Mark Ettenhofer

Title(s)Associate Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-9381-7578 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Ohio University, Athens, OHBA2001Psychology
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MIPhD2007Clinical Psychology / Neuropsychology
    West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CAInternship2007Clinical Psychology
    University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CAPost-Doc2009Clinical Neuropsychology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Mark L. Ettenhofer is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry (Adjunct) at UCSD, Sr. Research Neuropsychologist for the Defense Health Agency Traumatic Brain Injury Center of Excellence (DHA TBICoE) at Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD), and Research Scientist at the VA San Diego Healthcare System. He completed his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Michigan State University, followed by a post-doctoral fellowship in neuropsychology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center.

    Dr. Ettenhofer’s research focuses on the development and evaluation of novel approaches for assessment and rehabilitation of neurocognitive impairment related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and neurodegenerative conditions. His interdisciplinary program of research draws upon collaborations with investigators in neurology, psychiatry, rehabilitation medicine, radiology, and behavioral medicine at many federal, military, and public research and healthcare institutions, as well as strategic partnerships with industry. He has conducted and published research examining brain function, eye movements, neuroimaging, and functional abilities in a wide range of neurocognitive conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and normal aging. Dr. Ettenhofer’s research has been supported by multiple federal agencies, including the Congressionally-Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the DHA TBICoE, and the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM).

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Identifying Objective Multimodal Predictors of Military/Operational Readiness and Recovery in Mild TBI Rehabilitation
    Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) W81XWH-20-2-0060Sep 3, 2020 - Sep 29, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Description: Prospective longitudinal study to evaluate the potential clinical utility of eye tracking and EEG devices for post-acute use within an Active Duty mTBI rehabilitation setting, while also collecting objective multimodal data to examine trajectories and mechanisms of recovery associated with usual treatment.
    Personalized, Augmented Cognitive Training (PACT) for Service Members and Veterans with a History of TBI
    Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) W81XWH-19-10656Oct 1, 2019 - Sep 30, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Description: Pragmatic clinical trial of a personalized, streamlined telemedicine approach to cognitive training in service members and Veterans with TBI.
    Development of Neurocognitive Eye Tracking for Rapid Screening of Mild Cognitive Impairment
    NIH R43AG066427Sep 30, 2019 - Aug 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Objective Multimodal Assessment of Cognitive and Sensorimotor Function after Mild TBI in Static and Dynamic Environments
    Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) W81XWH-18-2-0069Sep 30, 2018 - Sep 29, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Description: Cross-validate of eye tracking and neural monitoring within a military-relevant immersive virtual reality environment for evaluation of patients with mild traumatic brain injury.
    NeuroDRIVE: Assessment and Rehabilitation of TBI with Virtual Reality Driving Simulation
    NIH//USUHS Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine 306136-8.01-60855Jul 1, 2013 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Description: Randomized controlled trial evaluating a novel virtual reality (VR) approach for assessment and rehabilitation of cognition and driving skills after traumatic brain injury. Primary research modalities include VR, cognitive testing, eye tracking, fMRI, and DTI.
    Integrated Eye Tracking and Neural Monitoring for Enhanced Assessment of TBI
    Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) W81XWH-13-1-0095Mar 8, 2013 - Mar 7, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Description: Development and validation of an integrated eye tracking and neural monitoring system for the assessment of mental workload and cognitive efficacy after traumatic brain injury. Primary research modalities include gaze analysis, EEG, fMRI and DTI.
    Evaluating and Enhancing Driving Skills among Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP) W81XWH-12-1-0608Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Neurocognition and Functional Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury
    Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences USUHS-IntramuralAug 1, 2009 - Aug 1, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Description: Examine eye tracking, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging predictors and mechanisms of post-concussive symptoms and functional abilities among individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. White Matter Organization and Cortical Thickness Differ Among Active Duty Service Members With Chronic Mild, Moderate, and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2024 Apr; 41(7-8):818-835. Gimbel SI, Hungerford LD, Twamley EW, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 37800726; PMCID: PMC11005384.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    2. The Impact of Lifetime Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) on Mental Health Symptoms among Service Members in Interdisciplinary TBI Programs. Mil Med. 2023 11 08; 188(Suppl 6):199-207. Remigio-Baker RA, Bailie JM, Ettenhofer ML, Cordero E, Hungerford LD. PMID: 37948227.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Impact of depression and post-traumatic stress on manual and oculomotor performance in service members with a history of mild TBI. Brain Inj. 2023 07 03; 37(8):680-688. Hungerford L, Agtarap S, Ettenhofer M. PMID: 37204183.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Identifying Unique Symptom Groups Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory and PTSD Checklist-5 in Military Personnel: A Bifactor Analysis. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2023 Nov-Dec 01; 38(6):E371-E383. Agtarap S, Hungerford LD, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 36951920.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Associations of mTBI and post-traumatic stress to amygdala structure and functional connectivity in military Service Members. Front Neuroimaging. 2023; 2:1129446. Gimbel SI, Wang CC, Hungerford L, Twamley EW, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 37554633; PMCID: PMC10406312.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    6. Presenting symptoms as prognostic measures of mental health recovery among service members with concussion. Front Neurol. 2022; 13:1070676. Remigio-Baker RA, Hungerford LD, Ettenhofer ML, Barnard LL, Babakhanyan I, Ivins B, Stuessi K, Monasterio CDJ, Bailie JM. PMID: 36712430; PMCID: PMC9880328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    7. Disparities in mental health symptoms recovery across race/ethnicity and education level following mild traumatic brain injury. Dialogues Health. 2022 Dec; 1:100048. Remigio-Baker RA, Hungerford LD, Lee-Tauler SY, Bailie JM, Caswell M, Babakhanyan I, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 38515877; PMCID: PMC10953859.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    8. Multimodal Neurocognitive Screening of Military Personnel With a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 Nov-Dec 01; 36(6):447-455. Ettenhofer ML, Hungerford LD, Agtarap S. PMID: 33935223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Impact of Prior Brain Injury on Concussion Recovery in Military Personnel: Evaluation of Timing Between Concussions. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 Nov-Dec 01; 36(6):456-465. Remigio-Baker RA, Babakhanyan I, Gregory E, Cole WR, Ettenhofer ML, West T, Qashu F, Mullins L, Bailie JM. PMID: 34145155.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Intracranial Abnormalities Are Associated With Fewer Self-Reported Symptoms in Military Service Members Following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 May-Jun 01; 36(3):164-174. Trotta JK, Ekanayake V, Ettenhofer ML, Hungerford LD, Lange RT, Bailie JM, Brickell TA, Kennedy JE, French LM. PMID: 33201040.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Brain bases of recovery following cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Feb; 15(1):410-420. Gimbel SI, Ettenhofer ML, Cordero E, Roy M, Chan L. PMID: 32328915.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Best Practices for Progressive Return to Activity after Concussion: Lessons Learned from a Prospective Study of U.S. Military Service Members. Neurotrauma Rep. 2020; 1(1):137-145. Ettenhofer ML, Remigio-Baker RA, Bailie JM, Cole WR, Gregory E. PMID: 33274343; PMCID: PMC7703689.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    13. Beliefs About the Influence of Rest During Concussion Recovery May Predict Activity and Symptom Progression Within an Active Duty Military Population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2020 07; 101(7):1204-1211. Remigio-Baker RA, Gregory E, Cole WR, Bailie JM, McCulloch KL, Cecchini A, Stuessi K, Andrews TR, Mullins L, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 32234413.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Clinical validation of an optimized multimodal neurocognitive assessment of chronic mild TBI. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2020 04; 7(4):507-516. Ettenhofer ML, Gimbel SI, Cordero E. PMID: 32207241; PMCID: PMC7187705.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Activity Level During Acute Concussion May Predict Symptom Recovery Within an Active Duty Military Population. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2020 Mar/Apr; 35(2):92-103. Remigio-Baker RA, Bailie JM, Gregory E, Cole WR, McCulloch KL, Cecchini A, Stuessi K, Andrews TR, Mullins L, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 31246876.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. "Return to duty" as an outcome metric in military concussion research: Problems, pitfalls, and potential solutions. Clin Neuropsychol. 2020 08; 34(6):1156-1174. Cole WR, Cecchini AS, Remigio-Baker RA, Gregory E, Bailie JM, Ettenhofer ML, McCulloch KL. PMID: 31985338.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Use of the Progressive Return to Activity Guidelines May Expedite Symptom Resolution After Concussion for Active Duty Military. Am J Sports Med. 2019 12; 47(14):3505-3513. Bailie JM, Remigio-Baker RA, Cole WR, McCulloch KL, Ettenhofer ML, West T, Ahrens A, Sargent P, Cecchini A, Malik S, Mullins L, Stuessi K, Qashu FM, Gregory E. PMID: 31718246.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Recent cocaine use and memory impairment in HIV. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2021 Nov-Dec; 28(6):685-696. Litvin PY, Siders CA, Waite EN, Woo E, Romero E, Foley J, Ettenhofer ML, Gooding AL, Castellon S, Hinkin C, Wright MJ. PMID: 31661322; PMCID: PMC7188564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Activity Level and Type During Post-acute Stages of Concussion May Play an Important Role in Improving Symptoms Among an Active Duty Military Population. Front Neurol. 2019; 10:602. Remigio-Baker RA, Bailie JM, Gregory E, Cole WR, McCulloch KL, Cecchini A, Stuessi K, Andrews TR, Qashu F, Mullins L, Sargent P, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 31275223; PMCID: PMC6593059.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3  
    20. Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE): A pilot clinical trial for chronic traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2019; 44(4):531-544. Ettenhofer ML, Guise B, Brandler B, Bittner K, Gimbel SI, Cordero E, Nelson Schmitt S, Williams K, Cox D, Roy MJ, Chan L. PMID: 31256093; PMCID: PMC6700618.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Insights into cognitive pupillometry: Evaluation of the utility of pupillary metrics for assessing cognitive load in normative and clinical samples. Int J Psychophysiol. 2018 12; 134:62-78. Hershaw JN, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 30342062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Saccadic impairment in chronic traumatic brain injury: examining the influence of cognitive load and injury severity. Brain Inj. 2018; 32(13-14):1740-1748. Ettenhofer ML, Hershaw JN, Engle JR, Hungerford LD. PMID: 30183381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Increased risk for age-related impairment in visual attention associated with mild traumatic brain injury: Evidence from saccadic response times. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171752. Hershaw JN, Barry DM, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 28166259; PMCID: PMC5293243.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Assessment of Performance Validity Using Embedded Saccadic and Manual Indices on a Continuous Performance Test. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2016 Dec 01; 31(8):963-975. Barry DM, Ettenhofer ML. PMID: 27625047.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    25. Use of a multi-level mixed methods approach to study the effectiveness of a primary care progressive return to activity protocol after acute mild traumatic brain injury/concussion in the military. Contemp Clin Trials. 2017 01; 52:95-100. Gregory E, West TA, Cole WR, Bailie JM, McCulloch KL, Ettenhofer ML, Cecchini A, Qashu FM. PMID: 27836507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Saccadic Impairment Associated With Remote History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016; 28(3):223-31. Ettenhofer ML, Barry DM. PMID: 27019067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Multimodal assessment of visual attention using the Bethesda Eye & Attention Measure (BEAM). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2016; 38(1):96-110. Ettenhofer ML, Hershaw JN, Barry DM. PMID: 26595351.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Predictors of neurobehavioral symptoms in a university population: a multivariate approach using a postconcussive symptom questionnaire. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013 Oct; 19(9):977-85. Ettenhofer ML, Reinhardt LE, Barry DM. PMID: 23885692.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Visuospatial and Attentional Abilities Predict Driving Simulator Performance Among Older HIV-infected Adults. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2013 Mar; 28(2):185-94. Foley JM, Gooding AL, Thames AD, Ettenhofer ML, Kim MS, Castellon SA, Marcotte TD, Sadek JR, Heaton RK, van Gorp WG, Hinkin CH. PMID: 23314403; PMCID: PMC3616480.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Correlates of functional status among OEF/OIF veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury. Mil Med. 2012 Nov; 177(11):1272-8. Ettenhofer ML, Melrose RJ, Delawalla Z, Castellon SA, Okonek A. PMID: 23198501.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. A comparison of long-term postconcussive symptoms between university students with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury or orthopedic injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2012 May; 18(3):451-60. Ettenhofer ML, Barry DM. PMID: 22321647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Cognitive reserve as a protective factor in older HIV-positive patients at risk for cognitive decline. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2012; 19(1):16-25. Foley JM, Ettenhofer ML, Kim MS, Behdin N, Castellon SA, Hinkin CH. PMID: 22385375; PMCID: PMC3638954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Basal ganglia structures differentially contribute to verbal fluency: evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected adults. Neuropsychologia. 2012 Feb; 50(3):390-5. Thames AD, Foley JM, Wright MJ, Panos SE, Ettenhofer M, Ramezani A, Streiff V, El-Saden S, Goodwin S, Bookheimer SY, Hinkin CH. PMID: 22223078; PMCID: PMC3608185.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Cerebral metabolism, cognition, and functional abilities in Alzheimer disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2011 Sep; 24(3):127-34. Melrose RJ, Ettenhofer ML, Harwood D, Achamallah N, Campa O, Mandelkern M, Sultzer DL. PMID: 21856969.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Antiretroviral adherence and the nature of HIV-associated verbal memory impairment. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011; 23(3):324-31. Wright MJ, Woo E, Foley J, Ettenhofer ML, Cottingham ME, Gooding AL, Jang J, Kim MS, Castellon SA, Miller EN, Hinkin CH. PMID: 21948894; PMCID: PMC3603356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Operationalization of the updated diagnostic algorithm for classifying HIV-related cognitive impairment and dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2011 Jun; 23(5):835-43. Foley JM, Wright MJ, Gooding AL, Ettenhofer M, Kim M, Choi M, Castellon SA, Sadek J, Heaton RK, van Gorp WG, Marcotte TD, Hinkin CH. PMID: 21092351; PMCID: PMC3711959.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Reaction time variability in HIV-positive individuals. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2010 Dec; 25(8):791-8. Ettenhofer ML, Foley J, Behdin N, Levine AJ, Castellon SA, Hinkin CH. PMID: 20798183; PMCID: PMC2979347.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Reciprocal prediction of medication adherence and neurocognition in HIV/AIDS. Neurology. 2010 Apr 13; 74(15):1217-22. Ettenhofer ML, Foley J, Castellon SA, Hinkin CH. PMID: 20220123; PMCID: PMC2865732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 72     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Neurocognitive functioning in HIV-1 infection: effects of cerebrovascular risk factors and age. Clin Neuropsychol. 2010 Feb; 24(2):265-85. Foley J, Ettenhofer M, Wright MJ, Siddiqi I, Choi M, Thames AD, Mason K, Castellon S, Hinkin CH. PMID: 20162495; PMCID: PMC2863992.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Functional consequences of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun; 19(2):186-203. Gorman AA, Foley JM, Ettenhofer ML, Hinkin CH, van Gorp WG. PMID: 19472057; PMCID: PMC2871666.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 93     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Apr; 17(4):281-90. Ettenhofer ML, Hinkin CH, Castellon SA, Durvasula R, Ullman J, Lam M, Myers H, Wright MJ, Foley J. PMID: 19307857; PMCID: PMC2679810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Emerging issues in the neuropsychology of HIV infection. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2008 Nov; 5(4):204-11. Foley J, Ettenhofer M, Wright M, Hinkin CH. PMID: 18838060; PMCID: PMC3616484.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. The significance of mild traumatic brain injury to cognition and self-reported symptoms in long-term recovery from injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009 Apr; 31(3):363-72. Ettenhofer ML, Abeles N. PMID: 18618356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Executive functions and adaptive functioning in young adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007 Mar; 13(2):324-34. Stavro GM, Ettenhofer ML, Nigg JT. PMID: 17286889.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Reliability and stability of executive functioning in older adults. Neuropsychology. 2006 Sep; 20(5):607-13. Ettenhofer ML, Hambrick DZ, Abeles N. PMID: 16938023.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Executive functions and ADHD in adults: evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains. J Abnorm Psychol. 2005 Nov; 114(4):706-17. Nigg JT, Stavro G, Ettenhofer M, Hambrick DZ, Miller T, Henderson JM. PMID: 16351391.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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