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    Samuel Pfaff

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentNeurobiology
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0932
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-453-4100
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      Collapse Bibliographic 
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Sternfeld MJ, Hinckley CA, Moore NJ, Pankratz MT, Hilde KL, Driscoll SP, Hayashi M, Amin ND, Bonanomi D, Gifford WD, Sharma K, Goulding M, Pfaff S. Speed and segmentation control mechanisms characterized in rhythmically-active circuits created from spinal neurons produced from genetically-tagged embryonic stem cells. Elife. 2017 Feb 14; 6. PMID: 28195039.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Hilde KL, Levine AJ, Hinckley CA, Hayashi M, Montgomery JM, Gullo M, Driscoll SP, Grosschedl R, Kohwi Y, Kohwi-Shigematsu T, Pfaff S. Satb2 Is Required for the Development of a Spinal Exteroceptive Microcircuit that Modulates Limb Position. Neuron. 2016 Aug 17; 91(4):763-776. PMID: 27478017; PMCID: PMC5011456 [Available on 08/17/17].
      3. Wasson JA, Simon AK, Myrick DA, Wolf G, Driscoll S, Pfaff S, Macfarlan TS, Katz DJ. Maternally provided LSD1/KDM1A enables the maternal-to-zygotic transition and prevents defects that manifest postnatally. Elife. 2016 Jan 27; 5. PMID: 26814574; PMCID: PMC4829428.
      4. He W, Bai G, Zhou H, Wei N, White NM, Lauer J, Liu H, Shi Y, Dan Dumitru C, Lettieri K, Shubayev V, Jordanova A, Guergueltcheva V, Griffin PR, Burgess RW, Pfaff S, Yang XL. Corrigendum: CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase. Nature. 2016 Apr 21; 532(7599):402. PMID: 26789244.
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      5. Geeven G, Zhu Y, Kim BJ, Bartholdy BA, Yang SM, Macfarlan TS, Gifford WD, Pfaff S, Verstegen MJ, Pinto H, Vermunt MW, Creyghton MP, Wijchers PJ, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Skoultchi AI, de Laat W. Local compartment changes and regulatory landscape alterations in histone H1-depleted cells. Genome Biol. 2015 Dec 23; 16:289. PMID: 26700097; PMCID: PMC4699363.
      6. Amin ND, Bai G, Klug JR, Bonanomi D, Pankratz MT, Gifford WD, Hinckley CA, Sternfeld MJ, Driscoll SP, Dominguez B, Lee KF, Jin X, Pfaff S. Loss of motoneuron-specific microRNA-218 causes systemic neuromuscular failure. Science. 2015 Dec 18; 350(6267):1525-9. PMID: 26680198; PMCID: PMC4913787 [Available on 12/18/16].
      7. Pan FC, Brissova M, Powers AC, Pfaff S, Wright CV. Inactivating the permanent neonatal diabetes gene Mnx1 switches insulin-producing ß-cells to a d-like fate and reveals a facultative proliferative capacity in aged ß-cells. Development. 2015 Nov 01; 142(21):3637-48. PMID: 26534984; PMCID: PMC4647212 [Available on 11/01/16].
      8. He W, Bai G, Zhou H, Wei N, White NM, Lauer J, Liu H, Shi Y, Dumitru CD, Lettieri K, Shubayev V, Jordanova A, Guergueltcheva V, Griffin PR, Burgess RW, Pfaff S, Yang XL. CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase. Nature. 2015 Oct 29; 526(7575):710-4. PMID: 26503042; PMCID: PMC4754353.
      9. Hinckley CA, Alaynick WA, Gallarda BW, Hayashi M, Hilde KL, Driscoll SP, Dekker JD, Tucker HO, Sharpee TO, Pfaff S. Spinal Locomotor Circuits Develop Using Hierarchical Rules Based on Motorneuron Position and Identity. Neuron. 2015 Sep 02; 87(5):1008-21. PMID: 26335645; PMCID: PMC4592696.
      10. Wang J, Telese F, Tan Y, Li W, Jin C, He X, Basnet H, Ma Q, Merkurjev D, Zhu X, Liu Z, Zhang J, Ohgi K, Taylor H, White RR, Tazearslan C, Suh Y, Macfarlan TS, Pfaff S, Rosenfeld MG. LSD1n is an H4K20 demethylase regulating memory formation via transcriptional elongation control. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 18(9):1256-64. PMID: 26214369; PMCID: PMC4625987.
      11. Pawar K, Cummings BJ, Thomas A, Shea LD, Levine A, Pfaff S, Anderson AJ. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function. Biomaterials. 2015 Oct; 65:1-12. PMID: 26134079; PMCID: PMC4523232 [Available on 10/01/16].
      12. Pei L, Mu Y, Leblanc M, Alaynick W, Barish GD, Pankratz M, Tseng TW, Kaufman S, Liddle C, Yu RT, Downes M, Pfaff S, Auwerx J, Gage FH, Evans RM. Dependence of hippocampal function on ERR?-regulated mitochondrial metabolism. Cell Metab. 2015 Apr 07; 21(4):628-36. PMID: 25863252; PMCID: PMC4393848.
      13. Lee H, Kim M, Kim N, Macfarlan T, Pfaff S, Mastick GS, Song MR. Slit and Semaphorin signaling governed by Islet transcription factors positions motor neuron somata within the neural tube. Exp Neurol. 2015 Jul; 269:17-27. PMID: 25843547; PMCID: PMC4446133.
      14. Wang L, Mongera A, Bonanomi D, Cyganek L, Pfaff S, Nüsslein-Volhard C, Marquardt T. A conserved axon type hierarchy governing peripheral nerve assembly. Development. 2014 May; 141(9):1875-83. PMID: 24700820.
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      15. Levine AJ, Hinckley CA, Hilde KL, Driscoll SP, Poon TH, Montgomery JM, Pfaff S. Identification of a cellular node for motor control pathways. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Apr; 17(4):586-93. PMID: 24609464; PMCID: PMC4569558.
      16. Hsu CC, White NM, Hayashi M, Lin EC, Poon T, Banerjee I, Chen J, Pfaff S, Macagno ER, Dorrestein PC. Microscopy ambient ionization top-down mass spectrometry reveals developmental patterning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 10; 110(37):14855-60. PMID: 23969833; PMCID: PMC3773749.
      17. Hinckley CA, Pfaff S. Imaging spinal neuron ensembles active during locomotion with genetically encoded calcium indicators. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Mar; 1279:71-9. PMID: 23531004; PMCID: PMC3908931.
      18. Gifford WD, Pfaff S, Macfarlan TS. Transposable elements as genetic regulatory substrates in early development. Trends Cell Biol. 2013 May; 23(5):218-26. PMID: 23411159; PMCID: PMC4034679.
      19. Rowe HM, Kapopoulou A, Corsinotti A, Fasching L, Macfarlan TS, Tarabay Y, Viville S, Jakobsson J, Pfaff S, Trono D. TRIM28 repression of retrotransposon-based enhancers is necessary to preserve transcriptional dynamics in embryonic stem cells. Genome Res. 2013 Mar; 23(3):452-61. PMID: 23233547; PMCID: PMC3589534.
      20. Macfarlan TS, Gifford WD, Driscoll S, Lettieri K, Rowe HM, Bonanomi D, Firth A, Singer O, Trono D, Pfaff S. Embryonic stem cell potency fluctuates with endogenous retrovirus activity. Nature. 2012 Jul 05; 487(7405):57-63. PMID: 22722858; PMCID: PMC3395470.
      21. Bonanomi D, Chivatakarn O, Bai G, Abdesselem H, Lettieri K, Marquardt T, Pierchala BA, Pfaff S. Ret is a multifunctional coreceptor that integrates diffusible- and contact-axon guidance signals. Cell. 2012 Feb 03; 148(3):568-82. PMID: 22304922; PMCID: PMC3286831.
      22. Bai G, Pfaff S. Protease regulation: the Yin and Yang of neural development and disease. Neuron. 2011 Oct 06; 72(1):9-21. PMID: 21982365; PMCID: PMC3221598.
      23. Kawakami Y, Marti M, Kawakami H, Itou J, Quach T, Johnson A, Sahara S, O'Leary DD, Nakagawa Y, Lewandoski M, Pfaff S, Evans SM, Izpisua Belmonte JC. Islet1-mediated activation of the ß-catenin pathway is necessary for hindlimb initiation in mice. Development. 2011 Oct; 138(20):4465-73. PMID: 21937598; PMCID: PMC3177316.
      24. Hester ME, Murtha MJ, Song S, Rao M, Miranda CJ, Meyer K, Tian J, Boulting G, Schaffer DV, Zhu MX, Pfaff S, Gage FH, Kaspar BK. Rapid and efficient generation of functional motor neurons from human pluripotent stem cells using gene delivered transcription factor codes. Mol Ther. 2011 Oct; 19(10):1905-12. PMID: 21772256; PMCID: PMC3188742.
      25. Alaynick WA, Jessell TM, Pfaff S. SnapShot: spinal cord development. Cell. 2011 Jul 08; 146(1):178-178.e1. PMID: 21729788; PMCID: PMC3158655.
      26. Bruno IG, Karam R, Huang L, Bhardwaj A, Lou CH, Shum EY, Song HW, Corbett MA, Gifford WD, Gecz J, Pfaff S, Wilkinson MF. Identification of a microRNA that activates gene expression by repressing nonsense-mediated RNA decay. Mol Cell. 2011 May 20; 42(4):500-10. PMID: 21596314; PMCID: PMC3123134.
      27. Liang X, Song MR, Xu Z, Lanuza GM, Liu Y, Zhuang T, Chen Y, Pfaff S, Evans SM, Sun Y. Isl1 is required for multiple aspects of motor neuron development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011 Jul; 47(3):215-22. PMID: 21569850; PMCID: PMC3200226.
      28. Macfarlan TS, Gifford WD, Agarwal S, Driscoll S, Lettieri K, Wang J, Andrews SE, Franco L, Rosenfeld MG, Ren B, Pfaff S. Endogenous retroviruses and neighboring genes are coordinately repressed by LSD1/KDM1A. Genes Dev. 2011 Mar 15; 25(6):594-607. PMID: 21357675; PMCID: PMC3059833.
      29. Garudadri S, Gallarda B, Pfaff S, Alaynick W. Spinal cord electrophysiology II: extracellular suction electrode fabrication. J Vis Exp. 2011 Feb 20; (48). PMID: 21372792; PMCID: PMC3197415.
      30. Bai G, Chivatakarn O, Bonanomi D, Lettieri K, Franco L, Xia C, Stein E, Ma L, Lewcock JW, Pfaff S. Presenilin-dependent receptor processing is required for axon guidance. Cell. 2011 Jan 07; 144(1):106-18. PMID: 21215373; PMCID: PMC3034090.
      31. Qu Y, Glasco DM, Zhou L, Sawant A, Ravni A, Fritzsch B, Damrau C, Murdoch JN, Evans S, Pfaff S, Formstone C, Goffinet AM, Chandrasekhar A, Tissir F. Atypical cadherins Celsr1-3 differentially regulate migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in mice. J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 14; 30(28):9392-401. PMID: 20631168; PMCID: PMC3069688.
      32. Gallarda BW, Sharpee TO, Pfaff S, Alaynick WA. Defining rhythmic locomotor burst patterns using a continuous wavelet transform. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jun; 1198:133-9. PMID: 20536927; PMCID: PMC3334338.
      33. Zhang M, Liu J, Kim Y, Dixon JE, Pfaff S, Gill GN, Noel JP, Zhang Y. Structural and functional analysis of the phosphoryl transfer reaction mediated by the human small C-terminal domain phosphatase, Scp1. Protein Sci. 2010 May; 19(5):974-86. PMID: 20222012; PMCID: PMC2868240.
      34. Bonanomi D, Pfaff S. Motor axon pathfinding. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 Mar; 2(3):a001735. PMID: 20300210; PMCID: PMC2829954.
      35. Meyer A, Gallarda BW, Pfaff S, Alaynick W. Spinal cord electrophysiology. J Vis Exp. 2010 Jan 18; (35). PMID: 20084054; PMCID: PMC2841572.
      36. Song MR, Sun Y, Bryson A, Gill GN, Evans SM, Pfaff S. Islet-to-LMO stoichiometries control the function of transcription complexes that specify motor neuron and V2a interneuron identity. Development. 2009 Sep; 136(17):2923-32. PMID: 19666821; PMCID: PMC2723064.
      37. Cao X, Pfaff S, Gage FH. YAP regulates neural progenitor cell number via the TEA domain transcription factor. Genes Dev. 2008 Dec 01; 22(23):3320-34. PMID: 19015275; PMCID: PMC2600760.
      38. Cruz LA, Estébanez-Perpiñá E, Pfaff S, Borngraeber S, Bao N, Blethrow J, Fletterick RJ, England PM. 6-Azido-7-nitro-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (ANQX) forms an irreversible bond to the active site of the GluR2 AMPA receptor. J Med Chem. 2008 Sep 25; 51(18):5856-60. PMID: 18754610; PMCID: PMC2945402.
      39. Pfaff S. Developmental neuroscience: Hox and Fox. Nature. 2008 Sep 18; 455(7211):295-7. PMID: 18800121; PMCID: PMC3071742.
      40. Lee S, Lee B, Joshi K, Pfaff S, Lee JW, Lee SK. A regulatory network to segregate the identity of neuronal subtypes. Dev Cell. 2008 Jun; 14(6):877-89. PMID: 18539116; PMCID: PMC3071743.
      41. Gallarda BW, Bonanomi D, Müller D, Brown A, Alaynick WA, Andrews SE, Lemke G, Pfaff S, Marquardt T. Segregation of axial motor and sensory pathways via heterotypic trans-axonal signaling. Science. 2008 Apr 11; 320(5873):233-6. PMID: 18403711; PMCID: PMC3158657.
      42. Ma YC, Song MR, Park JP, Henry Ho HY, Hu L, Kurtev MV, Zieg J, Ma Q, Pfaff S, Greenberg ME. Regulation of motor neuron specification by phosphorylation of neurogenin 2. Neuron. 2008 Apr 10; 58(1):65-77. PMID: 18400164; PMCID: PMC2587148.
      43. Ghosh S, Marquardt T, Thaler JP, Carter N, Andrews SE, Pfaff S, Hunter T. Instructive role of aPKCzeta subcellular localization in the assembly of adherens junctions in neural progenitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 08; 105(1):335-40. PMID: 18162555; PMCID: PMC2224213.
      44. Lewcock JW, Genoud N, Lettieri K, Pfaff S. The ubiquitin ligase Phr1 regulates axon outgrowth through modulation of microtubule dynamics. Neuron. 2007 Nov 21; 56(4):604-20. PMID: 18031680.
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      45. Fox MA, Sanes JR, Borza DB, Eswarakumar VP, Fässler R, Hudson BG, John SW, Ninomiya Y, Pedchenko V, Pfaff S, Rheault MN, Sado Y, Segal Y, Werle MJ, Umemori H. Distinct target-derived signals organize formation, maturation, and maintenance of motor nerve terminals. Cell. 2007 Apr 06; 129(1):179-93. PMID: 17418794.
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      46. Peng CY, Yajima H, Burns CE, Zon LI, Sisodia SS, Pfaff S, Sharma K. Notch and MAML signaling drives Scl-dependent interneuron diversity in the spinal cord. Neuron. 2007 Mar 15; 53(6):813-27. PMID: 17359917; PMCID: PMC2768132.
      47. Cao X, Pfaff S, Gage FH. A functional study of miR-124 in the developing neural tube. Genes Dev. 2007 Mar 01; 21(5):531-6. PMID: 17344415; PMCID: PMC1820895.
      48. Odani N, Pfaff S, Nakamura H, Funahashi J. Cloning and developmental expression of a chick G-protein-coupled receptor SCGPR1. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007 Feb; 7(4):375-80. PMID: 17251065.
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      49. Zhang Y, Kim Y, Genoud N, Gao J, Kelly JW, Pfaff S, Gill GN, Dixon JE, Noel JP. Determinants for dephosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by Scp1. Mol Cell. 2006 Dec 08; 24(5):759-70. PMID: 17157258; PMCID: PMC2859291.
      50. Song MR, Shirasaki R, Cai CL, Ruiz EC, Evans SM, Lee SK, Pfaff S. T-Box transcription factor Tbx20 regulates a genetic program for cranial motor neuron cell body migration. Development. 2006 Dec; 133(24):4945-55. PMID: 17119020.
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      51. Kashani AH, Qiu Z, Jurata L, Lee SK, Pfaff S, Goebbels S, Nave KA, Ghosh A. Calcium activation of the LMO4 transcription complex and its role in the patterning of thalamocortical connections. J Neurosci. 2006 Aug 09; 26(32):8398-408. PMID: 16899735.
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      52. Shirasaki R, Lewcock JW, Lettieri K, Pfaff S. FGF as a target-derived chemoattractant for developing motor axons genetically programmed by the LIM code. Neuron. 2006 Jun 15; 50(6):841-53. PMID: 16772167.
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      53. Zhao Y, Morales DC, Hermesz E, Lee WK, Pfaff S, Westphal H. Reduced expression of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx3 impairs growth and differentiation of Rathke's pouch and increases cell apoptosis during mouse pituitary development. Mech Dev. 2006 Aug; 123(8):605-13. PMID: 16859901.
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      54. Song MR, Pfaff S. Hox genes: the instructors working at motor pools. Cell. 2005 Nov 04; 123(3):363-5. PMID: 16269326.
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      55. Myers CP, Lewcock JW, Hanson MG, Gosgnach S, Aimone JB, Gage FH, Lee KF, Landmesser LT, Pfaff S. Cholinergic input is required during embryonic development to mediate proper assembly of spinal locomotor circuits. Neuron. 2005 Apr 07; 46(1):37-49. PMID: 15820692.
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      56. Lee SK, Jurata LW, Nowak R, Lettieri K, Kenny DA, Pfaff S, Gill GN. The LIM domain-only protein LMO4 is required for neural tube closure. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 28(2):205-14. PMID: 15691703.
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      57. Yeo M, Lee SK, Lee B, Ruiz EC, Pfaff S, Gill GN. Small CTD phosphatases function in silencing neuronal gene expression. Science. 2005 Jan 28; 307(5709):596-600. PMID: 15681389.
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      58. Lee SK, Lee B, Ruiz EC, Pfaff S. Olig2 and Ngn2 function in opposition to modulate gene expression in motor neuron progenitor cells. Genes Dev. 2005 Jan 15; 19(2):282-94. PMID: 15655114; PMCID: PMC545894.
      59. Cepeda-Nieto AC, Pfaff S, Varela-Echavarría A. Homeodomain transcription factors in the development of subsets of hindbrain reticulospinal neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005 Jan; 28(1):30-41. PMID: 15607939.
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      60. Pak W, Hindges R, Lim YS, Pfaff S, O'Leary DD. Magnitude of binocular vision controlled by islet-2 repression of a genetic program that specifies laterality of retinal axon pathfinding. Cell. 2004 Nov 12; 119(4):567-78. PMID: 15537545.
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      61. Schwander M, Shirasaki R, Pfaff S, Müller U. Beta1 integrins in muscle, but not in motor neurons, are required for skeletal muscle innervation. J Neurosci. 2004 Sep 15; 24(37):8181-91. PMID: 15371519.
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      62. Weiner JA, Koo SJ, Nicolas S, Fraboulet S, Pfaff S, Pourquié O, Sanes JR. Axon fasciculation defects and retinal dysplasias in mice lacking the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule BEN/ALCAM/SC1. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 27(1):59-69. PMID: 15345243.
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      63. Hur E, Pfaff S, Payne ES, Grøn H, Buehrer BM, Fletterick RJ. Recognition and accommodation at the androgen receptor coactivator binding interface. PLoS Biol. 2004 Sep; 2(9):E274. PMID: 15328534; PMCID: PMC509409.
      64. Lee SK, Jurata LW, Funahashi J, Ruiz EC, Pfaff S. Analysis of embryonic motoneuron gene regulation: derepression of general activators function in concert with enhancer factors. Development. 2004 Jul; 131(14):3295-306. PMID: 15201216.
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      65. Thaler JP, Koo SJ, Kania A, Lettieri K, Andrews S, Cox C, Jessell TM, Pfaff S. A postmitotic role for Isl-class LIM homeodomain proteins in the assignment of visceral spinal motor neuron identity. Neuron. 2004 Feb 05; 41(3):337-50. PMID: 14766174.
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      66. Cai CL, Liang X, Shi Y, Chu PH, Pfaff S, Chen J, Evans S. Isl1 identifies a cardiac progenitor population that proliferates prior to differentiation and contributes a majority of cells to the heart. Dev Cell. 2003 Dec; 5(6):877-89. PMID: 14667410.
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      67. Lee SK, Pfaff S. Synchronization of neurogenesis and motor neuron specification by direct coupling of bHLH and homeodomain transcription factors. Neuron. 2003 Jun 05; 38(5):731-45. PMID: 12797958.
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      68. Koo SJ, Pfaff S. Fine-tuning motor neuron properties: signaling from the periphery. Neuron. 2002 Aug 29; 35(5):823-6. PMID: 12372278.
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      69. Hu WY, Myers CP, Kilzer JM, Pfaff S, Bushman FD. Inhibition of retroviral pathogenesis by RNA interference. Curr Biol. 2002 Aug 06; 12(15):1301-11. PMID: 12176358.
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      70. Thaler JP, Lee SK, Jurata LW, Gill GN, Pfaff S. LIM factor Lhx3 contributes to the specification of motor neuron and interneuron identity through cell-type-specific protein-protein interactions. Cell. 2002 Jul 26; 110(2):237-49. PMID: 12150931.
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      71. Shirasaki R, Pfaff S. Transcriptional codes and the control of neuronal identity. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002; 25:251-81. PMID: 12052910.
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      72. Lee SK, Pfaff S. Transcriptional networks regulating neuronal identity in the developing spinal cord. Nat Neurosci. 2001 Nov; 4 Suppl:1183-91. PMID: 11687828.
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      73. Marquardt T, Pfaff S. Cracking the transcriptional code for cell specification in the neural tube. Cell. 2001 Sep 21; 106(6):651-4. PMID: 11572771.
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      74. Lin W, Burgess RW, Dominguez B, Pfaff S, Sanes JR, Lee KF. Distinct roles of nerve and muscle in postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse. Nature. 2001 Apr 26; 410(6832):1057-64. PMID: 11323662.
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      75. Sharma K, Leonard AE, Lettieri K, Pfaff S. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to motor neuron pathfinding. Nature. 2000 Aug 03; 406(6795):515-9. PMID: 10952312.
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      76. Brown A, Yates PA, Burrola P, Ortuño D, Vaidya A, Jessell TM, Pfaff S, O'Leary DD, Lemke G. Topographic mapping from the retina to the midbrain is controlled by relative but not absolute levels of EphA receptor signaling. Cell. 2000 Jul 07; 102(1):77-88. PMID: 10929715.
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      77. Jurata LW, Thomas JB, Pfaff S. Transcriptional mechanisms in the development of motor control. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000 Feb; 10(1):72-9. PMID: 10679434.
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      78. Harrison KA, Thaler J, Pfaff S, Gu H, Kehrl JH. Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1999 Sep; 23(1):71-5. PMID: 10471502.
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      79. Thaler J, Harrison K, Sharma K, Lettieri K, Kehrl J, Pfaff S. Active suppression of interneuron programs within developing motor neurons revealed by analysis of homeodomain factor HB9. Neuron. 1999 Aug; 23(4):675-87. PMID: 10482235.
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      80. Sharma K, Sheng HZ, Lettieri K, Li H, Karavanov A, Potter S, Westphal H, Pfaff S. LIM homeodomain factors Lhx3 and Lhx4 assign subtype identities for motor neurons. Cell. 1998 Dec 11; 95(6):817-28. PMID: 9865699.
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      81. Takuma N, Sheng HZ, Furuta Y, Ward JM, Sharma K, Hogan BL, Pfaff S, Westphal H, Kimura S, Mahon KA. Formation of Rathke's pouch requires dual induction from the diencephalon. Development. 1998 Dec; 125(23):4835-40. PMID: 9806931.
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      82. Pfaff S, Taylor WL. Xenopus TFIIIA gene transcription is dependent on cis-element positioning and chromatin structure. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Jul; 18(7):3811-8. PMID: 9632765; PMCID: PMC108965.
      83. Jurata LW, Pfaff S, Gill GN. The nuclear LIM domain interactor NLI mediates homo- and heterodimerization of LIM domain transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 06; 273(6):3152-7. PMID: 9452425.
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      84. Pfaff S, Kintner C. Neuronal diversification: development of motor neuron subtypes. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1998 Feb; 8(1):27-36. PMID: 9568389.
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      85. Ahlgren U, Pfaff S, Jessell TM, Edlund T, Edlund H. Independent requirement for ISL1 in formation of pancreatic mesenchyme and islet cells. Nature. 1997 Jan 16; 385(6613):257-60. PMID: 9000074.
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      86. Pfaff S, Mendelsohn M, Stewart CL, Edlund T, Jessell TM. Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation. Cell. 1996 Jan 26; 84(2):309-20. PMID: 8565076.
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      87. Varela-Echavarría A, Pfaff S, Guthrie S. Differential expression of LIM homeobox genes among motor neuron subpopulations in the developing chick brain stem. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996; 8(4):242-57. PMID: 9000439.
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      88. Tsuchida T, Ensini M, Morton SB, Baldassare M, Edlund T, Jessell TM, Pfaff S. Topographic organization of embryonic motor neurons defined by expression of LIM homeobox genes. Cell. 1994 Dec 16; 79(6):957-70. PMID: 7528105.
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      89. Yamada T, Pfaff S, Edlund T, Jessell TM. Control of cell pattern in the neural tube: motor neuron induction by diffusible factors from notochord and floor plate. Cell. 1993 May 21; 73(4):673-86. PMID: 8500163.
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