Maike Sander

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolVc-health Sciences-schools
Address9500 Gilman Drive #
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Overview
    Our laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differentiation, function and regeneration of cells in the pancreas. We investigate these mechanisms in the context of normal physiology, diabetes and cancer. In our research, we combine of variety experimental systems, including mouse genetics, a human embryonic stem cell-based in vitro differentiation platform, as well as genomic and biochemical approaches.
    In recent studies, we mapped dynamic changes in the transcriptome and epigenome during the progression of pluripotent stem cells toward the pancreatic fate and discovered how chromatin remodeling events prepare developmental precursors to receive and correctly interpret organ-inductive signals. In current work, we are exploring how the cellular environment shapes the epigenome and thereby influences cellular phenotypes in the pancreas. Such knowledge will likely yield an understanding of the mechanisms underlying diseases influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, such as diabetes.

    Research Focus Areas:

  • Developmental Biology

  • Genetics and Genomics

  • Gene Expression and Regulation

  • Stem Cell Biology


  • Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    A 3D vascularized islet biomimetic to model type 1 diabetes
    NIH UG3DK122639Aug 1, 2019 - Jul 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Genetic mechanisms of type 1 diabetes risk in stress-induced pancreatic islets
    NIH R01DK122607Aug 1, 2019 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Pancreatic Diseases Gordon Research Conference
    NIH R13DK121395Mar 1, 2019 - Feb 29, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Single cell analysis of the human pancreas in type 1 diabetes
    NIH U01DK120429Sep 25, 2018 - Aug 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Promotion of beta cell proliferation by epigenetically reprogrammed macrophages
    NIH R01DK114427Jul 1, 2018 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Fine-mapping and functional analysis of T1D-associated variants
    NIH DP3DK112155Sep 30, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional Analysis of T2D Associated Non-coding SNPs
    NIH U01DK105541May 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A novel mouse model to identify biomarkers of IPMN formation and progression
    NIH R21CA194839Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A 3-D biomimetic human islet to model beta cell function in health and disease
    NIH UC4DK104202Sep 20, 2014 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epigenetic strategies for the in vitro generation of replacement beta cells
    NIH U01DK089567Sep 17, 2010 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel insights into nutrient-dependent regulation of beta cell proliferation
    NIH R01DK078803Sep 1, 2007 - Jun 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epigenetic determinants of beta cell development and function
    NIH R01DK068471Jun 1, 2004 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Diabetes Research Center (DRC)
    NIH P30DK063491Dec 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2025
    Role: Co-Investigator
    IVEM and Image Analysis Resource
    NIH P41RR004050May 15, 1997 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Transformation of SOX9+ cells by Pten deletion synergizes with steatotic liver injury to drive development of hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 03; 11(1):11823. Chen J, Debebe A, Zeng N, Kopp J, He L, Sander M, Stiles BL. PMID: 34083580.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Transcriptional mechanisms of pancreatic ß-cell maturation and functional adaptation. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2021 May 21. Wortham M, Sander M. PMID: 34030925.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Interpreting type 1 diabetes risk with genetics and single-cell epigenomics. Nature. 2021 May 19. Chiou J, Geusz RJ, Okino ML, Han JY, Miller M, Melton R, Beebe E, Benaglio P, Huang S, Korgaonkar K, Heller S, Kleger A, Preissl S, Gorkin DU, Sander M, Gaulton KJ. PMID: 34012112.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Single-cell chromatin accessibility identifies pancreatic islet cell type- and state-specific regulatory programs of diabetes risk. Nat Genet. 2021 04; 53(4):455-466. Chiou J, Zeng C, Cheng Z, Han JY, Schlichting M, Miller M, Mendez R, Huang S, Wang J, Sui Y, Deogaygay A, Okino ML, Qiu Y, Sun Y, Kudtarkar P, Fang R, Preissl S, Sander M, Gorkin DU, Gaulton KJ. PMID: 33795864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    5. Pancreatic progenitor epigenome maps prioritize type 2 diabetes risk genes with roles in development. Elife. 2021 Feb 05; 10. Geusz RJ, Wang A, Chiou J, Lancman JJ, Wetton N, Kefalopoulou S, Wang J, Qiu Y, Yan J, Aylward A, Ren B, Dong PDS, Gaulton KJ, Sander M. PMID: 33544077.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    6. A human ESC-based screen identifies a role for the translated lncRNA LINC00261 in pancreatic endocrine differentiation. Elife. 2020 08 03; 9. Gaertner B, van Heesch S, Schneider-Lunitz V, Schulz JF, Witte F, Blachut S, Nguyen S, Wong R, Matta I, Hübner N, Sander M. PMID: 32744504.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    7. LSD1-mediated enhancer silencing attenuates retinoic acid signalling during pancreatic endocrine cell development. Nat Commun. 2020 04 29; 11(1):2082. Vinckier NK, Patel NA, Geusz RJ, Wang A, Wang J, Matta I, Harrington AR, Wortham M, Wetton N, Wang J, Jhala US, Rosenfeld MG, Benner CW, Shih HP, Sander M. PMID: 32350257.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. In vivo-mimicking microfluidic perfusion culture of pancreatic islet spheroids. Sci Adv. 2019 11; 5(11):eaax4520. Jun Y, Lee J, Choi S, Yang JH, Sander M, Chung S, Lee SH. PMID: 31807701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Human stem cell models: lessons for pancreatic development and disease. Genes Dev. 2019 11 01; 33(21-22):1475-1490. Gaertner B, Carrano AC, Sander M. PMID: 31676735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. A Network of microRNAs Acts to Promote Cell Cycle Exit and Differentiation of Human Pancreatic Endocrine Cells. iScience. 2019 Nov 22; 21:681-694. Jin W, Mulas F, Gaertner B, Sui Y, Wang J, Matta I, Zeng C, Vinckier N, Wang A, Nguyen-Ngoc KV, Chiou J, Kaestner KH, Frazer KA, Carrano AC, Shih HP, Sander M. PMID: 31733514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    11. Integrated In Vivo Quantitative Proteomics and Nutrient Tracing Reveals Age-Related Metabolic Rewiring of Pancreatic ß Cell Function. Cell Rep. 2018 12 04; 25(10):2904-2918.e8. Wortham M, Benthuysen JR, Wallace M, Savas JN, Mulas F, Divakaruni AS, Liu F, Albert V, Taylor BL, Sui Y, Saez E, Murphy AN, Yates JR, Metallo CM, Sander M. PMID: 30517875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Evaluation of Different Decellularization Protocols on the Generation of Pancreas-Derived Hydrogels. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2018 12; 24(12):697-708. Gaetani R, Aude S, DeMaddalena LL, Strassle H, Dzieciatkowska M, Wortham M, Bender RHF, Nguyen-Ngoc KV, Schmid-Schöenbein GW, George SC, Hughes CCW, Sander M, Hansen KC, Christman KL. PMID: 30398401.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. N6-methyladenine DNA Modification in Glioblastoma. Cell. 2018 11 15; 175(5):1228-1243.e20. Xie Q, Wu TP, Gimple RC, Li Z, Prager BC, Wu Q, Yu Y, Wang P, Wang Y, Gorkin DU, Zhang C, Dowiak AV, Lin K, Zeng C, Sui Y, Kim LJY, Miller TE, Jiang L, Lee CH, Huang Z, Fang X, Zhai K, Mack SC, Sander M, Bao S, Kerstetter-Fogle AE, Sloan AE, Xiao AZ, Rich JN. PMID: 30392959.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Loss of Pten and Activation of Kras Synergistically Induce Formation of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasia From Pancreatic Ductal Cells in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2018 04; 154(5):1509-1523.e5. Kopp JL, Dubois CL, Schaeffer DF, Samani A, Taghizadeh F, Cowan RW, Rhim AD, Stiles BL, Valasek M, Sander M. PMID: 29273451.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Interrogating islets in health and disease with single-cell technologies. Mol Metab. 2017 09; 6(9):991-1001. Carrano AC, Mulas F, Zeng C, Sander M. PMID: 28951823.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Pseudotemporal Ordering of Single Cells Reveals Metabolic Control of Postnatal ß Cell Proliferation. Cell Metab. 2017 May 02; 25(5):1160-1175.e11. Zeng C, Mulas F, Sui Y, Guan T, Miller N, Tan Y, Liu F, Jin W, Carrano AC, Huising MO, Shirihai OS, Yeo GW, Sander M. PMID: 28467932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Image-based detection and targeting of therapy resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2016 06 16; 534(7607):407-411. Fox RG, Lytle NK, Jaquish DV, Park FD, Ito T, Bajaj J, Koechlein CS, Zimdahl B, Yano M, Kopp J, Kritzik M, Sicklick J, Sander M, Grandgenett PM, Hollingsworth MA, Shibata S, Pizzo D, Valasek M, Sasik R, Scadeng M, Okano H, Kim Y, MacLeod AR, Lowy AM, Reya T. PMID: 27281208.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    18. High T Gives ß Cells a Boost. Cell Metab. 2016 May 10; 23(5):761-3. Wortham M, Sander M. PMID: 27166938.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. ECM Signaling Regulates Collective Cellular Dynamics to Control Pancreas Branching Morphogenesis. Cell Rep. 2016 Jan 12; 14(2):169-79. Shih HP, Panlasigui D, Cirulli V, Sander M. PMID: 26748698.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    20. A Gene Regulatory Network Cooperatively Controlled by Pdx1 and Sox9 Governs Lineage Allocation of Foregut Progenitor Cells. Cell Rep. 2015 Oct 13; 13(2):326-36. Shih HP, Seymour PA, Patel NA, Xie R, Wang A, Liu PP, Yeo GW, Magnuson MA, Sander M. PMID: 26440894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Hybrid Periportal Hepatocytes Regenerate the Injured Liver without Giving Rise to Cancer. Cell. 2015 Aug 13; 162(4):766-79. Font-Burgada J, Shalapour S, Ramaswamy S, Hsueh B, Rossell D, Umemura A, Taniguchi K, Nakagawa H, Valasek MA, Ye L, Kopp JL, Sander M, Carter H, Deisseroth K, Verma IM, Karin M. PMID: 26276631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 149     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Epigenetic priming of enhancers predicts developmental competence of hESC-derived endodermal lineage intermediates. Cell Stem Cell. 2015 Apr 02; 16(4):386-99. Wang A, Yue F, Li Y, Xie R, Harper T, Patel NA, Muth K, Palmer J, Qiu Y, Wang J, Lam DK, Raum JC, Stoffers DA, Ren B, Sander M. PMID: 25842977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 75     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. A systems view of epigenetic networks regulating pancreas development and ß-cell function. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2015 Jan-Feb; 7(1):1-11. Xie R, Carrano AC, Sander M. PMID: 25644779.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Postnatal ß-cell proliferation and mass expansion is dependent on the transcription factor Nkx6.1. Diabetes. 2015 Mar; 64(3):897-903. Taylor BL, Benthuysen J, Sander M. PMID: 25277396.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Pancreas development ex vivo: culturing embryonic pancreas explants on permeable culture inserts, with fibronectin-coated glass microwells, or embedded in three-dimensional Matrigel™. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1210:229-37. Shih HP, Sander M. PMID: 25173172.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. New insights into the cell lineage of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: evidence for tumor stem cells in premalignant lesions? Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan; 146(1):24-6. Kopp JL, Sander M. PMID: 24275238.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Nkx6.1 is essential for maintaining the functional state of pancreatic beta cells. Cell Rep. 2013 Sep 26; 4(6):1262-75. Taylor BL, Liu FF, Sander M. PMID: 24035389.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 138     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Pancreas organogenesis: from lineage determination to morphogenesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2013; 29:81-105. Shih HP, Wang A, Sander M. PMID: 23909279.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 94     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Nkx6.1 controls a gene regulatory network required for establishing and maintaining pancreatic Beta cell identity. PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(1):e1003274. Schaffer AE, Taylor BL, Benthuysen JR, Liu J, Thorel F, Yuan W, Jiao Y, Kaestner KH, Herrera PL, Magnuson MA, May CL, Sander M. PMID: 23382704.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 98     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Dynamic chromatin remodeling mediated by polycomb proteins orchestrates pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2013 Feb 07; 12(2):224-37. Xie R, Everett LJ, Lim HW, Patel NA, Schug J, Kroon E, Kelly OG, Wang A, D'Amour KA, Robins AJ, Won KJ, Kaestner KH, Sander M. PMID: 23318056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 102     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Identification of Sox9-dependent acinar-to-ductal reprogramming as the principal mechanism for initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2012 Dec 11; 22(6):737-50. Kopp JL, von Figura G, Mayes E, Liu FF, Dubois CL, Morris JP, Pan FC, Akiyama H, Wright CV, Jensen K, Hebrok M, Sander M. PMID: 23201164.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 245     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    32. A Sox9/Fgf feed-forward loop maintains pancreatic organ identity. Development. 2012 Sep; 139(18):3363-72. Seymour PA, Shih HP, Patel NA, Freude KK, Xie R, Lim CJ, Sander M. PMID: 22874919.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Generating cells of the gastrointestinal system: current approaches and applications for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Jul; 90(7):763-71. Wang A, Sander M. PMID: 22714642.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation. Development. 2012 Jul; 139(14):2488-99. Shih HP, Kopp JL, Sandhu M, Dubois CL, Seymour PA, Grapin-Botton A, Sander M. PMID: 22675211.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 81     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    35. Transgenic overexpression of the transcription factor Nkx6.1 in ß-cells of mice does not increase ß-cell proliferation, ß-cell mass, or improve glucose clearance. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Nov; 25(11):1904-14. Schaffer AE, Yang AJ, Thorel F, Herrera PL, Sander M. PMID: 21964593.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Sox9-haploinsufficiency causes glucose intolerance in mice. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23131. Dubois CL, Shih HP, Seymour PA, Patel NA, Behrmann JM, Ngo V, Sander M. PMID: 21829703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Progenitor cell domains in the developing and adult pancreas. . 2011 Jun 15; 10(12):1921-7. Kopp JL, Dubois CL, Hao E, Thorel F, Herrera PL, Sander M. PMID: 21558806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    38. Historical perspective: beginnings of the beta-cell: current perspectives in beta-cell development. Diabetes. 2011 Feb; 60(2):364-76. Seymour PA, Sander M. PMID: 21270248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Sox9+ ductal cells are multipotent progenitors throughout development but do not produce new endocrine cells in the normal or injured adult pancreas. Development. 2011 Feb; 138(4):653-65. Kopp JL, Dubois CL, Schaffer AE, Hao E, Shih HP, Seymour PA, Ma J, Sander M. PMID: 21266405.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 224     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Nkx6 transcription factors and Ptf1a function as antagonistic lineage determinants in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Dev Cell. 2010 Jun 15; 18(6):1022-9. Schaffer AE, Freude KK, Nelson SB, Sander M. PMID: 20627083.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 111     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. Dev Biol. 2008 Nov 01; 323(1):19-30. Seymour PA, Freude KK, Dubois CL, Shih HP, Patel NA, Sander M. PMID: 18723011.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Analysis of mPygo2 mutant mice suggests a requirement for mesenchymal Wnt signaling in pancreatic growth and differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008 Jun 15; 318(2):224-35. Jonckheere N, Mayes E, Shih HP, Li B, Lioubinski O, Dai X, Sander M. PMID: 18452912.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Development. 2007 Jul; 134(13):2491-500. Nelson SB, Schaffer AE, Sander M. PMID: 17537793.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 06; 104(6):1865-70. Seymour PA, Freude KK, Tran MN, Mayes EE, Jensen J, Kist R, Scherer G, Sander M. PMID: 17267606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 241     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Immunohistochemical detection of beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein on tissue sections. Methods Mol Biol. 2007; 411:13-23. Seymour PA, Sander M. PMID: 18287635.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas. Development. 2005 Jul; 132(13):3139-49. Henseleit KD, Nelson SB, Kuhlbrodt K, Hennings JC, Ericson J, Sander M. PMID: 15944193.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    47. Expression of Nkx6 genes in the hindbrain and gut of the developing mouse. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005 Jun; 53(6):787-90. Nelson SB, Janiesch C, Sander M. PMID: 15928328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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