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Cristian Achim

Title(s)Adjunct Professor, Pathology
SchoolHealth Sciences
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0603
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Biography

    Dr. Achim received his medical degree followed by clinical residency (general medicine and infectious diseases) and research training (neurovirology) in Bucharest, Romania. At UCSD, Dr. Achim completed a postdoctoral fellowship in NeuroAIDS and received a PhD in Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Upon completion of his training at UCSD, Dr. Achim was recruited for a faculty position at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine where he reached the level of Associate Professor of Pathology and Neurology with tenure. At Pitt, in addition to continuing the work in NeuroAIDS, the research interests of Dr. Achim included experimental models of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease and therapeutic approaches using neuroprogenitor cell transplantation. Upon his return to UCSD, Dr. Achim’s experimental neuropathology laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms of disease in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Areas of interest in these studies are: brain macrophages, neuroinflammation, chronic neuronal stress, axonal degeneration, abnormal protein aggregation, and neurotrophin and brain immunophilin response.

    Research Interests

    In conjunction with the HNRC International Core, Dr. Achim is collaborating with AIDS clinicians in Romania studying the long term effects of HIV on the developing brain in a cohort of young adults surviving with the infection since the first years of life. More recently, in collaboration with the Stein Institute for Research on Aging (SIRA), Dr. Achim’s research group has begun studying the neurobiology of successful aging with a focus on resilience and neurocognitive performance. The studies involve an experimental approach using a colony of aged mice combined with clinical translational studies in a large cohort of human subjects assessed for indicators of successful aging. The predictors and indicators of successful neurocognitive aging include host genomics, microRNA profiling, and biomarker studies compared to in situ evidence of preserved neuroglial homeostasis as assessed by detailed neuropathologic assessment. Through the Interdisciplinary Research Fellowship in NeuroAIDS (IRFN) and the Stein Translational Research Program, Dr. Achim is involved in training and mentoring early career investigators. Also, the HNRC Developmental Core and the TMARC Neuroscience Core Pilot grant programs directed by Dr. Achim offer opportunities for young investigators to develop research projects relevant to mental health. Dr. Achim has mentored numerous trainees, including 14 clinical and basic science research fellows and over 40 students.

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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Brain Amyloid and HAND in the cART era
    NIH/NIMH R01MH105319Jul 20, 2015 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network
    NIH/NIMH U24MH100928May 1, 2013 - Feb 28, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Long Term Effects of Chronic HIV Infection on the Developing Brain
    NIH/NIMH R01MH094159Sep 16, 2011 - May 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC)
    NIH/NIDA P50DA026306Dec 1, 2008 - May 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    TLR Gene Expression in HIV Neurocognitive Disorder
    NIH/NIMH R21MH078728Sep 17, 2008 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunophilins in the neuroglial response to HIV infection
    NIH/NIMH R21MH076681Sep 27, 2007 - Feb 28, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Neuropathogenesis in a Cohort of Long-Term Surviving Young Adults in Romania
    NIH/NIMH R21MH077487Jan 1, 2007 - Dec 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PET Imaging of Amyloid in the HIV Brain
    NIH/NIMH R21MH072529Apr 11, 2005 - Mar 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center
    NIH/NIMH P30MH062512Apr 24, 2001 - Nov 30, 2005
    Role: Co-Investigator
    AIDS BRAIN MACROPHAGES--VIRAL SPREAD AND NEUROTOXICITY
    NIH/NIMH R01MH058528Sep 30, 1998 - May 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER IN RETROVIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
    NIH/NINDS R01NS035419Sep 30, 1995 - Jul 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MURINE MODEL OF HIV INFECTION OF HUMAN BRAIN
    NIH/NINDS R29NS033429May 1, 1995 - Feb 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Beta amyloid levels in cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people vary by exposure to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2020 06 01; 34(7):1001-1007. Fields JA, Swinton MK, Soontornniyomkij B, Carson A, Achim CL. PMID: 32073451.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Immuno-inflammatory changes across phases of early psychosis: The impact of antipsychotic medication and stage of illness. Schizophr Res. 2020 Feb 20. Kelsven S, de la Fuente-Sandoval C, Achim CL, Reyes-Madrigal F, Mirzakhanian H, Domingues I, Cadenhead K. PMID: 32089474.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate induces peripheral neuropathy and alters inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the brains of mice. Sci Rep. 2019 11 20; 9(1):17158. Fields JA, Swinton MK, Carson A, Soontornniyomkij B, Lindsay C, Han MM, Frizzi K, Sambhwani S, Murphy A, Achim CL, Ellis RJ, Calcutt NA. PMID: 31748578.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Neurocognitive Impairment in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era in a Romanian Cohort of Young Adults with Chronic HIV Infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2020 May; 36(5):367-372. Temereanca A, Ene L, Rosca A, Diaconu CC, Luca A, Burlacu R, Radoi R, Bulacu-Talnariu A, Marcotte TD, Achim CL, Ruta S. PMID: 31476875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Plasma CXCL10 correlates with HAND in HIV-infected women. J Neurovirol. 2020 Feb; 26(1):23-31. Burlacu R, Umlauf A, Marcotte TD, Soontornniyomkij B, Diaconu CC, Bulacu-Talnariu A, Temereanca A, Ruta SM, Letendre S, Ene L, Achim CL. PMID: 31414350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. Mitochondrial biogenesis is altered in HIV+ brains exposed to ART: Implications for therapeutic targeting of astroglia. Neurobiol Dis. 2019 10; 130:104502. Swinton MK, Carson A, Telese F, Sanchez AB, Soontornniyomkij B, Rad L, Batki I, Quintanilla B, Pérez-Santiago J, Achim CL, Letendre S, Ellis RJ, Grant I, Murphy AN, Fields JA. PMID: 31238091.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    7. Pathogenesis of age-related HIV neurodegeneration. J Neurovirol. 2019 10; 25(5):622-633. Mackiewicz MM, Overk C, Achim CL, Masliah E. PMID: 30790184.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    8. Alterations in brain TREM2 and Amyloid-ß levels are associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy. J Neurochem. 2018 12; 147(6):784-802. Fields JA, Spencer B, Swinton M, Qvale EM, Marquine MJ, Alexeeva A, Gough S, Soontornniyomkij B, Valera E, Masliah E, Achim CL, Desplats P. PMID: 30152135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. Effects of HIV-1 TAT protein and methamphetamine exposure on visual discrimination and executive function in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2018 09 03; 349:73-79. Kesby JP, Fields JA, Chang A, Coban H, Achim CL, Semenova S. PMID: 29709610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Sex-based differences in neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected young adults. AIDS. 2018 Jan 14; 32(2):217-225. Burlacu R, Umlauf A, Luca A, Gianella S, Radoi R, Ruta SM, Marcotte TD, Ene L, Achim CL. PMID: 29112063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Plasma soluble CD163 is associated with postmortem brain pathology in human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS. 2017 04 24; 31(7):973-979. Bryant AK, Moore DJ, Burdo TH, Lakritz JR, Gouaux B, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim CL, Masliah E, Grant I, Levine AJ, Ellis RJ. PMID: 28244955.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. Can research at the end of life be a useful tool to advance HIV cure? AIDS. 2017 01 02; 31(1):1-4. Gianella S, Taylor J, Brown TR, Kaytes A, Achim CL, Moore DJ, Little SJ, Ellis RJ, Smith DM. PMID: 27755112.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Immunoassay and molecular methods to investigate DNA methylation changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients on cART. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2017; 38(3):299-307. Rosca A, Anton G, Ene L, Iancu I, Temereanca A, Achim CL, Ruta SM. PMID: 27854146.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Abnormalities in chemokine levels in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates. Schizophr Res. 2017 03; 181:63-69. Hong S, Lee EE, Martin AS, Soontornniyomkij B, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim CL, Reuter C, Irwin MR, Eyler LT, Jeste DV. PMID: 27650194.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 10 15; 299:1-7. Ene L, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Grancea C, Temereanca A, Bharti A, Achim CL, Letendre S, Ruta SM. PMID: 27725106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. miR-29a associates with viro-immunological markers of HIV infection in treatment experienced patients. J Med Virol. 2016 12; 88(12):2132-2137. Rosca A, Anton G, Botezatu A, Temereanca A, Ene L, Achim C, Ruta S. PMID: 27232693.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. Neuroprotective effects of the immunomodulatory drug FK506 in a model of HIV1-gp120 neurotoxicity. J Neuroinflammation. 2016 05 24; 13(1):120. Fields JA, Overk C, Adame A, Florio J, Mante M, Pineda A, Desplats P, Rockenstein E, Achim C, Masliah E. PMID: 27220536.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Lifetime methamphetamine dependence is associated with cerebral microgliosis in HIV-1-infected adults. J Neurovirol. 2016 10; 22(5):650-660. Soontornniyomkij V, Umlauf A, Soontornniyomkij B, Batki IB, Moore DJ, Masliah E, Achim CL. PMID: 27098516.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Peripheral inflammation related to lower fMRI activation during a working memory task and resting functional connectivity among older adults: a preliminary study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Mar; 32(3):341-349. Dev SI, Moore RC, Soontornniyomkij B, Achim CL, Jeste DV, Eyler LT. PMID: 27094339.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Mitochondrial injury and cognitive function in HIV infection and methamphetamine use. AIDS. 2016 Mar 27; 30(6):839-48. Var SR, Day TR, Vitomirov A, Smith DM, Soontornniyomkij V, Moore DJ, Achim CL, Mehta SR, Pérez-Santiago J. PMID: 26807965.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Microstructural changes to the brain of mice after methamphetamine exposure as identified with diffusion tensor imaging. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016 Mar 30; 249:27-37. McKenna BS, Brown GG, Archibald S, Scadeng M, Bussell R, Kesby JP, Markou A, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim C, Semenova S. PMID: 27000304.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. Age and High-Fat Diet Effects on Glutamine Synthetase Immunoreactivity in Liver and Hippocampus and Recognition Memory in Mice. Curr Aging Sci. 2016; 9(4):301-309. Soontornniyomkij V, Kesby JP, Soontornniyomkij B, Kim JJ, Kisseleva T, Achim CL, Semenova S, Jeste DV. PMID: 27071478.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Accelerated epigenetic aging in brain is associated with pre-mortem HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. J Neurovirol. 2016 06; 22(3):366-75. Levine AJ, Quach A, Moore DJ, Achim CL, Soontornniyomkij V, Masliah E, Singer EJ, Gelman B, Nemanim N, Horvath S. PMID: 26689571.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Multilevel analysis of neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment in HIV. J Neurovirol. 2016 08; 22(4):431-41. Levine AJ, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim CL, Masliah E, Gelman BB, Sinsheimer JS, Singer EJ, Moore DJ. PMID: 26637429.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140034. Kesby JP, Kim JJ, Scadeng M, Woods G, Kado DM, Olefsky JM, Jeste DV, Achim CL, Semenova S. PMID: 26448649.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Antiretroviral therapy reduces neurodegeneration in HIV infection. AIDS. 2015 Jan 28; 29(3):323-30. Bryant AK, Ellis RJ, Umlauf A, Gouaux B, Soontornniyomkij V, Letendre SL, Achim CL, Masliah E, Grant I, Moore DJ. PMID: 25686681.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Hepatitis B virus compartmentalization in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Apr; 21(4):387.e5-8. Ene L, Duiculescu D, Tardei G, Ruta S, Smith DM, Mehta S, Letendre S, Achim CL. PMID: 25658525.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. Neurocognitive functioning in a Romanian cohort of young adults with parenterally-acquired HIV-infection during childhood. J Neurovirol. 2014 Oct; 20(5):496-504. Ene L, Franklin DR, Burlacu R, Luca AE, Blaglosov AG, Ellis RJ, Alexander TJ, Umlauf A, Grant I, Duiculescu DC, Achim CL, Marcotte TD. PMID: 25185868.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Cytokine secretion from brain macrophages infected with human immunodeficiency virus in vitro and treated with raltegravir. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 11; 14:386. Tatro ET, Soontornniyomkij B, Letendre SL, Achim CL. PMID: 25015002.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. HIV protease inhibitor exposure predicts cerebral small vessel disease. AIDS. 2014 Jun 01; 28(9):1297-306. Soontornniyomkij V, Umlauf A, Chung SA, Cochran ML, Soontornniyomkij B, Gouaux B, Toperoff W, Moore DJ, Masliah E, Ellis RJ, Grant I, Achim CL. PMID: 24637542.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Sep; 69:54-64. Teodorof C, Divakar S, Soontornniyomkij B, Achim CL, Kaul M, Singh KK. PMID: 24825317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. Expression of full-length and truncated trkB in human striatum and substantia nigra neurons: implications for Parkinson's disease. J Mol Histol. 2014 Jun; 45(3):349-61. Fenner ME, Achim CL, Fenner BM. PMID: 24374887.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Neurovirological correlation with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and encephalitis in a HAART-era cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 15; 62(5):487-95. Gelman BB, Lisinicchia JG, Morgello S, Masliah E, Commins D, Achim CL, Fox HS, Kolson DL, Grant I, Singer E, Yiannoutsos CT, Sherman S, Gensler G, Moore DJ, Chen T, Soukup VM. PMID: 23242157.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    34. Modulation of BK channel by MicroRNA-9 in neurons after exposure to HIV and methamphetamine. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 Dec; 8(5):1210-23. Tatro ET, Hefler S, Shumaker-Armstrong S, Soontornniyomkij B, Yang M, Yermanos A, Wren N, Moore DJ, Achim CL. PMID: 23508624.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. Short-term recognition memory correlates with regional CNS expression of microRNA-138 in mice. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 May; 21(5):461-73. Tatro ET, Risbrough V, Soontornniyomkij B, Young J, Shumaker-Armstrong S, Jeste DV, Achim CL. PMID: 23570889.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Global NeuroAIDS roundtable. J Neurovirol. 2013 Feb; 19(1):1-9. Joseph J, Achim CL, Boivin MJ, Brew BJ, Clifford DB, Colosi DA, Ellis RJ, Heaton RK, Gallo-Diop A, Grant I, Kanmogne GD, Kumar M, Letendre S, Marcotte TD, Nath A, Pardo CA, Paul RH, Pulliam L, Robertson K, Royal W, Sacktor N, Sithinamsuwan P, Smith DM, Valcour V, Wigdahl B, Wood C. PMID: 23354550.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Cerebral ß-amyloid deposition predicts HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in APOE e4 carriers. AIDS. 2012 Nov 28; 26(18):2327-35. Soontornniyomkij V, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Soontornniyomkij B, Tatro ET, Umlauf A, Masliah E, Levine AJ, Singer EJ, Vinters HV, Gelman BB, Morgello S, Cherner M, Grant I, Achim CL. PMID: 23018443.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Hippocampal calbindin-1 immunoreactivity correlate of recognition memory performance in aged mice. Neurosci Lett. 2012 May 10; 516(1):161-5. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. PMID: 22503902.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Antioxidant sestrin-2 redistribution to neuronal soma in human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012 Sep; 7(3):579-90. Soontornniyomkij V, Soontornniyomkij B, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Masliah E, Tung S, Vinters HV, Grant I, Achim CL. PMID: 22450766.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Increased cortical expression of FK506 binding protein-51 in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. J Neurovirol. 2012 Aug; 18(4):313-22. Soontornniyomkij V, Everall IP, Moore DJ, Gouaux B, Tatro ET, Gospodarev V, Masliah E, Yin NS, Vinters HV, Achim CL. PMID: 22234543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. Phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 disrupts neuronal maturation in a model of adult neurogenesis: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Mol Neurodegener. 2011 Sep 24; 6:67. Crews L, Ruf R, Patrick C, Dumaop W, Trejo-Morales M, Achim CL, Rockenstein E, Masliah E. PMID: 21943307.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    
    42. Tyrosine kinase B protein expression is reduced in the cerebellum of patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct; 133(3):646-54. Soontornniyomkij B, Everall IP, Chana G, Tsuang MT, Achim CL, Soontornniyomkij V. PMID: 21612826.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    43. Increased CDK5 expression in HIV encephalitis contributes to neurodegeneration via tau phosphorylation and is reversed with Roscovitine. Am J Pathol. 2011 Apr; 178(4):1646-61. Patrick C, Crews L, Desplats P, Dumaop W, Rockenstein E, Achim CL, Everall IP, Masliah E. PMID: 21435449.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Increased hippocampal accumulation of autophagosomes predicts short-term recognition memory impairment in aged mice. Age (Dordr). 2012 Apr; 34(2):305-16. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. PMID: 21431350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Family history of dementia predicts worse neuropsychological functioning among HIV-infected persons. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011; 23(3):316-23. Moore DJ, Arce M, Moseley S, McCutchan JA, Marquie-Beck J, Franklin DR, Vaida F, Achim CL, McArthur J, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Gelman BB, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Heaton RK, Grant I. PMID: 21948893.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Erythropoietin plus insulin-like growth factor-I protects against neuronal damage in a murine model of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. Ann Neurol. 2010 Sep; 68(3):342-52. Kang YJ, Digicaylioglu M, Russo R, Kaul M, Achim CL, Fletcher L, Masliah E, Lipton SA. PMID: 20818790.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Microglial activation and increased microglial density observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Aug 15; 68(4):368-76. Morgan JT, Chana G, Pardo CA, Achim C, Semendeferi K, Buckwalter J, Courchesne E, Everall IP. PMID: 20674603.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 149     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    48. Short-term recognition memory impairment is associated with decreased expression of FK506 binding protein 51 in the aged mouse brain. Age (Dordr). 2010 Sep; 32(3):309-22. Soontornniyomkij V, Risbrough VB, Young JW, Wallace CK, Soontornniyomkij B, Jeste DV, Achim CL. PMID: 20422297.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Evidence for Alteration of Gene Regulatory Networks through MicroRNAs of the HIV-infected brain: novel analysis of retrospective cases. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 26; 5(4):e10337. Tatro ET, Scott ER, Nguyen TB, Salaria S, Banerjee S, Moore DJ, Masliah E, Achim CL, Everall IP. PMID: 20436668.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. Exp Neurol. 2010 Jan; 221(1):129-35. Bae MH, Bissonette GB, Mars WM, Michalopoulos GK, Achim CL, Depireux DA, Powell EM. PMID: 19853606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Cliniconeuropathologic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus in the era of antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol. 2009 Sep; 15(5-6):360-70. Everall I, Vaida F, Khanlou N, Lazzaretto D, Achim C, Letendre S, Moore D, Ellis R, Cherner M, Gelman B, Morgello S, Singer E, Grant I, Masliah E. PMID: 20175693.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 96     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    52. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors AR-A014418 and B6B3O prevent human immunodeficiency virus-mediated neurotoxicity in primary human neurons. J Neurovirol. 2009 Sep; 15(5-6):434-8. Nguyen TB, Lucero GR, Chana G, Hult BJ, Tatro ET, Masliah E, Grant I, Achim CL, Everall IP. PMID: 19688630.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    53. Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in neurons by immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52: implications for major depressive disorder. Brain Res. 2009 Aug 25; 1286:1-12. Tatro ET, Everall IP, Kaul M, Achim CL. PMID: 19545546.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Increased accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid beta in HIV-infected patients. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 4(2):190-9. Achim CL, Adame A, Dumaop W, Everall IP, Masliah E. PMID: 19288297.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 79     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Molecular pathology of neuro-AIDS (CNS-HIV). Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Mar; 10(3):1045-63. Crews L, Patrick C, Achim CL, Everall IP, Masliah E. PMID: 19399237.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Differential expression of immunophilins FKBP51 and FKBP52 in the frontal cortex of HIV-infected patients with major depressive disorder. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2009 Jun; 4(2):218-26. Tatro ET, Everall IP, Masliah E, Hult BJ, Lucero G, Chana G, Soontornniyomkij V, Achim CL. PMID: 19199039.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Immunodetection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr in brain tissue of HIV-1 encephalitic patients. J Neurovirol. 2006 Jun; 12(3):200-10. Wheeler ED, Achim CL, Ayyavoo V. PMID: 16877301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    58. Cortical and subcortical neurodegeneration is associated with HIV neurocognitive impairment. AIDS. 2006 Apr 04; 20(6):879-87. Moore DJ, Masliah E, Rippeth JD, Gonzalez R, Carey CL, Cherner M, Ellis RJ, Achim CL, Marcotte TD, Heaton RK, Grant I. PMID: 16549972.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 92     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Brain deposition of beta-amyloid is a common pathologic feature in HIV positive patients. AIDS. 2005 Mar 04; 19(4):407-11. Green DA, Masliah E, Vinters HV, Beizai P, Moore DJ, Achim CL. PMID: 15750394.
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    60. Immunophilin expression in the HIV-infected brain. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157(1-2):126-32. Achim CL, Masliah E, Schindelar J, Avramut M. PMID: 15579289.
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    61. CCR1 is an early and specific marker of Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003 Nov; 54(5):638-46. Halks-Miller M, Schroeder ML, Haroutunian V, Moenning U, Rossi M, Achim C, Purohit D, Mahmoudi M, Horuk R. PMID: 14595653.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    62. Expression patterns of retinoblastoma protein in Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Jan; 62(1):68-74. Jordan-Sciutto KL, Dorsey R, Chalovich EM, Hammond RR, Achim CL. PMID: 12528819.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    63. Immunophilins and their ligands: insights into survival and growth of human neurons. Physiol Behav. 2002 Dec; 77(4-5):463-8. Avramut M, Achim CL. PMID: 12526984.
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    64. A reliable primary human CNS culture protocol for morphological studies of dendritic and synaptic elements. J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Aug 30; 118(2):189-98. Hammond RR, Iskander S, Achim CL, Hearn S, Nassif J, Wiley CA. PMID: 12204309.
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    65. Recovery of replication-competent HIV type 1-infected circulating monocytes from individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Apr 10; 18(6):427-34. Harrold SM, Wang G, McMahon DK, Riddler SA, Mellors JW, Becker JT, Caldararo R, Reinhart TA, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 11958686.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    66. The immunosuppressant drug FK506 is a potent trophic agent for human fetal neurons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001 Dec 31; 132(2):151-7. Avramut M, Zeevi A, Achim CL. PMID: 11744119.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    67. Response of cell cycle proteins to neurotrophic factor and chemokine stimulation in human neuroglia. Exp Neurol. 2001 Feb; 167(2):205-14. Jordan-Sciutto KL, Murray Fenner BA, Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 11161609.
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    68. Neurotrophic factor regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human blood-derived macrophages through modulation of coreceptor expression. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001; 493:41-7. Harrold SM, Dragic JM, Brown SL, Achim CL. PMID: 11727779.
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    69. Damage and repair of DNA in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2000 Nov; 59(11):955-65. Wiley CA, Achim CL, Hammond R, Love S, Masliah E, Radhakrishnan L, Sanders V, Wang G. PMID: 11089573.
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    70. Blood-brain barrier disruption in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000 Oct; 26(5):454-62. Luabeya MK, Dallasta LM, Achim CL, Pauza CD, Hamilton RL. PMID: 11054186.
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    71. Differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in chronic murine retroviral encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000 Aug; 26(4):332-41. Dallasta LM, Wang G, Bodnar RJ, Draviam R, Wiley CA, Achim CL, Hamilton RL. PMID: 10931366.
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    72. Blood-brain barrier tight junction disruption in human immunodeficiency virus-1 encephalitis. Am J Pathol. 1999 Dec; 155(6):1915-27. Dallasta LM, Pisarov LA, Esplen JE, Werley JV, Moses AV, Nelson JA, Achim CL. PMID: 10595922.
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    73. HIV mediates a productive infection of the brain. AIDS. 1999 Oct 22; 13(15):2055-9. Wiley CA, Achim CL, Christopherson C, Kidane Y, Kwok S, Masliah E, Mellors J, Radhakrishnan L, Wang G, Soontornniyomkij V. PMID: 10546857.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    74. Absence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and trkB receptor immunoreactivity in glia of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 1999 Oct; 98(4):345-8. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Pittman CA, Hamilton RL, Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 10502038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    75. Tyramide signal amplification method in multiple-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods. 1999 Aug; 18(4):459-64. Wang G, Achim CL, Hamilton RL, Wiley CA, Soontornniyomkij V. PMID: 10491275.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    76. Neuron-enriched second trimester human cultures: growth factor response and in vivo graft survival. Cell Transplant. 1999 Jan-Feb; 8(1):59-73. White MG, Hammond RR, Sanders VJ, Bonaroti EA, Mehta AP, Wang G, Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 10338276.
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    77. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in activated microglia of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalitis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1998 Dec; 24(6):453-60. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Pittman CA, Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 9888155.
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    78. A murine model of HIV encephalitis: xenotransplantation of HIV-infected human neuroglia into SCID mouse brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 1998 Dec; 24(6):461-7. Sanders VJ, Mehta AP, White MG, Achim CL. PMID: 9888156.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    79. Sources of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid in the brain of HIV-1-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. FASEB J. 1998 Jul; 12(10):881-96. Heyes MP, Saito K, Lackner A, Wiley CA, Achim CL, Markey SP. PMID: 9657528.
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    80. Chemokines and receptors in HIV encephalitis. AIDS. 1998 Jun 18; 12(9):1021-6. Sanders VJ, Pittman CA, White MG, Wang G, Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 9662198.
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    81. Confocal microscopy assessment of lymphoid tissues with follicular hyperplasia from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998 Jun; 122(6):534-8. Soontornniyomkij V, Wang G, Kapadia SB, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 9625421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    82. Distribution of brain HIV load in AIDS. Brain Pathol. 1998 Apr; 8(2):277-84. Wiley CA, Soontornniyomkij V, Radhakrishnan L, Masliah E, Mellors J, Hermann SA, Dailey P, Achim CL. PMID: 9546286.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 88     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    83. Brain HIV burden and length of survival after AIDS diagnosis. Clin Neuropathol. 1998 Mar-Apr; 17(2):95-9. Soontornniyomkij V, Nieto-Rodríguez JA, Martínez AJ, Kingsley LA, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 9561331.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    84. Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. HNRC Group. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Ann Neurol. 1997 Dec; 42(6):963-72. Masliah E, Heaton RK, Marcotte TD, Ellis RJ, Wiley CA, Mallory M, Achim CL, McCutchan JA, Nelson JA, Atkinson JH, Grant I. PMID: 9403489.
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    85. Expression of HGF and cMet in the developing and adult brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1997 Sep 20; 102(2):299-303. Achim CL, Katyal S, Wiley CA, Shiratori M, Wang G, Oshika E, Petersen BE, Li JM, Michalopoulos GK. PMID: 9352114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Neurodegeneration of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Apr; 56(4):360-8. Fox L, Alford M, Achim C, Mallory M, Masliah E. PMID: 9100666.
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    87. No evidence of significant abortive HIV infection of the brain. AIDS. 1997 Feb; 11(2):252. Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 9030375.
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    88. Human microglia convert l-tryptophan into the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Biochem J. 1996 Dec 01; 320 ( Pt 2):595-7. Heyes MP, Achim CL, Wiley CA, Major EO, Saito K, Markey SP. PMID: 8973572.
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    89. Expression of HIV regulatory and structural mRNA in the central nervous system. AIDS. 1996 Jul; 10(8):843-7. Wiley CA, Baldwin M, Achim CL. PMID: 8828741.
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    90. Inflammation in AIDS and the role of the macrophage in brain pathology. Curr Opin Neurol. 1996 Jun; 9(3):221-5. Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 8839616.
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    91. Sequence analysis of the V3 loop in brain and spleen of patients with HIV encephalitis. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Apr 10; 12(6):477-82. Reddy RT, Achim CL, Sirko DA, Tehranchi S, Kraus FG, Wong-Staal F, Wiley CA. PMID: 8679302.
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    92. Patterns of neurodegeneration in HIV encephalitis. J NeuroAIDS. 1996; 1(1):161-73. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim CL, DeTeresa R, Wiley CA. PMID: 16873160.
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    93. Macrophage Activation Factors
      in the Brains of AIDS Patients. J NeuroAIDS. 1996; 1(2):1-16.
      Achim CL, Masliah E, Heyes MP, Sarnacki P, Hilty C, Baldwin M, Wiley CA. PMID: 16873161.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    94. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dementia. Ann Neurol. 1995 Oct; 38(4):559-60. Wiley CA, Achim CL. PMID: 7574450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. Neuropathology of the retina in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Semin Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun; 10(2):177-82. Hammond RR, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 10155631.
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    96. Differential vulnerability of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1995 May; 54(3):350-7. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 7745434.
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    97. Herpes simplex virus brainstem encephalitis in an AIDS patient. Clin Neuropathol. 1995 Jan-Feb; 14(1):45-50. Hamilton RL, Achim C, Grafe MR, Fremont JC, Miners D, Wiley CA. PMID: 7729081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    98. The predictive value of cytomegalovirus retinitis for cytomegalovirus encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Jan; 113(1):89-95. Bylsma SS, Achim CL, Wiley CA, Gonzalez C, Kuppermann BD, Berry C, Freeman WR. PMID: 7826299.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    99. Cytokine receptor alterations during HIV infection in the human central nervous system. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 07; 663(1):1-6. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 7850458.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    100. The relationship of quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging measures to neuropathologic indexes of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Neurol. 1994 Nov; 51(11):1129-35. Heindel WC, Jernigan TL, Archibald SL, Achim CL, Masliah E, Wiley CA. PMID: 7980109.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis is the pathological correlate of dementia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1994 Oct; 36(4):673-6. Wiley CA, Achim C. PMID: 7944304.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    102. Brain viral burden in HIV infection. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1994 May; 53(3):284-94. Achim CL, Wang R, Miners DK, Wiley CA. PMID: 8176412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    103. Detection of cytomegalovirus in cerebrospinal fluid autopsy specimens from AIDS patients. J Infect Dis. 1994 Mar; 169(3):623-7. Achim CL, Nagra RM, Wang R, Nelson JA, Wiley CA. PMID: 8158038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    104. In vivo model of HIV infection of the human brain. Adv Neuroimmunol. 1994; 4(3):261-4. Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 7874393.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    105. Measurement of CNS HIV burden and its association with neurologic damage. Adv Neuroimmunol. 1994; 4(3):319-25. Wiley CA, Masliah E, Achim CL. PMID: 7874400.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    106. Cellular neuropathology in HIV encephalitis. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1994; 72:119-31. Masliah E, Achim CL, Ge N, De Teresa R, Wiley CA. PMID: 8115709.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    107. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus, immune activation factors, and quinolinic acid in AIDS brains. J Clin Invest. 1993 Jun; 91(6):2769-75. Achim CL, Heyes MP, Wiley CA. PMID: 8514884.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    108. In vivo model of HIV infection of the human brain. Dev Neurosci. 1993; 15(6):423-32. Achim CL, Miners DK, Burrola PG, Martin FC, Wiley CA. PMID: 7835248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    109. Selective neuronal vulnerability in HIV encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992 Nov; 51(6):585-93. Masliah E, Ge N, Achim CL, Hansen LA, Wiley CA. PMID: 1484289.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    110. Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid immune activation associated factors to HIV encephalitis. AIDS. 1992 Nov; 6(11):1299-307. Wiley CA, Achim CL, Schrier RD, Heyes MP, McCutchan JA, Grant I. PMID: 1472335.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    111. Spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neocortical damage. Ann Neurol. 1992 Sep; 32(3):321-9. Masliah E, Achim CL, Ge N, DeTeresa R, Terry RD, Wiley CA. PMID: 1416802.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 104     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    112. Expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992 May; 51(3):257-63. Achim CL, Wiley CA. PMID: 1583532.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    113. Expression of major histocompatibility complex and HIV antigens within the brains of AIDS patients. AIDS. 1991 May; 5(5):535-41. Achim CL, Morey MK, Wiley CA. PMID: 1863405.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    114. Immunopathogenesis of HIV encephalitis. Brain Pathol. 1991 Apr; 1(3):177-84. Achim CL, Schrier RD, Wiley CA. PMID: 1669706.
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    115. Pathogenesis of HIV encephalitis. Acta Pathol Jpn. 1991 Mar; 41(3):192-6. Wiley CA, Schrier RD, Morey M, Achim C, Venable JC, Nelson JA. PMID: 2068943.
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