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    Cristian Achim

    TitleProfessor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentPsychiatry
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0603
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Biography

      Dr. Achim received his medical degree followed by clinical residency (general medicine and infectious diseases) and research training (neurovirology) in Bucharest, Romania. At UCSD, Dr. Achim completed a postdoctoral fellowship in NeuroAIDS and received a PhD in Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Upon completion of his training at UCSD, Dr. Achim was recruited for a faculty position at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine where he reached the level of Associate Professor of Pathology and Neurology with tenure. At Pitt, in addition to continuing the work in NeuroAIDS, the research interests of Dr. Achim included experimental models of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease and therapeutic approaches using neuroprogenitor cell transplantation. Upon his return to UCSD, Dr. Achim’s experimental neuropathology laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms of disease in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Areas of interest in these studies are: brain macrophages, neuroinflammation, chronic neuronal stress, axonal degeneration, abnormal protein aggregation, and neurotrophin and brain immunophilin response.

      Research Interests

      In conjunction with the HNRC International Core, Dr. Achim is collaborating with AIDS clinicians in Romania studying the long term effects of HIV on the developing brain in a cohort of young adults surviving with the infection since the first years of life. More recently, in collaboration with the Stein Institute for Research on Aging (SIRA), Dr. Achim’s research group has begun studying the neurobiology of successful aging with a focus on resilience and neurocognitive performance. The studies involve an experimental approach using a colony of aged mice combined with clinical translational studies in a large cohort of human subjects assessed for indicators of successful aging. The predictors and indicators of successful neurocognitive aging include host genomics, microRNA profiling, and biomarker studies compared to in situ evidence of preserved neuroglial homeostasis as assessed by detailed neuropathologic assessment. Through the Interdisciplinary Research Fellowship in NeuroAIDS (IRFN) and the Stein Translational Research Program, Dr. Achim is involved in training and mentoring early career investigators. Also, the HNRC Developmental Core and the TMARC Neuroscience Core Pilot grant programs directed by Dr. Achim offer opportunities for young investigators to develop research projects relevant to mental health. Dr. Achim has mentored numerous trainees, including 14 clinical and basic science research fellows and over 40 students.


      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Brain Amyloid and HAND in the cART era
      NIH/NIMH R01MH105319Jul 20, 2015 - May 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network
      NIH/NIMH U24MH100928May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Long Term Effects of Chronic HIV Infection on the Developing Brain
      NIH/NIMH R01MH094159Sep 16, 2011 - May 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC)
      NIH/NIDA P50DA026306Dec 1, 2008 - May 31, 2019
      Role: Co-Investigator
      TLR Gene Expression in HIV Neurocognitive Disorder
      NIH/NIMH R21MH078728Sep 17, 2008 - Jun 30, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Immunophilins in the neuroglial response to HIV infection
      NIH/NIMH R21MH076681Sep 27, 2007 - Feb 28, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      HIV Neuropathogenesis in a Cohort of Long-Term Surviving Young Adults in Romania
      NIH/NIMH R21MH077487Jan 1, 2007 - Dec 31, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PET Imaging of Amyloid in the HIV Brain
      NIH/NIMH R21MH072529Apr 11, 2005 - Mar 31, 2008
      Role: Principal Investigator
      HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center
      NIH/NIMH P30MH062512Apr 24, 2001 - Feb 28, 2021
      Role: Co-Investigator
      AIDS BRAIN MACROPHAGES--VIRAL SPREAD AND NEUROTOXICITY
      NIH/NIMH R01MH058528Sep 30, 1998 - May 31, 2004
      Role: Principal Investigator
      BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER IN RETROVIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
      NIH/NINDS R01NS035419Sep 30, 1995 - Jul 31, 1999
      Role: Principal Investigator
      MURINE MODEL OF HIV INFECTION OF HUMAN BRAIN
      NIH/NINDS R29NS033429May 1, 1995 - Apr 30, 2000
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Gianella S, Taylor J, Brown TR, Kaytes A, Achim C, Moore DJ, Little SJ, Ellis RJ, Smith DM. Can research at the end of life be a useful tool to advance HIV cure? AIDS. 2017 Jan 02; 31(1):1-4. PMID: 27755112.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Hong S, Lee EE, Martin AS, Soontornniyomkij B, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim C, Reuter C, Irwin MR, Eyler LT, Jeste DV. Abnormalities in chemokine levels in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates. Schizophr Res. 2017 Mar; 181:63-69. PMID: 27650194.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ene L, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Grancea C, Temereanca A, Bharti A, Achim C, Letendre S, Ruta SM. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Oct 15; 299:1-7. PMID: 27725106.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Rosca A, Anton G, Botezatu A, Temereanca A, Ene L, Achim C, Ruta S. miR-29a associates with viro-immunological markers of HIV infection in treatment experienced patients. J Med Virol. 2016 Dec; 88(12):2132-2137. PMID: 27232693.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Soontornniyomkij V, Umlauf A, Soontornniyomkij B, Batki IB, Moore DJ, Masliah E, Achim C. Lifetime methamphetamine dependence is associated with cerebral microgliosis in HIV-1-infected adults. J Neurovirol. 2016 Oct; 22(5):650-660. PMID: 27098516.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Dev SI, Moore RC, Soontornniyomkij B, Achim C, Jeste DV, Eyler LT. Peripheral inflammation related to lower fMRI activation during a working memory task and resting functional connectivity among older adults: a preliminary study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Mar; 32(3):341-349. PMID: 27094339.
        View in: PubMed
      7. McKenna BS, Brown GG, Archibald S, Scadeng M, Bussell R, Kesby JP, Markou A, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim C, Semenova S. Microstructural changes to the brain of mice after methamphetamine exposure as identified with diffusion tensor imaging. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Mar 30; 249:27-37. PMID: 27000304; PMCID: PMC4831583 [Available on 03/30/17].
      8. Soontornniyomkij V, Kesby JP, Soontornniyomkij B, Kim JJ, Kisseleva T, Achim C, Semenova S, Jeste DV. Age and High-Fat Diet Effects on Glutamine Synthetase Immunoreactivity in Liver and Hippocampus and Recognition Memory in Mice. Curr Aging Sci. 2016; 9(4):301-309. PMID: 27071478.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Levine AJ, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim C, Masliah E, Gelman BB, Sinsheimer JS, Singer EJ, Moore DJ. Multilevel analysis of neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment in HIV. J Neurovirol. 2016 Aug; 22(4):431-41. PMID: 26637429; PMCID: PMC4893344 [Available on 08/01/17].
      10. Kesby JP, Kim JJ, Scadeng M, Woods G, Kado DM, Olefsky JM, Jeste DV, Achim C, Semenova S. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140034. PMID: 26448649; PMCID: PMC4598128.
      11. Ene L, Duiculescu D, Tardei G, Ruta S, Smith DM, Mehta S, Letendre S, Achim C. Hepatitis B virus compartmentalization in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Apr; 21(4):387.e5-8. PMID: 25658525; PMCID: PMC4424164.
      12. Ene L, Franklin DR, Burlacu R, Luca AE, Blaglosov AG, Ellis RJ, Alexander TJ, Umlauf A, Grant I, Duiculescu DC, Achim C, Marcotte TD. Neurocognitive functioning in a Romanian cohort of young adults with parenterally-acquired HIV-infection during childhood. J Neurovirol. 2014 Oct; 20(5):496-504. PMID: 25185868; PMCID: PMC4324616.
      13. Teodorof C, Divakar S, Soontornniyomkij B, Achim C, Kaul M, Singh KK. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Sep; 69:54-64. PMID: 24825317; PMCID: PMC4099293.
      14. Fenner ME, Achim C, Fenner BM. Expression of full-length and truncated trkB in human striatum and substantia nigra neurons: implications for Parkinson's disease. J Mol Histol. 2014 Jun; 45(3):349-61. PMID: 24374887.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Gelman BB, Lisinicchia JG, Morgello S, Masliah E, Commins D, Achim C, Fox HS, Kolson DL, Grant I, Singer E, Yiannoutsos CT, Sherman S, Gensler G, Moore DJ, Chen T, Soukup VM. Neurovirological correlation with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and encephalitis in a HAART-era cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 15; 62(5):487-95. PMID: 23242157; PMCID: PMC3664102.
      16. Tatro ET, Risbrough V, Soontornniyomkij B, Young J, Shumaker-Armstrong S, Jeste DV, Achim C. Short-term recognition memory correlates with regional CNS expression of microRNA-138 in mice. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 May; 21(5):461-73. PMID: 23570889; PMCID: PMC3660985.
      17. Soontornniyomkij V, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Soontornniyomkij B, Tatro ET, Umlauf A, Masliah E, Levine AJ, Singer EJ, Vinters HV, Gelman BB, Morgello S, Cherner M, Grant I, Achim C. Cerebral ß-amyloid deposition predicts HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in APOE e4 carriers. AIDS. 2012 Nov 28; 26(18):2327-35. PMID: 23018443; PMCID: PMC3576852.
      18. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim C. Hippocampal calbindin-1 immunoreactivity correlate of recognition memory performance in aged mice. Neurosci Lett. 2012 May 10; 516(1):161-5. PMID: 22503902; PMCID: PMC3338865.
      19. Soontornniyomkij V, Soontornniyomkij B, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Masliah E, Tung S, Vinters HV, Grant I, Achim C. Antioxidant sestrin-2 redistribution to neuronal soma in human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012 Sep; 7(3):579-90. PMID: 22450766; PMCID: PMC3573843.
      20. Soontornniyomkij V, Everall IP, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Tatro ET, Gospodarev V, Masliah E, Yin NS, Vinters HV, Achim C. Increased cortical expression of FK506 binding protein-51 in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. J Neurovirol. 2012 Aug; 18(4):313-22. PMID: 22234543; PMCID: PMC3374917.
      21. Crews L, Ruf R, Patrick C, Dumaop W, Trejo-Morales M, Achim C, Rockenstein E, Masliah E. Phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 disrupts neuronal maturation in a model of adult neurogenesis: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Mol Neurodegener. 2011 Sep 24; 6:67. PMID: 21943307; PMCID: PMC3204248.
      22. Soontornniyomkij B, Everall IP, Chana G, Tsuang MT, Achim C, Soontornniyomkij V. Tyrosine kinase B protein expression is reduced in the cerebellum of patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct; 133(3):646-54. PMID: 21612826; PMCID: PMC3163025.
      23. Patrick C, Crews L, Desplats P, Dumaop W, Rockenstein E, Achim C, Everall IP, Masliah E. Increased CDK5 expression in HIV encephalitis contributes to neurodegeneration via tau phosphorylation and is reversed with Roscovitine. Am J Pathol. 2011 Apr; 178(4):1646-61. PMID: 21435449; PMCID: PMC3078446.
      24. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim C. Increased hippocampal accumulation of autophagosomes predicts short-term recognition memory impairment in aged mice. Age (Dordr). 2012 Apr; 34(2):305-16. PMID: 21431350; PMCID: PMC3312638.
      25. Moore DJ, Arce M, Moseley S, McCutchan JA, Marquie-Beck J, Franklin DR, Vaida F, Achim C, McArthur J, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Gelman BB, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Heaton RK, Grant I. Family history of dementia predicts worse neuropsychological functioning among HIV-infected persons. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011; 23(3):316-23. PMID: 21948893; PMCID: PMC3279193.
      26. Kang YJ, Digicaylioglu M, Russo R, Kaul M, Achim C, Fletcher L, Masliah E, Lipton SA. Erythropoietin plus insulin-like growth factor-I protects against neuronal damage in a murine model of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. Ann Neurol. 2010 Sep; 68(3):342-52. PMID: 20818790; PMCID: PMC3733362.
      27. Morgan JT, Chana G, Pardo CA, Achim C, Semendeferi K, Buckwalter J, Courchesne E, Everall IP. Microglial activation and increased microglial density observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Aug 15; 68(4):368-76. PMID: 20674603.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Wallace CK, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim C. Short-term recognition memory impairment is associated with decreased expression of FK506 binding protein 51 in the aged mouse brain. Age (Dordr). 2010 Sep; 32(3):309-22. PMID: 20422297; PMCID: PMC2926850.
      29. Tatro ET, Scott ER, Nguyen TB, Salaria S, Banerjee S, Moore DJ, Masliah E, Achim C, Everall IP. Evidence for Alteration of Gene Regulatory Networks through MicroRNAs of the HIV-infected brain: novel analysis of retrospective cases. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 26; 5(4):e10337. PMID: 20436668; PMCID: PMC2859933.
      30. Bae MH, Bissonette GB, Mars WM, Michalopoulos GK, Achim C, Depireux DA, Powell EM. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. Exp Neurol. 2010 Jan; 221(1):129-35. PMID: 19853606; PMCID: PMC2812579.
      31. Everall I, Vaida F, Khanlou N, Lazzaretto D, Achim C, Letendre S, Moore D, Ellis R, Cherner M, Gelman B, Morgello S, Singer E, Grant I, Masliah E. Cliniconeuropathologic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus in the era of antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol. 2009 Sep; 15(5-6):360-70. PMID: 20175693; PMCID: PMC3078805.
      32. Nguyen TB, Lucero GR, Chana G, Hult BJ, Tatro ET, Masliah E, Grant I, Achim C, Everall IP. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors AR-A014418 and B6B3O prevent human immunodeficiency virus-mediated neurotoxicity in primary human neurons. J Neurovirol. 2009 Sep; 15(5-6):434-8. PMID: 19688630; PMCID: PMC3065998.
      33. Tatro ET, Everall IP, Kaul M, Achim C. Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in neurons by immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52: implications for major depressive disorder. Brain Res. 2009 Aug 25; 1286:1-12. PMID: 19545546; PMCID: PMC2724600.
      34. Achim C, Adame A, Dumaop W, Everall IP, Masliah E. Increased accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid beta in HIV-infected patients. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 4(2):190-9. PMID: 19288297; PMCID: PMC3055557.
      35. Crews L, Patrick C, Achim C, Everall IP, Masliah E. Molecular pathology of neuro-AIDS (CNS-HIV). Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Mar; 10(3):1045-63. PMID: 19399237; PMCID: PMC2672018.
      36. Tatro ET, Everall IP, Masliah E, Hult BJ, Lucero G, Chana G, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim C. Differential expression of immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52 in the frontal cortex of HIV-infected patients with major depressive disorder. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 4(2):218-26. PMID: 19199039; PMCID: PMC2929573.
      37. Wheeler ED, Achim C, Ayyavoo V. Immunodetection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr in brain tissue of HIV-1 encephalitic patients. J Neurovirol. 2006 Jun; 12(3):200-10. PMID: 16877301.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Moore DJ, Masliah E, Rippeth JD, Gonzalez R, Carey CL, Cherner M, Ellis RJ, Achim C, Marcotte TD, Heaton RK, Grant I. Cortical and subcortical neurodegeneration is associated with HIV neurocognitive impairment. AIDS. 2006 Apr 04; 20(6):879-87. PMID: 16549972.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Green DA, Masliah E, Vinters HV, Beizai P, Moore DJ, Achim C. Brain deposition of beta-amyloid is a common pathologic feature in HIV positive patients. AIDS. 2005 Mar 04; 19(4):407-11. PMID: 15750394.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Achim C, Masliah E, Schindelar J, Avramut M. Immunophilin expression in the HIV-infected brain. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):126-32. PMID: 15579289.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Halks-Miller M, Schroeder ML, Haroutunian V, Moenning U, Rossi M, Achim C, Purohit D, Mahmoudi M, Horuk R. CCR1 is an early and specific marker of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003 Nov; 54(5):638-46. PMID: 14595653.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Jordan-Sciutto KL, Dorsey R, Chalovich EM, Hammond RR, Achim C. Expression patterns of retinoblastoma protein in Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Jan; 62(1):68-74. PMID: 12528819.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Avramut M, Achim C. Immunophilins and their ligands: insights into survival and growth of human neurons. Physiol Behav. 2002 Dec; 77(4-5):463-8. PMID: 12526984.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Hammond RR, Iskander S, Achim C, Hearn S, Nassif J, Wiley CA. A reliable primary human CNS culture protocol for morphological studies of dendritic and synaptic elements. J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Aug 30; 118(2):189-98. PMID: 12204309.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Harrold SM, Wang G, McMahon DK, Riddler SA, Mellors JW, Becker JT, Caldararo R, Reinhart TA, Achim C, Wiley CA. Recovery of replication-competent HIV type 1-infected circulating monocytes from individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Apr 10; 18(6):427-34. PMID: 11958686.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Jordan-Sciutto KL, Murray Fenner BA, Wiley CA, Achim C. Response of cell cycle proteins to neurotrophic factor and chemokine stimulation in human neuroglia. Exp Neurol. 2001 Feb; 167(2):205-14. PMID: 11161609; PMCID: PMC3683587.
      47. Wiley CA, Achim C, Hammond R, Love S, Masliah E, Radhakrishnan L, Sanders V, Wang G. Damage and repair of DNA in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2000 Nov; 59(11):955-65. PMID: 11089573.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Luabeya MK, Dallasta LM, Achim C, Pauza CD, Hamilton RL. Blood-brain barrier disruption in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000 Oct; 26(5):454-62. PMID: 11054186.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Dallasta LM, Wang G, Bodnar RJ, Draviam R, Wiley CA, Achim C, Hamilton RL. Differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in chronic murine retroviral encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000 Aug; 26(4):332-41. PMID: 10931366.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Dallasta LM, Pisarov LA, Esplen JE, Werley JV, Moses AV, Nelson JA, Achim C. Blood-brain barrier tight junction disruption in human immunodeficiency virus-1 encephalitis. Am J Pathol. 1999 Dec; 155(6):1915-27. PMID: 10595922; PMCID: PMC1866950.
      51. Wiley CA, Achim C, Christopherson C, Kidane Y, Kwok S, Masliah E, Mellors J, Radhakrishnan L, Wang G, Soontornniyomkij V. HIV mediates a productive infection of the brain. AIDS. 1999 Oct 22; 13(15):2055-9. PMID: 10546857.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Pittman CA, Hamilton RL, Wiley CA, Achim C. Absence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trkB receptor immunoreactivity in glia of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 1999 Oct; 98(4):345-8. PMID: 10502038.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Wang G, Achim C, Hamilton RL, Wiley CA, Soontornniyomkij V. Tyramide signal amplification method in multiple-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods. 1999 Aug; 18(4):459-64. PMID: 10491275.
        View in: PubMed
      54. White MG, Hammond RR, Sanders VJ, Bonaroti EA, Mehta AP, Wang G, Wiley CA, Achim C. Neuron-enriched second trimester human cultures: growth factor response and in vivo graft survival. Cell Transplant. 1999 Jan-Feb; 8(1):59-73. PMID: 10338276.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Pittman CA, Wiley CA, Achim C. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in activated microglia of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1998 Dec; 24(6):453-60. PMID: 9888155.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Sanders VJ, Mehta AP, White MG, Achim C. A murine model of HIV encephalitis: xenotransplantation of HIV-infected human neuroglia into SCID mouse brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1998 Dec; 24(6):461-7. PMID: 9888156.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Heyes MP, Saito K, Lackner A, Wiley CA, Achim C, Markey SP. Sources of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid in the brain of HIV-1-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. FASEB J. 1998 Jul; 12(10):881-96. PMID: 9657528.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Sanders VJ, Pittman CA, White MG, Wang G, Wiley CA, Achim C. Chemokines and receptors in HIV encephalitis. AIDS. 1998 Jun 18; 12(9):1021-6. PMID: 9662198.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Kapadia SB, Achim C, Wiley CA. Confocal microscopy assessment of lymphoid tissues with follicular hyperplasia from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998 Jun; 122(6):534-8. PMID: 9625421.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Wiley CA, Soontornniyomkij V, Radhakrishnan L, Masliah E, Mellors J, Hermann SA, Dailey P, Achim C. Distribution of brain HIV load in AIDS. Brain Pathol. 1998 Apr; 8(2):277-84. PMID: 9546286.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Soontornniyomkij V, Nieto-Rodríguez JA, Martínez AJ, Kingsley LA, Achim C, Wiley CA. Brain HIV burden and length of survival after AIDS diagnosis. Clin Neuropathol. 1998 Mar-Apr; 17(2):95-9. PMID: 9561331.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Masliah E, Heaton RK, Marcotte TD, Ellis RJ, Wiley CA, Mallory M, Achim C, McCutchan JA, Nelson JA, Atkinson JH, Grant I. Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. HNRC Group. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Ann Neurol. 1997 Dec; 42(6):963-72. PMID: 9403489.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Achim C, Katyal S, Wiley CA, Shiratori M, Wang G, Oshika E, Petersen BE, Li JM, Michalopoulos GK. Expression of HGF and cMet in the developing and adult brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1997 Sep 20; 102(2):299-303. PMID: 9352114.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Fox L, Alford M, Achim C, Mallory M, Masliah E. Neurodegeneration of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Apr; 56(4):360-8. PMID: 9100666.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Wiley CA, Achim C. No evidence of significant abortive HIV infection of the brain. AIDS. 1997 Feb; 11(2):252. PMID: 9030375.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Heyes MP, Achim C, Wiley CA, Major EO, Saito K, Markey SP. Human microglia convert l-tryptophan into the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Biochem J. 1996 Dec 01; 320 ( Pt 2):595-7. PMID: 8973572; PMCID: PMC1217971.
      67. Wiley CA, Baldwin M, Achim C. Expression of HIV regulatory and structural mRNA in the central nervous system. AIDS. 1996 Jul; 10(8):843-7. PMID: 8828741.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Achim C, Wiley CA. Inflammation in AIDS and the role of the macrophage in brain pathology. Curr Opin Neurol. 1996 Jun; 9(3):221-5. PMID: 8839616.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Reddy RT, Achim C, Sirko DA, Tehranchi S, Kraus FG, Wong-Staal F, Wiley CA. Sequence analysis of the V3 loop in brain and spleen of patients with HIV encephalitis. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Apr 10; 12(6):477-82. PMID: 8679302.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim C, DeTeresa R, Wiley CA. Patterns of neurodegeneration in HIV encephalitis. J NeuroAIDS. 1996; 1(1):161-73. PMID: 16873160.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Achim C, Masliah E, Heyes MP, Sarnacki P, Hilty C, Baldwin M, Wiley CA. Macrophage Activation Factors
        in the Brains of AIDS Patients. J NeuroAIDS. 1996; 1(2):1-16. PMID: 16873161.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Wiley CA, Achim C. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dementia. Ann Neurol. 1995 Oct; 38(4):559-60. PMID: 7574450.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Hammond RR, Achim C, Wiley CA. Neuropathology of the retina in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Semin Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun; 10(2):177-82. PMID: 10155631.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim C, Wiley CA. Differential vulnerability of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1995 May; 54(3):350-7. PMID: 7745434.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Hamilton RL, Achim C, Grafe MR, Fremont JC, Miners D, Wiley CA. Herpes simplex virus brainstem encephalitis in an AIDS patient. Clin Neuropathol. 1995 Jan-Feb; 14(1):45-50. PMID: 7729081.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Bylsma SS, Achim C, Wiley CA, Gonzalez C, Kuppermann BD, Berry C, Freeman WR. The predictive value of cytomegalovirus retinitis for cytomegalovirus encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Jan; 113(1):89-95. PMID: 7826299.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim C, Wiley CA. Cytokine receptor alterations during HIV infection in the human central nervous system. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 07; 663(1):1-6. PMID: 7850458.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Heindel WC, Jernigan TL, Archibald SL, Achim C, Masliah E, Wiley CA. The relationship of quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging measures to neuropathologic indexes of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Neurol. 1994 Nov; 51(11):1129-35. PMID: 7980109.
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