or coauthor of 150 abstracts, book chapters and research publications, mainly about breast and colon cancer and melanoma. With his collaborators, he has developed a novel cancer theory, the Devolution hypothesis, based mainly on their research on the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer and improving healthy survival of cancer patients.


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      EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES
      NIH/NIADDK K04AM001083Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 1987
      Role: Principal Investigator
      EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES
      NIH/NIDDK K04DK001083Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 1987
      Role: Principal Investigator

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Lappe J, Garland C, Gorham E. Vitamin D Supplementation and Cancer Risk. JAMA. 2017 07 18; 318(3):299-300. PMID: 28719689.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lappe J, Watson P, Travers-Gustafson D, Recker R, Garland C, Gorham E, Baggerly K, McDonnell SL. Effect of Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation on Cancer Incidence in Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 03 28; 317(12):1234-1243. PMID: 28350929.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Garland C, Gorham ED. Dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in association with risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Apr; 168:1-8. PMID: 27993551.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Grant WB, Karras SN, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Annweiler C, Boucher BJ, Juzeniene A, Garland C, Holick MF. Do studies reporting 'U'-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects? Dermatoendocrinol. 2016 Jan-Dec; 8(1):e1187349. PMID: 27489574; PMCID: PMC4951179.
      5. McDonnell SL, Baggerly C, French CB, Baggerly LL, Garland C, Gorham ED, Lappe JM, Heaney RP. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations =40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0152441. PMID: 27049526; PMCID: PMC4822815.
      6. Cuomo RE, Garland C, Gorham ED, Mohr SB. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144308. PMID: 26637119; PMCID: PMC4670097.
      7. Baggerly CA, Cuomo RE, French CB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, McDonnell SL, Pittaway M, Seaton P, Wagner CL, Wunsch A. Sunlight and Vitamin D: Necessary for Public Health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015; 34(4):359-65. PMID: 26098394; PMCID: PMC4536937.
      8. Garland C, Cuomo RE, Gorham ED, Zeng K, Mohr SB. Cloud cover-adjusted ultraviolet B irradiance and pancreatic cancer incidence in 172 countries. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Jan; 155(Pt B):257-63. PMID: 25864626.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Heaney R, Garland C, Baggerly C, French C, Gorham E. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472-4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472. Nutrients. 2015 Mar 10; 7(3):1688-90. PMID: 25763527; PMCID: PMC4377874.
      10. Gorham ED, Cuomo RE, Mohr SB, Garland C. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and type 2 diabetes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Jan; 3(1):11. PMID: 25555438.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Kim J, Hofflich H, Cuomo RE, Garland C. Could vitamin D sufficiency improve the survival of colorectal cancer patients? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Apr; 148:239-44. PMID: 25533386.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland C, Grant WB, Garland FC, Cuomo RE. Are low ultraviolet B and vitamin D associated with higher incidence of multiple myeloma? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Apr; 148:245-52. PMID: 25500072.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Garland C, Kim JJ, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Giovannucci EL, Baggerly L, Hofflich H, Ramsdell JW, Zeng K, Heaney RP. Meta-analysis of all-cause mortality according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Public Health. 2014 Aug; 104(8):e43-50. PMID: 24922127; PMCID: PMC4103214.
      14. Grant WB, Garland C. Vitamin D has a greater impact on cancer mortality rates than on cancer incidence rates. BMJ. 2014 Apr 29; 348:g2862. PMID: 24780390.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Garland C, Gorham ED, Hofflich HE, Mohr SB. Vitamin D status and ill health. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Apr; 2(4):e10. PMID: 24703054.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Kim J, Hofflich H, Garland C. Meta-analysis of vitamin D sufficiency for improving survival of patients with breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2014 Mar; 34(3):1163-6. PMID: 24596354.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Nguyen S, Baggerly L, French C, Heaney RP, Gorham ED, Garland C. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and incidence of kidney stones. Am J Public Health. 2014 Sep; 104(9):1783-7. PMID: 24134366; PMCID: PMC4151925.
      18. Booth-Kewley S, Schmied EA, Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Garland C, Ziajko LA. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 May 07; 13:130. PMID: 23651663; PMCID: PMC3651311.
      19. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CI, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Horst R, Garland C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer in the military: a case-control study utilizing pre-diagnostic serum. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar; 24(3):495-504. PMID: 23296455.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Cuomo RE, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland C. What is the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence rates of colorectal cancer? Dermatoendocrinol. 2013 Jan 01; 5(1):181-5. PMID: 24494052; PMCID: PMC3897587.
      21. Booth-Kewley S, Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Garland C, Gaskin TA. Anxiety and depression in Marines sent to war in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 Sep; 200(9):749-57. PMID: 22922233.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CI, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Garland C. Does the evidence for an inverse relationship between serum vitamin D status and breast cancer risk satisfy the Hill criteria? Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Apr 01; 4(2):152-7. PMID: 22928071; PMCID: PMC3427194.
      23. Grant WB, Garland C. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2012 Nov 01; 131(9):2204-5; author reply 2206-7. PMID: 22322901.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Baggerly LL, Garland C. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer risk - no U-shaped curve. Anticancer Res. 2012 Mar; 32(3):981-4. PMID: 22399620.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Burgi AA, Gorham ED, Garland C, Mohr SB, Garland FC, Zeng K, Thompson K, Lappe JM. High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with a low incidence of stress fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct; 26(10):2371-7. PMID: 21698667.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CJ, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Garland C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. Anticancer Res. 2011 Sep; 31(9):2939-48. PMID: 21868542.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Mohr SB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B and incidence rates of leukemia worldwide. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Jul; 41(1):68-74. PMID: 21665065.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Gorham ED, Garland C. Vitamin D and the limits of randomized controlled trials. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Apr; 14(4):741-3. PMID: 21435283.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Garland C, French CB, Baggerly LL, Heaney RP. Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention. Anticancer Res. 2011 Feb; 31(2):607-11. PMID: 21378345.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Booth-Kewley S, Garland C. Psychiatric diagnoses and punishment for misconduct: the effects of PTSD in combat-deployed Marines. BMC Psychiatry. 2010 Oct 25; 10:88. PMID: 20974004; PMCID: PMC3020681.
      31. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland C, Grant WB, Garland FC. Low ultraviolet B and increased risk of brain cancer: an ecological study of 175 countries. Neuroepidemiology. 2010; 35(4):281-90. PMID: 20948235.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Booth-Kewley S, Larson GE, Highfill-McRoy RM, Garland C, Gaskin TA. Factors associated with antisocial behavior in combat veterans. Aggress Behav. 2010 Sep-Oct; 36(5):330-7. PMID: 20626042.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Grant WB, Garland C. The vitamin D revolution. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Aug; 54(8):1053. PMID: 20698010.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Mohr SB, Garland FC, Garland C, Gorham ED, Ricordi C. Is there a role of vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetes of children? Am J Prev Med. 2010 Aug; 39(2):189-90. PMID: 20621268.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Mohr SB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D status are inversely associated with incidence rates of pancreatic cancer worldwide. Pancreas. 2010 Jul; 39(5):669-74. PMID: 20442683.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Mohr SB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B irradiance and incidence rates of bladder cancer in 174 countries. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Mar; 38(3):296-302. PMID: 20171531.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Booth-Kewley S, Larson GE, Highfill-McRoy RM, Garland C, Gaskin TA. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Marines back from war. J Trauma Stress. 2010 Feb; 23(1):69-77. PMID: 20104587.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Booth-Kewley S, Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Garland C. Psychosocial predictors of military misconduct. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Feb; 198(2):91-8. PMID: 20145482.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Grant WB, Garland C. Vitamin D deficiency may explain much of the racial disparity in breast cancer survival among older women. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct; 32(5):540. PMID: 23061095.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland C, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. Commentary. On the epidemiology of influenza: reply to Radonovich et al. Virol J. 2009 Aug 11; 6:121. PMID: 19671177; PMCID: PMC2729747.
      41. Garland C, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland FC. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19(7):468-83. PMID: 19523595.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Garland C. Symposium in print on the epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19(7):439-40. PMID: 19342255.
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      43. Grant WB, Cross HS, Garland C, Gorham ED, Moan J, Peterlik M, Porojnicu AC, Reichrath J, Zittermann A. Estimated benefit of increased vitamin D status in reducing the economic burden of disease in western Europe. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2009 Feb-Apr; 99(2-3):104-13. PMID: 19268496.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Garland C, Grant WB, Boucher BJ, Cross HS, Garland FC, Gillie O, Gorham ED, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Moan JE, Peterlik M, Reichrath J, Zittermann A. Open letter to IARC Director Christopher P. Wild-Re: IARC Working Group Report 5: Vitamin D and Cancer. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Mar; 1(2):119-20. PMID: 20224695; PMCID: PMC2835902.
      45. Wei MY, Garland C, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Giovannucci E. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov; 17(11):2958-69. PMID: 18990737.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Garland C, Gorham ED, Baggerly CA, Garland FC. Re: Prospective study of vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 04; 100(11):826-7. PMID: 18505971.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Grant WB, Garland C. The health benefits of vitamin D greatly outweigh the health risks. Bioessays. 2008 May; 30(5):506-7; author reply 510-1. PMID: 18404735.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Mohr SB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Relationship between low ultraviolet B irradiance and higher breast cancer risk in 107 countries. Breast J. 2008 May-Jun; 14(3):255-60. PMID: 18422861.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland C, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008 Feb 25; 5:29. PMID: 18298852; PMCID: PMC2279112.
      50. Grant WB, Garland C. The role of vitamin D3 in preventing infections. Age Ageing. 2008 Jan; 37(1):121-2. PMID: 18056725.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland C, Chaplin G, Garland FC. Do sunscreens increase risk of melanoma in populations residing at higher latitudes? Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Dec; 17(12):956-63. PMID: 18022535.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Garland C, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland FC. What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutr Rev. 2007 Aug; 65(8 Pt 2):S91-5. PMID: 17867379.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Gorham ED, Garland C, Garland FC, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Lipkin M, Newmark HL, Giovannucci E, Wei M, Holick MF. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Mar; 32(3):210-6. PMID: 17296473.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland C, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Lamberg-Allardt C, McGrath JJ, Norman AW, Scragg R, Whiting SJ, Willett WC, Zittermann A. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85(3):649-50. PMID: 17344484.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Garland C, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Grant WB, Giovannucci EL, Lipkin M, Newmark H, Holick MF, Garland FC. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar; 103(3-5):708-11. PMID: 17368188.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Mohr SB, Garland C, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Is ultraviolet B irradiance inversely associated with incidence rates of endometrial cancer: an ecological study of 107 countries. Prev Med. 2007 Nov; 45(5):327-31. PMID: 17395256.
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      57. Grant WB, Garland C, Gorham ED. An estimate of cancer mortality rate reductions in Europe and the US with 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2007; 174:225-34. PMID: 17302200.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland C, Grant WB, Garland FC. Are low ultraviolet B and high animal protein intake associated with risk of renal cancer? Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 01; 119(11):2705-9. PMID: 16981191.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Garland C, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Role of ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D in prevention of ovarian cancer. Am J Prev Med. 2006 Dec; 31(6):512-4. PMID: 17169713.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Allison M, Garland C, Chlebowski R, Criqui M, Langer R, Wu L, Roy H, McTiernan A, Kuller L. The association between aspirin use and the incidence of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15; 164(6):567-75. PMID: 16847042.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Grant WB, Garland C. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26(4A):2687-99. PMID: 16886679.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Brunner RL, O'Sullivan MJ, Margolis KL, Ockene JK, Phillips L, Pottern L, Prentice RL, Robbins J, Rohan TE, Sarto GE, Sharma S, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wallace RB, Whitlock E, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Bonds DE, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, Cochrane B, Garland C, Gass M, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Jackson RD, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kooperberg CL, Kuller LH, LaCroix AZ, Lane DS, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Lewis CE, Limacher MC, Manson JE. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16; 354(7):684-96. PMID: 16481636.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Garland C, Garland FC, Gorham ED, Lipkin M, Newmark H, Mohr SB, Holick MF. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. 2006 Feb; 96(2):252-61. PMID: 16380576; PMCID: PMC1470481.
      64. Garland C, Garland FC. Commentary: progress of a paradigm. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr; 35(2):220-2. PMID: 16303808.
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      65. Garland C, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr; 35(2):217-20. PMID: 16303809.
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      66. Grant WB, Garland C, Holick MF. Comparisons of estimated economic burdens due to insufficient solar ultraviolet irradiance and vitamin D and excess solar UV irradiance for the United States. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec; 81(6):1276-86. PMID: 16159309.
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      67. Gorham ED, Garland C, Garland FC, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Lipkin M, Newmark HL, Giovannucci E, Wei M, Holick MF. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Oct; 97(1-2):179-94. PMID: 16236494.
        View in: PubMed
      68. von Mühlen DG, Greendale GA, Garland C, Wan L, Barrett-Connor E. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1721-6. PMID: 15928802.
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      69. Grant WB, Garland C. Air pollution and breast cancer. Epidemiology. 2005 May; 16(3):421. PMID: 15824572.
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      70. Gunderson EK, Garland C, Gorham ED. Health surveillance for asthma in the US Navy: experience of 9,185,484 person-years. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Apr; 15(4):310-5. PMID: 15780779.
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      71. Gunderson EK, Garland C, Miller MR, Gorham ED. Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System. Mil Med. 2005 Feb; 170(2):172-5. PMID: 15782842.
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      72. Gorham ED, Garland C, Garland FC, Kaiser K, Travis WD, Centeno JA. Trends and occupational associations in incidence of hospitalized pulmonary sarcoidosis and other lung diseases in Navy personnel: a 27-year historical prospective study, 1975-2001. Chest. 2004 Nov; 126(5):1431-8. PMID: 15539709.
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      73. Grant WB, Garland C. A critical review of studies on vitamin D in relation to colorectal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2004; 48(2):115-23. PMID: 15231446.
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      74. Garland C. More on preventing skin cancer: sun avoidance will increase incidence of cancers overall. BMJ. 2003 Nov 22; 327(7425):1228. PMID: 14630775; PMCID: PMC274096.
      75. Garland C, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Epidemiologic evidence for different roles of ultraviolet A and B radiation in melanoma mortality rates. Ann Epidemiol. 2003 Jul; 13(6):395-404. PMID: 12875796.
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      76. Grant WB, Garland C. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer. J Intern Med. 2002 Aug; 252(2):178-9; author reply 179-80. PMID: 12190894.
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      77. Garland C, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Calcium and vitamin D. Their potential roles in colon and breast cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 889:107-19. PMID: 10668487.
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