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    Robert Engler

    TitleSenate Emeritus
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #9151
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-552-8585
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Shi W, Schmarkey LS, Jiang R, Bone CC, Condit ME, Dillehay DL, Engler R, Rubanyi GM, Vinten-Johansen J. Ischemia-reperfusion increases transfection efficiency of intracoronary adenovirus type 5 in pig heart in situ. Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2012 Jun; 23(3):204-12. PMID: 22816318; PMCID: PMC4015071.
      2. Blume P, Driver VR, Tallis AJ, Kirsner RS, Kroeker R, Payne WG, Wali S, Marston W, Dove C, Engler R, Chandler LA, Sosnowski BK. Formulated collagen gel accelerates healing rate immediately after application in patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 2011 May-Jun; 19(3):302-8. PMID: 21371164; PMCID: PMC3443373.
      3. Henry TD, Grines CL, Watkins MW, Dib N, Barbeau G, Moreadith R, Andrasfay T, Engler R. Effects of Ad5FGF-4 in patients with angina: an analysis of pooled data from the AGENT-3 and AGENT-4 trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Sep 11; 50(11):1038-46. PMID: 17825712.
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      4. Ancoli-Israel S, DuHamel ER, Stepnowsky C, Engler R, Cohen-Zion M, Marler M. The relationship between congestive heart failure, sleep apnea, and mortality in older men. Chest. 2003 Oct; 124(4):1400-5. PMID: 14555572.
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      5. Li HL, Suzuki J, Bayna E, Zhang FM, Dalle Molle E, Clark A, Engler R, Lew WY. Lipopolysaccharide induces apoptosis in adult rat ventricular myocytes via cardiac AT(1) receptors. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Aug; 283(2):H461-7. PMID: 12124189.
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      6. Grines CL, Watkins MW, Helmer G, Penny W, Brinker J, Marmur JD, West A, Rade JJ, Marrott P, Hammond HK, Engler R. Angiogenic Gene Therapy (AGENT) trial in patients with stable angina pectoris. Circulation. 2002 Mar 19; 105(11):1291-7. PMID: 11901038.
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      7. Peters AH, Drumm J, Ferrell C, Roth DA, Roth DM, McCaman M, Novak PL, Friedman J, Engler R, Braun RE. Absence of germline infection in male mice following intraventricular injection of adenovirus. Mol Ther. 2001 Dec; 4(6):603-13. PMID: 11735345.
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      8. Li HL, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, Mutomba M, Wu J, Karanewsky D, Valentino K, Engler R, Gottlieb RA. Pharmacology of caspase inhibitors in rabbit cardiomyocytes subjected to metabolic inhibition and recovery. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Feb; 3(1):113-23. PMID: 11294190.
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      9. Gottlieb RA, Engler R. Apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Jun 30; 874:412-26. PMID: 10415551.
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      10. Engler R. Diabetes and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1998 Dec 03; 339(23):1715; author reply 1716. PMID: 9867544.
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      11. Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, Nordberg JA, Li HL, Engler R, Gottlieb RA. Effect of vacuolar proton ATPase on pHi, Ca2+, and apoptosis in neonatal cardiomyocytes during metabolic inhibition/recovery. Circ Res. 1998 Jun 15; 82(11):1139-44. PMID: 9633914.
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      12. Engler R. Do sulfonylurea drugs limit coronary vasodilator reserve? J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Jun; 31(7):1698. PMID: 9626854.
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      13. Niessen H, Meisenholder GW, Li HL, Gluck SL, Lee BS, Bowman B, Engler R, Babior BM, Gottlieb RA. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor upregulates the vacuolar proton ATPase in human neutrophils. Blood. 1997 Dec 01; 90(11):4598-601. PMID: 9373271.
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      14. Tagaya M, Liu KF, Copeland B, Seiffert D, Engler R, Garcia JH, del Zoppo GJ. DNA scission after focal brain ischemia. Temporal differences in two species. Stroke. 1997 Jun; 28(6):1245-54. PMID: 9183358.
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      15. Engler R, Yellon DM. Sulfonylurea KATP blockade in type II diabetes and preconditioning in cardiovascular disease. Time for reconsideration. Circulation. 1996 Nov 01; 94(9):2297-301. PMID: 8901685.
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      16. Gottlieb RA, Gruol DL, Zhu JY, Engler R. Preconditioning rabbit cardiomyocytes: role of pH, vacuolar proton ATPase, and apoptosis. J Clin Invest. 1996 May 15; 97(10):2391-8. PMID: 8636421; PMCID: PMC507321.
      17. Eising GP, Mao L, Schmid-Schonbein GW, Engler R, Ross J. Effects of induced tolerance to bacterial lipopolysaccharide on myocardial infarct size in rats. Cardiovasc Res. 1996 Jan; 31(1):73-81. PMID: 8849591.
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      18. Gottlieb RA, Giesing HA, Engler R, Babior BM. The acid deoxyribonuclease of neutrophils: a possible participant in apoptosis-associated genome destruction. Blood. 1995 Sep 15; 86(6):2414-8. PMID: 7662989.
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      19. Gottlieb RA, Giesing HA, Zhu JY, Engler R, Babior BM. Cell acidification in apoptosis: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor delays programmed cell death in neutrophils by up-regulating the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 20; 92(13):5965-8. PMID: 7541139; PMCID: PMC41622.
      20. Gottlieb RA, Burleson KO, Kloner RA, Babior BM, Engler R. Reperfusion injury induces apoptosis in rabbit cardiomyocytes. J Clin Invest. 1994 Oct; 94(4):1621-8. PMID: 7929838; PMCID: PMC295322.
      21. Ancoli-Israel S, Engler R, Friedman PJ, Klauber MR, Ross PA, Kripke DF. Comparison of patients with central sleep apnea. With and without Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Chest. 1994 Sep; 106(3):780-6. PMID: 8082359.
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      22. Suematsu M, DeLano FA, Poole D, Engler R, Miyasaka M, Zweifach BW, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Spatial and temporal correlation between leukocyte behavior and cell injury in postischemic rat skeletal muscle microcirculation. Lab Invest. 1994 May; 70(5):684-95. PMID: 7910874.
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      23. Engler R. Harnessing nature's own cardiac defense mechanism with acadesine, an adenosine regulating agent: importance of the endothelium. J Card Surg. 1994 May; 9(3 Suppl):482-92. PMID: 8069041.
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      24. Zimring HJ, Fitzgerald RL, Engler R, Ito BR. Intracoronary versus intravenous effects of cocaine on coronary flow and ventricular function. Circulation. 1994 Apr; 89(4):1819-28. PMID: 8149548.
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      25. Ito BR, Engler R, del Balzo U. Role of cardiac mast cells in complement C5a-induced myocardial ischemia. Am J Physiol. 1993 May; 264(5 Pt 2):H1346-54. PMID: 7684573.
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      26. Juneau CF, Ito BR, del Balzo U, Engler R. Severe neutrophil depletion by leucocyte filters or cytotoxic drug does not improve recovery of contractile function in stunned porcine myocardium. Cardiovasc Res. 1993 May; 27(5):720-7. PMID: 8348569.
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      27. Del Balzo U, Engler R, Ito BR. Complement C5a-mediated myocardial ischemia and neutrophil sequestration: two independent phenomena. Am J Physiol. 1993 Feb; 264(2 Pt 2):H336-44. PMID: 8447449.
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      28. Craig TJ, Engler R, Yang E, Carpenter G. An atypical case of immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy. 1992 Jul; 69(1):22-5. PMID: 1352663.
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      29. Engler R, Roth DM, del Balzo U, Ito BR. Intracoronary C5a induces myocardial ischemia by mechanisms independent of the neutrophil: leukocyte filters desensitize the myocardium to C5a. FASEB J. 1991 Nov; 5(14):2983-91. PMID: 1661246.
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      30. Engler R. Lidoflazine in the treatment of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 03; 325(14):1046-7. PMID: 1886630.
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      31. Mullane K, Engler R. Proclivity of activated neutrophils to cause postischemic cardiac dysfunction: participation in stunning? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991 Oct; 5(5):915-23. PMID: 1756138.
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      32. Ito BR, Libraty DH, Engler R. Effect of transient coronary occlusion on coronary blood flow autoregulation, vasodilator reserve and response to adenosine in the dog. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Sep; 18(3):858-67. PMID: 1869750.
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      33. Engler R. Adenosine. The signal of life? Circulation. 1991 Aug; 84(2):951-4. PMID: 1860244.
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      34. Ito BR, Roth DM, Engler R. Thromboxane A2 and peptidoleukotrienes contribute to the myocardial ischemia and contractile dysfunction in response to intracoronary infusion of complement C5a in pigs. Circ Res. 1990 Mar; 66(3):596-607. PMID: 2137727.
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      35. Gilpin EA, Olshen RA, Chatterjee K, Kjekshus J, Moss AJ, Henning H, Engler R, Blacky AR, Dittrich H, Ross J. Predicting 1-year outcome following acute myocardial infarction: physicians versus computers. Comput Biomed Res. 1990 Feb; 23(1):46-63. PMID: 2306934.
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      36. Schmid-Schönbein GW, Engler R. Perspectives of leukocyte activation in the microcirculation. Biorheology. 1990; 27(6):859-69. PMID: 2093394.
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      37. Ito BR, Schmid-Schönbein G, Engler R. Effects of leukocyte activation on myocardial vascular resistance. Blood Cells. 1990; 16(1):145-63; discussion 163-6. PMID: 2112413.
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      38. Ito BR, Roth DM, Chenoweth DE, Lefer AM, Engler R. Thromboxane is produced in response to intracoronary infusions of complement C5a in pigs. Cyclooxygenase blockade does not reduce the myocardial ischemia and leukocyte accumulation. Circ Res. 1989 Nov; 65(5):1220-32. PMID: 2509096.
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      39. Gruber HE, Hoffer ME, McAllister DR, Laikind PK, Lane TA, Schmid-Schoenbein GW, Engler R. Increased adenosine concentration in blood from ischemic myocardium by AICA riboside. Effects on flow, granulocytes, and injury. Circulation. 1989 Nov; 80(5):1400-11. PMID: 2553298.
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      40. Engler R. The arrhythmia consultation program. N Engl J Med. 1989 Sep 28; 321(13):908. PMID: 2770834.
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      41. Hjalmarson A, Gilpin EA, Nicod P, Dittrich H, Henning H, Engler R, Blacky AR, Smith SC, Ricou F, Ross J. Differing circadian patterns of symptom onset in subgroups of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1989 Aug; 80(2):267-75. PMID: 2568893.
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      42. Engler R, Gilpin E. Can superoxide dismutase alter myocardial infarct size? Circulation. 1989 May; 79(5):1137-42. PMID: 2653661.
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      43. Conant J, Engler R, Janowsky D, Maisel A, Gilpin E, LeWinter M. Central nervous system side effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents with high and low lipid solubility. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Apr; 13(4):656-61. PMID: 2471005.
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      44. Engler R. Free radical and granulocyte-mediated injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Cardiol. 1989 Mar 07; 63(10):19E-23E. PMID: 2538048.
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      45. Ross J, Gilpin EA, Madsen EB, Henning H, Nicod P, Dittrich H, Engler R, Rittelmeyer J, Smith SC, Viquerat C. A decision scheme for coronary angiography after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1989 Feb; 79(2):292-303. PMID: 2914348.
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      46. Barroso-Aranda J, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Zweifach BW, Engler R. Granulocytes and no-reflow phenomenon in irreversible hemorrhagic shock. Circ Res. 1988 Aug; 63(2):437-47. PMID: 3396160.
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      47. Martin SE, Chenoweth DE, Engler R, Roth DM, Longhurst JC. C5a decreases regional coronary blood flow and myocardial function in pigs: implications for a granulocyte mechanism. Circ Res. 1988 Aug; 63(2):483-91. PMID: 3396162.
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      48. Nicod P, Gilpin E, Dittrich H, Chappuis F, Ahnve S, Engler R, Henning H, Ross J. Influence on prognosis and morbidity of left ventricular ejection fraction with and without signs of left ventricular failure after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Jun 01; 61(15):1165-71. PMID: 3376878.
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      49. Nicod P, Gilpin E, Dittrich H, Wright M, Engler R, Rittlemeyer J, Henning H, Ross J. Late clinical outcome in patients with early ventricular fibrillation after myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Mar; 11(3):464-70. PMID: 3343451.
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      50. Schmid-Schönbein GW, Simon SI, Newcom DR, Engler R. Effects of AQA-39 on granulocytes in the microcirculation of rat mesentery. Eur Heart J. 1987 Dec; 8 Suppl L:75-81. PMID: 3451886.
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      51. Engler R, Covell JW, Friedman PJ, Kitcher PS, Peters RM. Misrepresentation and responsibility in medical research. N Engl J Med. 1987 Nov 26; 317(22):1383-9. PMID: 3317039.
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      52. Maruoka Y, McKirnan MD, Engler R, Longhurst JC. Functional significance of alpha-adrenergic receptors in mature coronary collateral circulation of dogs. Am J Physiol. 1987 Sep; 253(3 Pt 2):H582-90. PMID: 2888319.
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      53. Engler R, Covell JW. Granulocytes cause reperfusion ventricular dysfunction after 15-minute ischemia in the dog. Circ Res. 1987 Jul; 61(1):20-8. PMID: 3038366.
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      54. Engler R. Consequences of activation and adenosine-mediated inhibition of granulocytes during myocardial ischemia. Fed Proc. 1987 May 15; 46(7):2407-12. PMID: 3569543.
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      55. Schmid-Schönbein GW, Skalak R, Simon SI, Engler R. The interaction between leukocytes and endothelium in vivo. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987; 516:348-61. PMID: 3439736.
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      56. Schmid-Schönbein GW, Engler R. Granulocytes as active participants in acute myocardial ischemia and infarction. Am J Cardiovasc Pathol. 1987 Jan; 1(1):15-30. PMID: 3331949.
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      57. Engler R, Dahlgren MD, Morris DD, Peterson MA, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Role of leukocytes in response to acute myocardial ischemia and reflow in dogs. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug; 251(2 Pt 2):H314-23. PMID: 3740286.
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      58. Engler R, Dahlgren MD, Peterson MA, Dobbs A, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during 3-h experimental myocardial ischemia. Am J Physiol. 1986 Jul; 251(1 Pt 2):H93-100. PMID: 3089032.
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      59. Mann DL, Maisel AS, Atwood JE, Engler R, LeWinter MM. Absence of cardioversion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with therapeutic digoxin levels. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985 Apr; 5(4):882-90. PMID: 3973290.
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      60. Freeman GL, LeWinter MM, Engler R, Covell JW. Relationship between myocardial fiber direction and segment shortening in the midwall of the canine left ventricle. Circ Res. 1985 Jan; 56(1):31-9. PMID: 3967346.
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      61. Dahlgren MD, Peterson MA, Engler R, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Leukocyte rheology in cardiac ischemia. Kroc Found Ser. 1984; 16:271-83. PMID: 6585485.
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      62. Engler R, Freeman GL, Covell JW. Regional venous return: nitroprusside effect in normal and chronically congested dogs. Am J Physiol. 1983 Nov; 245(5 Pt 1):H814-23. PMID: 6605693.
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      63. Grover M, Engler R. Acute pulmonary edema induced by left bundle branch block. Am J Cardiol. 1983 Sep 01; 52(5):648-9. PMID: 6613893.
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      64. Pouleur H, Engler R, Link J, Printz MP, Covell JW. Changes in plasma renin activity and haemodynamics during vasodilator therapy in conscious dogs with myocardial infarction or chronic volume overload. Eur J Clin Invest. 1983 Aug; 13(4):331-8. PMID: 6413220.
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      65. Engler R, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Pavelec RS. Leukocyte capillary plugging in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the dog. Am J Pathol. 1983 Apr; 111(1):98-111. PMID: 6837725; PMCID: PMC1916203.
      66. Kreitenberg A, Karliner JS, Engler R, Marchand ER. A simple teaching device for examination of the arterial and venous pulse. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Dec; 50(6):1391-3. PMID: 7148719.
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      67. Engler R, Ray R, Higgins CB, McNally C, Buxton WH, Bhargava V, Shabetai R. Clinical assessment and follow-up of functional capacity in patients with chronic congestive cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Jun; 49(8):1832-7. PMID: 7081068.
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      68. Carr KW, Engler R, Ross J. Do coronary artery bypass operations prolong life? West J Med. 1982 Apr; 136(4):295-308. PMID: 7046257; PMCID: PMC1273712.
      69. Engler R, Pouleur H, Link J, Printz M, Covell JW. Changes in control of renin release in congestive heart failure in dogs: response to acute and chronic vasodilator therapy. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1982; 4(4-5):639-59. PMID: 7049441.
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      70. Mathis PC, Wohl H, Wallach SR, Engler R. Lack of release of platelet factor 4 during exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. N Engl J Med. 1981 May 21; 304(21):1275-8. PMID: 7219473.
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      71. Ditchey R, Engler R, LeWinter M, Pavelec R, Bhargava V, Covell J, Moores W, Shabetai R. The role of the right heart in acute cardiac tamponade in dogs. Circ Res. 1981 May; 48(5):701-10. PMID: 7214678.
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      72. LeWinter MM, Engler R, Karliner JS. Tocainide therapy for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias: assessment with ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and treadmill exercise. Am J Cardiol. 1980 May; 45(5):1045-52. PMID: 6768281.
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      73. Engler R. Comparison of i.v. quinidine and disopyramide. Circulation. 1980 Apr; 61(4):866. PMID: 7357728.
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      74. LeWinter MM, Engler R, Karliner JS. Enhanced left ventricular shortening during chronic volume overload in conscious dogs. Am J Physiol. 1980 Feb; 238(2):H126-33. PMID: 7361905.
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      75. Pearlman AS, Engler R, Goldstein RA, Kent KM, Epstein SE. Relative effects of nitroglycerin and nitroprusside during experimental acute myocardial ischemia. Eur J Cardiol. 1980; 11(4):295-313. PMID: 6771145.
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      76. LeWinter MM, Engler R, Pavelec RS. Time-dependent shifts of the left ventricular diastolic filling relationship in conscious dogs. Circ Res. 1979 Nov; 45(5):641-53. PMID: 487528.
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      77. Engler R, Le Winter MM, Karliner JS. Depressant effects of quinidine gluconate on left ventricular function in conscious dogs with and without volume overload. Circulation. 1979 Oct; 60(4):828-35. PMID: 476888.
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      78. Carr KW, Engler R, Forsythe JR, Johnson AD, Gosink B. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by mechanical cross-sectional echocardiography. Circulation. 1979 Jun; 59(6):1196-206. PMID: 436213.
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      79. Shabetai R, Curtis G, Engler R, Costello DL, LeWinter MM, Johnson AD, Higgins CB, Gregoratos G, Utley JR, Ross J. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. West J Med. 1979 May; 130(5):463-4. PMID: 516682; PMCID: PMC1238678.
      80. Ross J, Shabetai R, Curtis G, Engler R, Costello DL, LeWinter MM, Johnson AD, Higgins CB, Gregoratos G, Utley JR, Shabetai R. Nonobstructive and obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. West J Med. 1979 Apr; 130(4):325-49. PMID: 375589; PMCID: PMC1238620.
      81. Engler R, Ryan W, LeWinter M, Bluestein H, Karliner JS. Assessment of long-term antiarrhythmic therapy: studies on the long-term efficacy and toxicity of tocainide. Am J Cardiol. 1979 Mar; 43(3):612-8. PMID: 420111.
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      82. Engler R, Smith P, LeWinter M, Gosink B, Johnson A. The electrocardiogram in asymmetric septal hypertropy. Chest. 1979 Feb; 75(2):167-73. PMID: 154395.
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      83. Ryan W, Engler R, LeWinter M, Karliner JS. Efficacy of a new oral agent (tocainide) in the acute treatment of refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol. 1979 Feb; 43(2):285-91. PMID: 760482.
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      84. Karliner JS, LeWinter MM, Mahler F, Engler R, O'Rourke RA. Pharmacologic and hemodynamic influences on the rate of isovolumic left ventricular relaxation in the normal conscious dog. J Clin Invest. 1977 Sep; 60(3):511-21. PMID: 893662; PMCID: PMC372396.
      85. Engler R, Ross J. Is there a role for surgery in acute myocardial infarction? Cardiovasc Clin. 1977; 8(2):213-21. PMID: 409499.
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