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Paul Sawchenko

TitleAdjunct Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentNeurosciences
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0932
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Stress and CRF Signaling in Alzheimer?s Disease Pathogenesis
    NIH/NIA R01AG032755Aug 15, 2008 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Emotional Stress Effects on Hypothalamus
    NIH/NINDS R01NS049196Jul 1, 2004 - Dec 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PATHWAYS INTEGRATING STRESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL035137Sep 30, 1985 - Jun 30, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional Anatomy of Neuroimmune Interactions
    NIH/NINDS R01NS021182Sep 23, 1985 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional Anatomy of Neuroimmune Interactions
    NIH/NINDS R37NS021182Sep 23, 1985 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Tan LA, Vaughan JM, Perrin MH, Rivier JE, Sawchenko P. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor binding in the mouse brain using a new, high-affinity radioligand, [125 I]-PD-Sauvagine. J Comp Neurol. 2017 Dec 15; 525(18):3840-3864. PMID: 28842924.
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    2. Serrats J, Grigoleit JS, Alvarez-Salas E, Sawchenko P. Pro-inflammatory immune-to-brain signaling is involved in neuroendocrine responses to acute emotional stress. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 May; 62:53-63. PMID: 28179107.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Douglas JN, Gardner LA, Salapa HE, Lalor SJ, Lee S, Segal BM, Sawchenko P, Levin MC. Antibodies to the RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1 contribute to neurodegeneration in a model of central nervous system autoimmune inflammatory disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2016 07 08; 13(1):178. PMID: 27391474.
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    4. Gerfen CR, Sawchenko P. An anterograde neuroanatomical tracing method that shows the detailed morphology of neurons, their axons and terminals: Immunohistochemical localization of an axonally transported plant lectin, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). Brain Res. 2016 08 15; 1645:42-5. PMID: 26790346.
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    5. Zhang C, Kuo CC, Moghadam SH, Monte L, Campbell SN, Rice KC, Sawchenko P, Masliah E, Rissman RA. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 antagonism mitigates beta amyloid pathology and cognitive and synaptic deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2016 05; 12(5):527-37. PMID: 26555315.
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    6. Radley JJ, Sawchenko P. Evidence for involvement of a limbic paraventricular hypothalamic inhibitory network in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adaptations to repeated stress. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Dec 15; 523(18):2769-87. PMID: 26010947; PMCID: PMC4607561 [Available on 12/15/16].
    7. Perrin MH, Tan LA, Vaughan JM, Lewis KA, Donaldson CJ, Miller C, Erchegyi J, Rivier JE, Sawchenko P. Characterization of a Pachymedusa dacnicolor-Sauvagine analog as a new high-affinity radioligand for corticotropin-releasing factor receptor studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 May; 353(2):307-17. PMID: 25736419; PMCID: PMC4407721.
    8. Grieder TE, Herman MA, Contet C, Tan LA, Vargas-Perez H, Cohen A, Chwalek M, Maal-Bared G, Freiling J, Schlosburg JE, Clarke L, Crawford E, Koebel P, Repunte-Canonigo V, Sanna PP, Tapper AR, Roberto M, Kieffer BL, Sawchenko P, Koob GF, van der Kooy D, George O. VTA CRF neurons mediate the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote intake escalation. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1751-8. PMID: 25402857; PMCID: PMC4241147.
    9. Tsai VW, Manandhar R, Jørgensen SB, Lee-Ng KK, Zhang HP, Marquis CP, Jiang L, Husaini Y, Lin S, Sainsbury A, Sawchenko P, Brown DA, Breit SN. The anorectic actions of the TGFß cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 require an intact brainstem area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100370. PMID: 24971956; PMCID: PMC4074070.
    10. Mohammad MG, Tsai VW, Ruitenberg MJ, Hassanpour M, Li H, Hart PH, Breit SN, Sawchenko P, Brown DA. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar; 124(3):1228-41. PMID: 24569378; PMCID: PMC3934177.
    11. Vaughan JM, Donaldson CJ, Fischer WH, Perrin MH, Rivier JE, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. Posttranslational processing of human and mouse urocortin 2: characterization and bioactivity of gene products. Endocrinology. 2013 Apr; 154(4):1553-64. PMID: 23493376; PMCID: PMC3602626.
    12. Mohammad MG, Hassanpour M, Tsai VW, Li H, Ruitenberg MJ, Booth DW, Serrats J, Hart PH, Symonds GP, Sawchenko P, Breit SN, Brown DA. Dendritic cells and multiple sclerosis: disease, tolerance and therapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2012 Dec 27; 14(1):547-62. PMID: 23271370; PMCID: PMC3565281.
    13. Rissman RA, Staup MA, Lee AR, Justice NJ, Rice KC, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-dependent effects of repeated stress on tau phosphorylation, solubility, and aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 17; 109(16):6277-82. PMID: 22451915; PMCID: PMC3341026.
    14. Tsai VW, Mohammad MG, Tolhurst O, Breit SN, Sawchenko P, Brown DA. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-d expression by dendritic cells regulates CNS autoimmune inflammatory disease. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 30; 31(48):17612-21. PMID: 22131422; PMCID: PMC3334319.
    15. Roe AD, Staup MA, Serrats J, Sawchenko P, Rissman RA. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tau phosphorylation and kinase activity--modulation, but not mediation, by corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Eur J Neurosci. 2011 Aug; 34(3):448-56. PMID: 21722209; PMCID: PMC3148267.
    16. Radley JJ, Sawchenko P. A common substrate for prefrontal and hippocampal inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response. J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 29; 31(26):9683-95. PMID: 21715634; PMCID: PMC3197245.
    17. Serrats J, Schiltz JC, García-Bueno B, van Rooijen N, Reyes TM, Sawchenko P. Dual roles for perivascular macrophages in immune-to-brain signaling. Neuron. 2010 Jan 14; 65(1):94-106. PMID: 20152116; PMCID: PMC2873837.
    18. Sawchenko P. Gene dosage effects on hypothalamic visceromotor cell types (commentary on Duplan et al.). Eur J Neurosci. 2009 Dec; 30(12):2237-8. PMID: 20092566.
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    19. García-Bueno B, Serrats J, Sawchenko P. Cerebrovascular cyclooxygenase-1 expression, regulation, and role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation by inflammatory stimuli. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14; 29(41):12970-81. PMID: 19828811; PMCID: PMC3325493.
    20. Maji SK, Perrin MH, Sawaya MR, Jessberger S, Vadodaria K, Rissman RA, Singru PS, Nilsson KP, Simon R, Schubert D, Eisenberg D, Rivier J, Sawchenko P, Vale W, Riek R. Functional amyloids as natural storage of peptide hormones in pituitary secretory granules. Science. 2009 Jul 17; 325(5938):328-32. PMID: 19541956; PMCID: PMC2865899.
    21. Serrats J, Sawchenko P. How T-cell-dependent and -independent challenges access the brain: vascular and neural responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Oct; 23(7):1038-52. PMID: 19524662; PMCID: PMC2751606.
    22. Radley JJ, Gosselink KL, Sawchenko P. A discrete GABAergic relay mediates medial prefrontal cortical inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response. J Neurosci. 2009 Jun 03; 29(22):7330-40. PMID: 19494154; PMCID: PMC2743123.
    23. Chen Q, Peto CA, Shelton GD, Mizisin A, Sawchenko P, Schubert D. Loss of modifier of cell adhesion reveals a pathway leading to axonal degeneration. J Neurosci. 2009 Jan 07; 29(1):118-30. PMID: 19129390; PMCID: PMC2669744.
    24. Justice NJ, Yuan ZF, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor expression reported in BAC transgenic mice: implications for reconciling ligand-receptor mismatch in the central corticotropin-releasing factor system. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Dec 01; 511(4):479-96. PMID: 18853426; PMCID: PMC2597626.
    25. Altarejos JY, Goebel N, Conkright MD, Inoue H, Xie J, Arias CM, Sawchenko P, Montminy M. The Creb1 coactivator Crtc1 is required for energy balance and fertility. Nat Med. 2008 Oct; 14(10):1112-7. PMID: 18758446; PMCID: PMC2667698.
    26. Radley JJ, Williams B, Sawchenko P. Noradrenergic innervation of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex modulates hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to acute emotional stress. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5806-16. PMID: 18509042; PMCID: PMC2796223.
    27. Lunn ML, Nassirpour R, Arrabit C, Tan J, McLeod I, Arias CM, Sawchenko P, Yates JR, Slesinger PA. A unique sorting nexin regulates trafficking of potassium channels via a PDZ domain interaction. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Oct; 10(10):1249-59. PMID: 17828261.
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    28. Rissman RA, Lee KF, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors differentially regulate stress-induced tau phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2007 Jun 13; 27(24):6552-62. PMID: 17567816.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Schiltz JC, Sawchenko P. Specificity and generality of the involvement of catecholaminergic afferents in hypothalamic responses to immune insults. J Comp Neurol. 2007 May 20; 502(3):455-67. PMID: 17366612.
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    30. Brown DA, Sawchenko P. Time course and distribution of inflammatory and neurodegenerative events suggest structural bases for the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Comp Neurol. 2007 May 10; 502(2):236-60. PMID: 17348011.
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    31. Radley JJ, Arias CM, Sawchenko P. Regional differentiation of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating adaptive responses to acute emotional stress. J Neurosci. 2006 Dec 13; 26(50):12967-76. PMID: 17167086.
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    32. Steiner AA, Ivanov AI, Serrats J, Hosokawa H, Phayre AN, Robbins JR, Roberts JL, Kobayashi S, Matsumura K, Sawchenko P, Romanovsky AA. Cellular and molecular bases of the initiation of fever. PLoS Biol. 2006 Sep; 4(9):e284. PMID: 16933973; PMCID: PMC1551923.
    33. Serrats J, Sawchenko P. CNS activational responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin B: T-lymphocyte-dependent immune challenge effects on stress-related circuitry. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Mar 10; 495(2):236-54. PMID: 16435288.
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    34. Chen AM, Perrin MH, Digruccio MR, Vaughan JM, Brar BK, Arias CM, Lewis KA, Rivier JE, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. A soluble mouse brain splice variant of type 2alpha corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor binds ligands and modulates their activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 15; 102(7):2620-5. PMID: 15701705; PMCID: PMC549000.
    35. Saper CB, Sawchenko P. Magic peptides, magic antibodies: guidelines for appropriate controls for immunohistochemistry. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Oct 13; 465(2):161-3. PMID: 12949777.
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    36. Schiltz JC, Sawchenko P. Signaling the brain in systemic inflammation: the role of perivascular cells. Front Biosci. 2003 Sep 01; 8:s1321-9. PMID: 12957837.
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    37. Reyes TM, Walker JR, DeCino C, Hogenesch JB, Sawchenko P. Categorically distinct acute stressors elicit dissimilar transcriptional profiles in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 02; 23(13):5607-16. PMID: 12843263.
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    38. Vallières L, Sawchenko P. Bone marrow-derived cells that populate the adult mouse brain preserve their hematopoietic identity. J Neurosci. 2003 Jun 15; 23(12):5197-207. PMID: 12832544.
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    39. Inoue K, Valdez GR, Reyes TM, Reinhardt LE, Tabarin A, Rivier J, Vale WW, Sawchenko P, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Human urocortin II, a selective agonist for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor, decreases feeding and drinking in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr; 305(1):385-93. PMID: 12649393.
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    40. Morales T, Sawchenko P. Brainstem prolactin-releasing peptide neurons are sensitive to stress and lactation. Neuroscience. 2003; 121(3):771-8. PMID: 14568035.
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    41. Schiltz JC, Sawchenko P. Distinct brain vascular cell types manifest inducible cyclooxygenase expression as a function of the strength and nature of immune insults. J Neurosci. 2002 Jul 01; 22(13):5606-18. PMID: 12097512.
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    42. Reyes TM, Sawchenko P. Involvement of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in interleukin-1-induced anorexia. J Neurosci. 2002 Jun 15; 22(12):5091-9. PMID: 12077204.
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    43. Viau V, Sawchenko P. Hypophysiotropic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus respond in spatially, temporally, and phenotypically differentiated manners to acute vs. repeated restraint stress: rapid publication. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Apr 15; 445(4):293-307. PMID: 11920708.
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    44. Cole RL, Sawchenko P. Neurotransmitter regulation of cellular activation and neuropeptide gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 01; 22(3):959-69. PMID: 11826124.
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    45. Li C, Vaughan J, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. Urocortin III-immunoreactive projections in rat brain: partial overlap with sites of type 2 corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor expression. J Neurosci. 2002 Feb 01; 22(3):991-1001. PMID: 11826127.
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    46. Vallières L, Campbell IL, Gage FH, Sawchenko P. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in adult transgenic mice with chronic astrocytic production of interleukin-6. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15; 22(2):486-92. PMID: 11784794.
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    47. Lewis K, Li C, Perrin MH, Blount A, Kunitake K, Donaldson C, Vaughan J, Reyes TM, Gulyas J, Fischer W, Bilezikjian L, Rivier J, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. Identification of urocortin III, an additional member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family with high affinity for the CRF2 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jun 19; 98(13):7570-5. PMID: 11416224; PMCID: PMC34709.
    48. Reyes TM, Lewis K, Perrin MH, Kunitake KS, Vaughan J, Arias CA, Hogenesch JB, Gulyas J, Rivier J, Vale WW, Sawchenko P. Urocortin II: a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family that is selectively bound by type 2 CRF receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 27; 98(5):2843-8. PMID: 11226328; PMCID: PMC30227.
    49. Van Pett K, Viau V, Bittencourt JC, Chan RK, Li HY, Arias C, Prins GS, Perrin M, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Distribution of mRNAs encoding CRF receptors in brain and pituitary of rat and mouse. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Dec 11; 428(2):191-212. PMID: 11064361.
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    50. Chan RK, Peto CA, Sawchenko P. Fine structure and plasticity of barosensitive neurons in the nucleus of solitary tract. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jul 03; 422(3):338-51. PMID: 10861511.
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    51. Kovács KJ, Földes A, Sawchenko P. Glucocorticoid negative feedback selectively targets vasopressin transcription in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. J Neurosci. 2000 May 15; 20(10):3843-52. PMID: 10804224.
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    52. Bale TL, Contarino A, Smith GW, Chan R, Gold LH, Sawchenko P, Koob GF, Vale WW, Lee KF. Mice deficient for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2 display anxiety-like behaviour and are hypersensitive to stress. Nat Genet. 2000 Apr; 24(4):410-4. PMID: 10742108.
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    53. Cunningham ET, Sawchenko P. Dorsal medullary pathways subserving oromotor reflexes in the rat: implications for the central neural control of swallowing. J Comp Neurol. 2000 Feb 21; 417(4):448-66. PMID: 10701866.
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    54. Morales T, Hinuma S, Sawchenko P. Prolactin-releasing peptide is expressed in afferents to the endocrine hypothalamus, but not in neurosecretory neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Feb; 12(2):131-40. PMID: 10718908.
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    55. Bittencourt JC, Sawchenko P. Do centrally administered neuropeptides access cognate receptors?: an analysis in the central corticotropin-releasing factor system. J Neurosci. 2000 Feb 01; 20(3):1142-56. PMID: 10648719.
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    56. Chan RK, Vale WW, Sawchenko P. Paradoxical activational effects of a corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein "ligand inhibitor" in rat brain. Neuroscience. 2000; 101(1):115-29. PMID: 11068141.
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    57. Chan RK, Jarvina EV, Sawchenko P. Effects of selective sinoaortic denervations on phenylephrine-induced activational responses in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Neuroscience. 2000; 101(1):165-78. PMID: 11068145.
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    58. Sawchenko P, Li HY, Ericsson A. Circuits and mechanisms governing hypothalamic responses to stress: a tale of two paradigms. Prog Brain Res. 2000; 122:61-78. PMID: 10737051.
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    59. Bittencourt JC, Vaughan J, Arias C, Rissman RA, Vale WW, Sawchenko P. Urocortin expression in rat brain: evidence against a pervasive relationship of urocortin-containing projections with targets bearing type 2 CRF receptors. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Dec 20; 415(3):285-312. PMID: 10553117.
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    60. Peto CA, Arias C, Vale WW, Sawchenko P. Ultrastructural localization of the corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein in rat brain and pituitary. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Oct 18; 413(2):241-54. PMID: 10524337.
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    61. Sawchenko P. Toward a new neurobiology of energy balance, appetite, and obesity: the anatomists weigh in. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 28; 402(4):435-41. PMID: 9862319.
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    62. Chan RK, Sawchenko P. Differential time- and dose-related effects of haemorrhage on tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in medullary catecholamine neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Dec; 10(12):3747-58. PMID: 9875353.
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    63. Smith GW, Aubry JM, Dellu F, Contarino A, Bilezikjian LM, Gold LH, Chen R, Marchuk Y, Hauser C, Bentley CA, Sawchenko P, Koob GF, Vale W, Lee KF. Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1-deficient mice display decreased anxiety, impaired stress response, and aberrant neuroendocrine development. Neuron. 1998 Jun; 20(6):1093-102. PMID: 9655498.
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    64. Li HY, Sawchenko P. Hypothalamic effector neurons and extended circuitries activated in "neurogenic" stress: a comparison of footshock effects exerted acutely, chronically, and in animals with controlled glucocorticoid levels. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Apr 06; 393(2):244-66. PMID: 9548700.
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    65. Kovács KJ, Arias C, Sawchenko P. Protein synthesis blockade differentially affects the stress-induced transcriptional activation of neuropeptide genes in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 Feb; 54(1):85-91. PMID: 9526053.
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    66. Chan RK, Sawchenko P. Organization and transmitter specificity of medullary neurons activated by sustained hypertension: implications for understanding baroreceptor reflex circuitry. J Neurosci. 1998 Jan 01; 18(1):371-87. PMID: 9412514.
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    67. Ericsson A, Arias C, Sawchenko P. Evidence for an intramedullary prostaglandin-dependent mechanism in the activation of stress-related neuroendocrine circuitry by intravenous interleukin-1. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 15; 17(18):7166-79. PMID: 9278551.
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    68. Brown ER, Sawchenko P. Hypophysiotropic CRF neurons display a sustained immediate-early gene response to chronic stress but not to adrenalectomy. J Neuroendocrinol. 1997 Apr; 9(4):307-16. PMID: 9147294.
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    69. Heinrichs SC, Lapsansky J, Behan DP, Chan RK, Sawchenko P, Lorang M, Ling N, Vale WW, De Souza EB. Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein ligand inhibitor blunts excessive weight gain in genetically obese Zucker rats and rats during nicotine withdrawal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Dec 24; 93(26):15475-80. PMID: 8986836; PMCID: PMC26429.
    70. Floyd NS, Keay KA, Arias CM, Sawchenko P, Bandler R. Projections from the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray to endocrine regulatory subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Dec 13; 220(2):105-8. PMID: 8981484.
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    71. McEvilly RJ, Erkman L, Luo L, Sawchenko P, Ryan AF, Rosenfeld MG. Requirement for Brn-3.0 in differentiation and survival of sensory and motor neurons. Nature. 1996 Dec 12; 384(6609):574-7. PMID: 8955272.
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    72. Tsuchida K, Sawchenko P, Nishikawa S, Vale WW. Molecular cloning of a novel type I receptor serine/threonine kinase for the TGF beta superfamily from rat brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1996 Jun; 7(6):467-78. PMID: 8875430.
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    73. Li HY, Ericsson A, Sawchenko P. Distinct mechanisms underlie activation of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons and their medullary catecholaminergic afferents in categorically different stress paradigms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Mar 19; 93(6):2359-64. PMID: 8637878; PMCID: PMC39801.
    74. Kovács KJ, Sawchenko P. Regulation of stress-induced transcriptional changes in the hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. J Mol Neurosci. 1996; 7(2):125-33. PMID: 8873896.
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    75. Sawchenko P, Brown ER, Chan RK, Ericsson A, Li HY, Roland BL, Kovács KJ. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the functional neuroanatomy of visceromotor responses to stress. Prog Brain Res. 1996; 107:201-22. PMID: 8782521.
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    76. Kovács KJ, Sawchenko P. Sequence of stress-induced alterations in indices of synaptic and transcriptional activation in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. J Neurosci. 1996 Jan; 16(1):262-73. PMID: 8613792.
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    77. Schonemann MD, Ryan AK, McEvilly RJ, O'Connell SM, Arias CA, Kalla KA, Li P, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld MG. Development and survival of the endocrine hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland requires the neuronal POU domain factor Brn-2. Genes Dev. 1995 Dec 15; 9(24):3122-35. PMID: 8543156.
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    78. Ericsson A, Liu C, Hart RP, Sawchenko P. Type 1 interleukin-1 receptor in the rat brain: distribution, regulation, and relationship to sites of IL-1-induced cellular activation. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Oct 30; 361(4):681-98. PMID: 8576422.
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    79. Sawchenko P, Pfeiffer SW. Ultrastructural localization of inhibin beta- and somatostatin-28-immunoreactivities in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Brain Res. 1995 Oct 02; 694(1-2):233-45. PMID: 8974650.
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    80. Sawchenko P, Arias C. Evidence for short-loop feedback effects of ACTH on CRF and vasopressin expression in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. J Neuroendocrinol. 1995 Sep; 7(9):721-31. PMID: 8547950.
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    81. Chan RK, Sawchenko P. Hemodynamic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase messenger RNA in medullary catecholamine neurons: a c-fos-guided hybridization histochemical study. Neuroscience. 1995 May; 66(2):377-90. PMID: 7477879.
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    82. Bach I, Rhodes SJ, Pearse RV, Heinzel T, Gloss B, Scully KM, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld MG. P-Lim, a LIM homeodomain factor, is expressed during pituitary organ and cell commitment and synergizes with Pit-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28; 92(7):2720-4. PMID: 7708713; PMCID: PMC42290.
    83. Chan RK, Peto CA, Sawchenko P. A1 catecholamine cell group: fine structure and synaptic input from the nucleus of the solitary tract. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Jan 02; 351(1):62-80. PMID: 7896940.
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    84. Chan RK, Sawchenko P. Spatially and temporally differentiated patterns of c-fos expression in brainstem catecholaminergic cell groups induced by cardiovascular challenges in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1994 Oct 15; 348(3):433-60. PMID: 7844257.
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    85. Potter E, Sutton S, Donaldson C, Chen R, Perrin M, Lewis K, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor mRNA expression in the rat brain and pituitary. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 13; 91(19):8777-81. PMID: 8090722; PMCID: PMC44689.
    86. Cameron VA, Nishimura E, Mathews LS, Lewis KA, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. Hybridization histochemical localization of activin receptor subtypes in rat brain, pituitary, ovary, and testis. Endocrinology. 1994 Feb; 134(2):799-808. PMID: 8299574.
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    87. Ericsson A, Kovács KJ, Sawchenko P. A functional anatomical analysis of central pathways subserving the effects of interleukin-1 on stress-related neuroendocrine neurons. J Neurosci. 1994 Feb; 14(2):897-913. PMID: 8301368.
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    88. Cunningham ET, Miselis RR, Sawchenko P. The relationship of efferent projections from the area postrema to vagal motor and brain stem catecholamine-containing cell groups: an axonal transport and immunohistochemical study in the rat. Neuroscience. 1994 Feb; 58(3):635-48. PMID: 7513390.
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    89. Chan RK, Brown ER, Ericsson A, Kovács KJ, Sawchenko P. A comparison of two immediate-early genes, c-fos and NGFI-B, as markers for functional activation in stress-related neuroendocrine circuitry. J Neurosci. 1993 Dec; 13(12):5126-38. PMID: 8254363.
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    90. Petraglia F, Potter E, Cameron VA, Sutton S, Behan DP, Woods RJ, Sawchenko P, Lowry PJ, Vale W. Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein is produced by human placenta and intrauterine tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Oct; 77(4):919-24. PMID: 8408466.
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    91. Kovács KJ, Sawchenko P. Mediation of osmoregulatory influences on neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor expression by the ventral lamina terminalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 15; 90(16):7681-5. PMID: 8356069; PMCID: PMC47206.
    92. Sawchenko P, Arias CA, Mortrud MT. Local tetrodotoxin blocks chronic stress effects on corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acids in hypophysiotropic neurons. J Neuroendocrinol. 1993 Aug; 5(4):341-8. PMID: 8401558.
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    93. Lin SC, Lin CR, Gukovsky I, Lusis AJ, Sawchenko P, Rosenfeld MG. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Nature. 1993 Jul 15; 364(6434):208-13. PMID: 8391647.
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    94. Roland BL, Sawchenko P. Local origins of some GABAergic projections to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jun 01; 332(1):123-43. PMID: 7685780.
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    95. Levin MC, Sawchenko P. Neuropeptide co-expression in the magnocellular neurosecretory system of the female rat: evidence for differential modulation by estrogen. Neuroscience. 1993 Jun; 54(4):1001-18. PMID: 8341419.
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    96. Sawchenko P, Imaki T, Potter E, Kovács K, Imaki J, Vale W. The functional neuroanatomy of corticotropin-releasing factor. Ciba Found Symp. 1993; 172:5-21; discussion 21-9. PMID: 8491094.
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    97. Knollema S, Brown ER, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Novel hypothalamic and preoptic sites of prepro-melanin-concentrating hormone messenger ribonucleic Acid and Peptide expression in lactating rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 1992 Dec; 4(6):709-17. PMID: 21554658.
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    98. Imaki T, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in neuroendocrine and autonomic neurons by osmotic stimulation and volume loading. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Nov; 56(5):633-40. PMID: 1488095.
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    99. Presse F, Hervieu G, Imaki T, Sawchenko P, Vale W, Nahon JL. Rat melanin-concentrating hormone messenger ribonucleic acid expression: marked changes during development and after stress and glucocorticoid stimuli. Endocrinology. 1992 Sep; 131(3):1241-50. PMID: 1505462.
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    100. Sawchenko P, Arias C, Krasnov I, Grindeland RE, Vale W. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 Aug; 73(2 Suppl):158S-165S. PMID: 1526945.
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    101. Roberts VJ, Peto CA, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Inhibin/activin subunits are costored with FSH and LH in secretory granules of the rat anterior pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology. 1992 Aug; 56(2):214-24. PMID: 1407376.
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    102. Stenzel-Poore MP, Cameron VA, Vaughan J, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Development of Cushing's syndrome in corticotropin-releasing factor transgenic mice. Endocrinology. 1992 Jun; 130(6):3378-86. PMID: 1597149.
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    103. Bittencourt JC, Presse F, Arias C, Peto C, Vaughan J, Nahon JL, Vale W, Sawchenko P. The melanin-concentrating hormone system of the rat brain: an immuno- and hybridization histochemical characterization. J Comp Neurol. 1992 May 08; 319(2):218-45. PMID: 1522246.
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    104. Potter E, Behan DP, Linton EA, Lowry PJ, Sawchenko P, Vale WW. The central distribution of a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-binding protein predicts multiple sites and modes of interaction with CRF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 01; 89(9):4192-6. PMID: 1315056; PMCID: PMC525659.
    105. Borrelli E, Sawchenko P, Evans RM. Pituitary hyperplasia induced by ectopic expression of nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 01; 89(7):2764-8. PMID: 1348359; PMCID: PMC48743.
    106. Sawchenko P, Imaki T, Vale W. Co-localization of neuroactive substances in the endocrine hypothalamus. Ciba Found Symp. 1992; 168:16-30; discussion 30-42. PMID: 1425023.
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    107. Cunningham ET, Sawchenko P. Reflex control of magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin secretion. Trends Neurosci. 1991 Sep; 14(9):406-11. PMID: 1720582.
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    108. Roberts VJ, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Expression of inhibin/activin subunit messenger ribonucleic acids during rat embryogenesis. Endocrinology. 1991 Jun; 128(6):3122-9. PMID: 2036981.
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    109. Cunningham ET, Simmons DM, Swanson LW, Sawchenko P. Enkephalin immunoreactivity and messenger RNA in a discrete projection from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the nucleus ambiguous in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1991 May 01; 307(1):1-16. PMID: 1856314.
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    110. Plotsky PM, Kjaer A, Sutton SW, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Central activin administration modulates corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin secretion. Endocrinology. 1991 May; 128(5):2520-5. PMID: 1850353.
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    111. Imaki J, Imaki T, Vale W, Sawchenko P. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA and immunoreactivity in the central auditory system of the rat. Brain Res. 1991 Apr 26; 547(1):28-36. PMID: 1713530.
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    112. Struthers RS, Vale WW, Arias C, Sawchenko P, Montminy MR. Somatotroph hypoplasia and dwarfism in transgenic mice expressing a non-phosphorylatable CREB mutant. Nature. 1991 Apr 18; 350(6319):622-4. PMID: 1826763.
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    113. Imaki T, Nahan JL, Rivier C, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Differential regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in rat brain regions by glucocorticoids and stress. J Neurosci. 1991 Mar; 11(3):585-99. PMID: 2002354.
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    114. Bittencourt JC, Benoit R, Sawchenko P. Distribution and origins of substance P-immunoreactive projections to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei: partial overlap with ascending catecholaminergic projections. J Chem Neuroanat. 1991 Jan-Feb; 4(1):63-78. PMID: 1707281.
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    115. Cunningham ET, Bohn MC, Sawchenko P. Organization of adrenergic inputs to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Feb 22; 292(4):651-67. PMID: 2324319.
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    116. Sawchenko P, Arias C, Bittencourt JC. Inhibin beta, somatostatin, and enkephalin immunoreactivities coexist in caudal medullary neurons that project to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Jan 08; 291(2):269-80. PMID: 1967618.
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    117. Meunier H, Roberts VJ, Sawchenko P, Cajander SB, Hsueh AJ, Vale W. Periovulatory changes in the expression of inhibin alpha-, beta A-, and beta B-subunits in hormonally induced immature female rats. Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Dec; 3(12):2062-9. PMID: 2628740.
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    118. Roberts V, Meunier H, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Differential production and regulation of inhibin subunits in rat testicular cell types. Endocrinology. 1989 Nov; 125(5):2350-9. PMID: 2676482.
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    119. Nahon JL, Presse F, Bittencourt JC, Sawchenko P, Vale W. The rat melanin-concentrating hormone messenger ribonucleic acid encodes multiple putative neuropeptides coexpressed in the dorsolateral hypothalamus. Endocrinology. 1989 Oct; 125(4):2056-65. PMID: 2477226.
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    120. Imaki T, Nahon JL, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Widespread expression of corticotropin-releasing factor messenger RNA and immunoreactivity in the rat olfactory bulb. Brain Res. 1989 Sep 04; 496(1-2):35-44. PMID: 2804647.
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    121. Sawchenko P, Bohn MC. Glucocorticoid receptor-immunoreactivity in C1, C2, and C3 adrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus or to the spinal cord in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Jul 01; 285(1):107-16. PMID: 2754045.
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    122. Borrelli E, Heyman RA, Arias C, Sawchenko P, Evans RM. Transgenic mice with inducible dwarfism. Nature. 1989 Jun 15; 339(6225):538-41. PMID: 2733785.
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    123. Cunningham ET, Sawchenko P. A circumscribed projection from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the nucleus ambiguus in the rat: anatomical evidence for somatostatin-28-immunoreactive interneurons subserving reflex control of esophageal motility. J Neurosci. 1989 May; 9(5):1668-82. PMID: 2470875.
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    124. Sawchenko P, Pfeiffer SW. Ultrastructural localization of neuropeptide Y and galanin immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the rat. Brain Res. 1988 Dec 06; 474(2):231-45. PMID: 2463058.
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    125. Meunier H, Cajander SB, Roberts VJ, Rivier C, Sawchenko P, Hsueh AJ, Vale W. Rapid changes in the expression of inhibin alpha-, beta A-, and beta B-subunits in ovarian cell types during the rat estrous cycle. Mol Endocrinol. 1988 Dec; 2(12):1352-63. PMID: 3146021.
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    126. Sawchenko P. Effects of catecholamine-depleting medullary knife cuts on corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of normal and steroid-manipulated rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1988 Nov; 48(5):459-70. PMID: 2469027.
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    127. Sawchenko P, Plotsky PM, Pfeiffer SW, Cunningham ET, Vaughan J, Rivier J, Vale W. Inhibin beta in central neural pathways involved in the control of oxytocin secretion. Nature. 1988 Aug 18; 334(6183):615-7. PMID: 2457171.
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    128. Cunningham ET, Sawchenko P. Anatomical specificity of noradrenergic inputs to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1988 Aug 01; 274(1):60-76. PMID: 2458397.
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    129. Sawchenko P, Benoit R, Brown MR. Somatostatin 28-immunoreactive inputs to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei: principal origin from non-aminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. J Chem Neuroanat. 1988 Mar-Apr; 1(2):81-94. PMID: 2908291.
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    130. Sawchenko P. Evidence for differential regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin immunoreactivities in parvocellular neurosecretory and autonomic-related projections of the paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res. 1987 Dec 29; 437(2):253-63. PMID: 3325130.
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    131. Petraglia F, Sawchenko P, Rivier J, Vale W. Evidence for local stimulation of ACTH secretion by corticotropin-releasing factor in human placenta. Nature. 1987 Aug 20-26; 328(6132):717-9. PMID: 3039377.
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    132. Levin MC, Sawchenko P, Howe PR, Bloom SR, Polak JM. Organization of galanin-immunoreactive inputs to the paraventricular nucleus with special reference to their relationship to catecholaminergic afferents. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Jul 22; 261(4):562-82. PMID: 2440918.
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    133. Sawchenko P. Adrenalectomy-induced enhancement of CRF and vasopressin immunoreactivity in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons: anatomic, peptide, and steroid specificity. J Neurosci. 1987 Apr; 7(4):1093-106. PMID: 3553442.
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    134. Plotsky PM, Sawchenko P. Hypophysial-portal plasma levels, median eminence content, and immunohistochemical staining of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin after pharmacological adrenalectomy. Endocrinology. 1987 Apr; 120(4):1361-9. PMID: 3030697.
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    135. Sawchenko P. Evidence for a local site of action for glucocorticoids in inhibiting CRF and vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res. 1987 Feb 17; 403(2):213-23. PMID: 3493829.
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    136. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Lind RW, Rho JH. The CRH motoneuron: differential peptide regulation in neurons with possible synaptic, paracrine, and endocrine outputs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987; 512:12-23. PMID: 3327422.
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    137. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Lind RW. Regulation of multiple peptides in CRF parvocellular neurosecretory neurons: implications for the stress response. Prog Brain Res. 1986; 68:169-90. PMID: 3550889.
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    138. Meister B, Hökfelt T, Vale WW, Sawchenko P, Swanson L, Goldstein M. Coexistence of tyrosine hydroxylase and growth hormone-releasing factor in a subpopulation of tubero-infundibular neurons of the rat. Neuroendocrinology. 1986; 42(3):237-47. PMID: 2869425.
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    139. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Grzanna R, Howe PR, Bloom SR, Polak JM. Colocalization of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in brainstem catecholaminergic neurons that project to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1985 Nov 08; 241(2):138-53. PMID: 3840810.
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    140. Gerfen CR, Sawchenko P. A method for anterograde axonal tracing of chemically specified circuits in the central nervous system: combined Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) tract tracing and immunohistochemistry. Brain Res. 1985 Sep 16; 343(1):144-50. PMID: 3899276.
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    141. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Rivier J, Vale WW. The distribution of growth-hormone-releasing factor (GRF) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat: an immunohistochemical study using antisera directed against rat hypothalamic GRF. J Comp Neurol. 1985 Jul 01; 237(1):100-15. PMID: 3930577.
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    142. Peterfreund RA, Sawchenko P, Vale W. Thyroid hormones reversibly suppress somatostatin secretion and immunoreactivity in cultured neocortical cells. Brain Res. 1985 Mar 04; 328(2):259-70. PMID: 2859080.
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    143. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. Localization, colocalization, and plasticity of corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity in rat brain. Fed Proc. 1985 Jan; 44(1 Pt 2):221-7. PMID: 2981743.
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    144. Veening JG, Swanson LW, Sawchenko P. The organization of projections from the central nucleus of the amygdala to brainstem sites involved in central autonomic regulation: a combined retrograde transport-immunohistochemical study. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 15; 303(2):337-57. PMID: 6204716.
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    145. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Vale WW. Corticotropin-releasing factor: co-expression within distinct subsets of oxytocin-, vasopressin-, and neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of the male rat. J Neurosci. 1984 Apr; 4(4):1118-29. PMID: 6609226.
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    146. Mason RT, Peterfreund RA, Sawchenko P, Corrigan AZ, Rivier JE, Vale WW. Release of the predicted calcitonin gene-related peptide from cultured rat trigeminal ganglion cells. Nature. 1984 Apr 12-18; 308(5960):653-5. PMID: 6369148.
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    147. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Vale WW. Co-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin immunoreactivity in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the adrenalectomized rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Mar; 81(6):1883-7. PMID: 6369332; PMCID: PMC345027.
    148. Gerfen CR, Sawchenko P. An anterograde neuroanatomical tracing method that shows the detailed morphology of neurons, their axons and terminals: immunohistochemical localization of an axonally transported plant lectin, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). Brain Res. 1984 Jan 09; 290(2):219-38. PMID: 6198041.
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    149. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Steinbusch HW, Verhofstad AA. The distribution and cells of origin of serotonergic inputs to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the rat. Brain Res. 1983 Oct 31; 277(2):355-60. PMID: 6357352.
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    150. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. The organization of forebrain afferents to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1983 Aug 01; 218(2):121-44. PMID: 6886068.
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    151. Rosenfeld MG, Mermod JJ, Amara SG, Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Rivier J, Vale WW, Evans RM. Production of a novel neuropeptide encoded by the calcitonin gene via tissue-specific RNA processing. Nature. 1983 Jul 14-20; 304(5922):129-35. PMID: 6346105.
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    152. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P. Hypothalamic integration: organization of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1983; 6:269-324. PMID: 6132586.
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    153. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Rivier J, Vale WW. Organization of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical study. Neuroendocrinology. 1983; 36(3):165-86. PMID: 6601247.
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    154. Brown MR, Fisher LA, Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Vale WW. Biological effects of cysteamine: relationship to somatostatin depletion. Regul Pept. 1983 Jan; 5(2):163-79. PMID: 6131501.
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    155. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. The organization of noradrenergic pathways from the brainstem to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei in the rat. Brain Res. 1982 Nov; 257(3):275-325. PMID: 6756545.
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    156. Van der Kooy D, Sawchenko P. Characterization of serotonergic neurons using concurrent fluorescent retrograde axonal tracing and immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 1982 Aug; 30(8):794-8. PMID: 6181121.
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    157. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. Immunohistochemical identification of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that project to the medulla or to the spinal cord in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1982 Mar 01; 205(3):260-72. PMID: 6122696.
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    158. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW, Joseph SA. The distribution and cells of origin of ACTH(1-39)-stained varicosities in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Brain Res. 1982 Jan 28; 232(2):365-74. PMID: 6322913.
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    159. Sawchenko P, Gold RM, Leibowitz SF. Evidence for vagal involvement in the eating elicited by adrenergic stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus. Brain Res. 1981 Nov 30; 225(2):249-69. PMID: 7030452.
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    160. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. Central noradrenergic pathways for the integration of hypothalamic neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Science. 1981 Nov 06; 214(4521):685-7. PMID: 7292008.
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    161. Sawchenko P, Swanson LW. A method for tracing biochemically defined pathways in the central nervous system using combined fluorescence retrograde transport and immunohistochemical techniques. Brain Res. 1981 Apr 06; 210(1-2):31-51. PMID: 6164442.
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    162. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Bérod A, Hartman BK, Helle KB, Vanorden DE. An immunohistochemical study of the organization of catecholaminergic cells and terminal fields in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol. 1981 Feb 20; 196(2):271-85. PMID: 6111572.
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    163. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P. Paraventricular nucleus: a site for the integration of neuroendocrine and autonomic mechanisms. Neuroendocrinology. 1980 Dec; 31(6):410-7. PMID: 6109264.
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    164. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Wiegand SJ, Price JL. Separate neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project to the median eminence and to the medulla or spinal cord. Brain Res. 1980 Sep 29; 198(1):190-5. PMID: 7407584.
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    165. Swanson LW, Sawchenko P, Cowan WM. Evidence that the commissural, associational and septal projections of the regio inferior of the hippocampus arise from the same neurons. Brain Res. 1980 Sep 15; 197(1):207-12. PMID: 7397553.
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