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Cindy Ehlers

TitleAdjunct Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Diego
DepartmentPsychiatry
Address9500 Gilman Drive #0603
La Jolla CA 92093
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Individual and community influences on alcohol use disorders and other mental health behaviors in Mexican Americans
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA026248Jun 1, 2018 - Apr 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Deep sequencing studies for cannabis and stimulant dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA030976Sep 30, 2010 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    4/8 NADIA UO1 Effects of Adolescent Alcohol on Drinking, Sleep and Brain Connectivity: Focus on Hypocretin
    NIH/NIAAA U01AA019969Sep 10, 2010 - Aug 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA USE IN NATIVE AMERICANS
    NIH/NIDA R01DA019333Sep 30, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neurobehavioral Consequences of Adolescent Alcohol
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA014339Sep 28, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Alcoholism risk and protective factors in Trinidad
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA014370Aug 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ALCOHOLISM RISK--STUDIES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL MODELS
    NIH/NIAAA K05AA000223Dec 1, 1996 - Nov 30, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOLISM IN NATIVE AMERICANS
    NIH/NIAAA R37AA010201Sep 26, 1994 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOLISM IN NATIVE AMERICANS
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA010201Sep 26, 1994 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MEASURES OF EEG CHAOS IN ALCOHOL RESEARCH
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA009652Jun 1, 1993 - May 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EEG AND ERP MARKERS OF ALCOHOL INTOXICATION
    NIH/NIAAA K02AA000098Sep 29, 1986 - Sep 29, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EEG, ERP and Sleep Measure's of Alcohol's Effects
    NIH/NIAAA R01AA006059Jan 1, 1984 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ehlers C, Sanchez-Alavez M, Wills D. Effect of gabapentin on sleep and delta and theta EEG power in adult rats exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol vapor and protracted withdrawal during adolescence. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Jun; 235(6):1783-1791. PMID: 29589069.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ehlers C, Wills D, Gilder DA. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Jun; 235(6):1775-1782. PMID: 29589068.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Sanchez-Alavez M, Wills DN, Amodeo L, Ehlers C. Effect of Gabapentin on Sleep and Event-Related Oscillations (EROs) in Rats Exposed to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor and Protracted Withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 Mar; 42(3):624-633. PMID: 29286538.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Melroy-Greif WE, Gizer IR, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Genetic Influences on Evening Preference Overlap with Those for Bipolar Disorder in a Sample of Mexican Americans and American Indians. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 Dec; 20(6):499-510. PMID: 29192581.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Peng Q, Gizer IR, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Associations Between Genomic Variants in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes and Alcohol Symptomatology in American Indians and European Americans: Distinctions and Convergence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Oct; 41(10):1695-1704. PMID: 28815635.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Gilder DA, Geisler JR, Luna JA, Calac D, Monti PM, Spillane NS, Lee JP, Moore RS, Ehlers C. A pilot randomized trial of Motivational Interviewing compared to Psycho-Education for reducing and preventing underage drinking in American Indian adolescents. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Nov; 82:74-81. PMID: 29021119.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ehlers C, Pergadia ML, Stoker AK, Vlachou S. Contribution to Mentorship and Promoting Women in Science. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Sep 01. PMID: 28917609.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Amodeo LR, Wills DN, Ehlers C. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents. Behav Brain Res. 2017 07 14; 330:25-29. PMID: 28495609.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Yin X, Bizon C, Tilson J, Lin Y, Gizer IR, Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies a novel susceptibility signal at CACNA2D3 for nicotine dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2017 Apr 25. PMID: 28440896.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Peng Q, Schork NJ, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Whole genome sequence association and ancestry-informed polygenic profile of EEG alpha in a Native American population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2017 Jun; 174(4):435-450. PMID: 28436151.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Gilder DA, Geisler JR, Luna JA, Calac D, Monti PM, Spillane NS, Lee JP, Moore RS, Ehlers C. WITHDRAWN: A randomized trial of motivational interviewing for the prevention of underage drinking in American Indian adolescents. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Apr 23. PMID: 28487187.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Richmond-Rakerd LS, Otto JM, Slutske WS, Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC, Gizer IR. A Novel Tobacco Use Phenotype Suggests the 15q25 and 19q13 Loci May be Differentially Associated With Cigarettes per Day and Tobacco-Related Problems. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Apr 01; 19(4):426-434. PMID: 27663783.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Ehlers C, Wills DN, Lau P, Gilder DA. Sleep Quality in an Adult American Indian Community Sample. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Mar 15; 13(3):385-391. PMID: 27998373.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Melroy-Greif WE, Wilhelmsen KC, Yehuda R, Ehlers C. Genome-Wide Association Study of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Two High-Risk Populations. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 06; 20(3):197-207. PMID: 28262088.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Amodeo LR, Kneiber D, Wills DN, Ehlers C. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats. Alcohol. 2017 03; 59:43-51. PMID: 28187948.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gizer IR, Bizon C, Gilder DA, Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Whole genome sequence study of cannabis dependence in two independent cohorts. Addict Biol. 2018 Jan; 23(1):461-473. PMID: 28111843.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Ehlers C, Kim C, Gilder DA, Stouffer GM, Caetano R, Yehuda R. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD. J Psychiatr Res. 2016 12; 83:79-85. PMID: 27569652.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Otto JM, Gizer IR, Bizon C, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Polygenic risk scores for cigarettes smoked per day do not generalize to a Native American population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 10 01; 167:95-102. PMID: 27530288; PMCID: PMC5037040 [Available on 10/01/17].
    19. Melroy-Greif WE, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Genetic variation in FAAH is associated with cannabis use disorders in a young adult sample of Mexican Americans. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 09 01; 166:249-53. PMID: 27394933; PMCID: PMC4983484 [Available on 09/01/17].
    20. Gilder DA, Stouffer GM, Lau P, Ehlers C. Clinical characteristics of alcohol combined with other substance use disorders in an American Indian community sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Apr 01; 161:222-9. PMID: 26896167; PMCID: PMC4792738 [Available on 04/01/17].
    21. Criado JR, Gilder DA, Kalafut MA, Ehlers C. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control. Clin Auton Res. 2016 Apr; 26(2):87-95. PMID: 26758567; PMCID: PMC4862581 [Available on 04/01/17].
    22. Norden-Krichmar TM, Gizer IR, Phillips E, Wilhelmsen KC, Schork NJ, Ehlers C. Variants Near CCK Receptors are Associated With Electrophysiological Responses to Pre-pulse Startle Stimuli in a Mexican American Cohort. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Dec; 18(6):727-37. PMID: 26608796; PMCID: PMC4727900 [Available on 12/01/16].
    23. Ehlers C, Stouffer GM, Corey L, Gilder DA. The clinical course of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders in young adult native and Mexican Americans. Am J Addict. 2015 Dec; 24(8):713-21. PMID: 26346282; PMCID: PMC4715470 [Available on 12/01/16].
    24. Ehlers C, Wills DN, Phillips E, Havstad J. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol. Int J Psychophysiol. 2015 Oct; 98(1):65-75. PMID: 26151497; PMCID: PMC4579005 [Available on 10/01/16].
    25. Sanchez-Alavez M, Ehlers C. Event-related oscillations (ERO) during an active discrimination task: Effects of lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Int J Psychophysiol. 2016 05; 103:53-61. PMID: 25660307; PMCID: PMC4529390 [Available on 05/01/17].
    26. Norden-Krichmar TM, Gizer IR, Wilhelmsen KC, Schork NJ, Ehlers C. Protective variant associated with alcohol dependence in a Mexican American cohort. BMC Med Genet. 2014 Dec 21; 15:136. PMID: 25527893; PMCID: PMC4337107.
    27. Lee JP, Moore RS, Roberts J, Nelson N, Calac D, Gilder DA, Ehlers C. Off-premise alcohol outlets on and around tribal land: risks for rural California Indian youth. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2015; 14(1):59-78. PMID: 25529892; PMCID: PMC4344917.
    28. Peng Q, Gizer IR, Libiger O, Bizon C, Wilhelmsen KC, Schork NJ, Ehlers C. Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2014 Dec; 165B(8):673-83. PMID: 25270064; PMCID: PMC4364382.
    29. Montane Jaime LK, Shafe S, Liang T, Wills DN, Berg GI, Ehlers C. Subjective response to alcohol and ADH polymorphisms in a select sample of young adult male East Indians and Africans in Trinidad and Tobago. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2014 Sep; 75(5):827-38. PMID: 25208201; PMCID: PMC4161702.
    30. Gilder DA, Gizer IR, Lau P, Ehlers C. Stimulant dependence and stimulant-associated psychosis: clinical characteristics and age of onset in a native American community sample. J Addict Med. 2014 Jul-Aug; 8(4):241-8. PMID: 24755633; PMCID: PMC4122628.
    31. Ehlers C, Stouffer GM, Gilder DA. Associations between a history of binge drinking during adolescence and self-reported responses to alcohol in young adult Native and Mexican Americans. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2039-47. PMID: 24961146; PMCID: PMC4125016.
    32. Ehlers C, Wills DN, Desikan A, Phillips E, Havstad J. Decreases in energy and increases in phase locking of event-related oscillations to auditory stimuli occur during adolescence in human and rodent brain. Dev Neurosci. 2014; 36(3-4):175-95. PMID: 24819672; PMCID: PMC4125510.
    33. Desikan A, Wills DN, Ehlers C. Ontogeny and adolescent alcohol exposure in Wistar rats: open field conflict, light/dark box and forced swim test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Jul; 122:279-85. PMID: 24785000; PMCID: PMC4105136.
    34. Criado JR, Gizer IR, Edenberg HJ, Ehlers C. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2014 Apr; 17(2):80-8. PMID: 24588897; PMCID: PMC4034688.
    35. Sanchez-Alavez M, Robledo P, Wills DN, Havstad J, Ehlers C. Cholinergic modulation of event-related oscillations (ERO). Brain Res. 2014 Apr 22; 1559:11-25. PMID: 24594019; PMCID: PMC4090032.
    36. Norden-Krichmar TM, Gizer IR, Libiger O, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C, Schork NJ. Correlation analysis of genetic admixture and social identification with body mass index in a Native American community. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 26(3):347-60. PMID: 24757035; PMCID: PMC4068510.
    37. Ehlers C, Desikan A, Wills DN. Event-related potential responses to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Mar; 38(3):749-59. PMID: 24483322; PMCID: PMC4002286.
    38. Bizon C, Spiegel M, Chasse SA, Gizer IR, Li Y, Malc EP, Mieczkowski PA, Sailsbery JK, Wang X, Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Variant calling in low-coverage whole genome sequencing of a Native American population sample. BMC Genomics. 2014 Jan 30; 15:85. PMID: 24479562; PMCID: PMC3914019.
    39. Gilder DA, Gizer IR, Lau P, Ehlers C. Item response theory analyses of DSM-IV and DSM-5 stimulant use disorder criteria in an American Indian community sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Feb 01; 135:29-36. PMID: 24200103; PMCID: PMC3915779.
    40. Ehlers C, Desikan A, Wills DN. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. Alcohol. 2013 Dec; 47(8):601-10. PMID: 24169089; PMCID: PMC3896376.
    41. Criado JR, Gilder DA, Kalafut MA, Ehlers C. Obesity in american Indian and mexican american men and women: associations with blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2013; 2013:680687. PMID: 24024026; PMCID: PMC3760286.
    42. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Gilder DA, Ellingson JM, Yehuda R. Measuring historical trauma in an American Indian community sample: contributions of substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Nov 01; 133(1):180-7. PMID: 23791028; PMCID: PMC3810370.
    43. Ehlers C, Oguz I, Budin F, Wills DN, Crews FT. Peri-adolescent ethanol vapor exposure produces reductions in hippocampal volume that are correlated with deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Sep; 37(9):1466-75. PMID: 23578102; PMCID: PMC3715576.
    44. Gizer IR, Gilder DA, Lau P, Wang T, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Contributions of ethnicity to differential item functioning of cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013 Mar; 74(2):320-8. PMID: 23384380; PMCID: PMC3568170.
    45. Ehlers C, Gizer IR. Evidence for a genetic component for substance dependence in Native Americans. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 170(2):154-64. PMID: 23377636; PMCID: PMC3603686.
    46. Gilder DA, Luna JA, Roberts J, Calac D, Grube JW, Moore RS, Ehlers C. Usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2013; 20(2):1-26. PMID: 23824640; PMCID: PMC3788675.
    47. Criado JR, Ehlers C. Effects of adolescent onset voluntary drinking followed by ethanol vapor exposure on subsequent ethanol consumption during protracted withdrawal in adult Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Jan; 103(3):622-30. PMID: 23128022; PMCID: PMC3544970.
    48. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Gilder DA, Yehuda R. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian community sample: heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Feb; 47(2):155-61. PMID: 23102628; PMCID: PMC3530021.
    49. Gizer IR, Ehlers C, Vieten C, Feiler HS, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC. Genome-wide linkage scan of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the UCSF family alcoholism study. Psychiatr Genet. 2012 Oct; 22(5):235-44. PMID: 22517380; PMCID: PMC3427472.
    50. Gilder DA, Ehlers C. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample. Am J Addict. 2012 Nov-Dec; 21(6):536-43. PMID: 23082832; PMCID: PMC3498983.
    51. Ehlers C, Liang T, Gizer IR. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2012 Sep; 38(5):389-94. PMID: 22931071; PMCID: PMC3498484.
    52. Moore RS, Roberts J, McGaffigan R, Calac D, Grube JW, Gilder DA, Ehlers C. Implementing a reward and reminder underage drinking prevention program in convenience stores near Southern California American Indian reservations. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2012 Sep; 38(5):456-60. PMID: 22931080; PMCID: PMC3445436.
    53. Ehlers C, Wills DN, Havstad J. Ethanol reduces the phase locking of neural activity in human and rodent brain. Brain Res. 2012 Apr 23; 1450:67-79. PMID: 22410292; PMCID: PMC3503530.
    54. Criado JR, Gizer IR, Slutske WS, Phillips E, Ehlers C. Event-related oscillations to affective stimuli: heritability, linkage and relationship to externalizing disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Feb; 46(2):256-63. PMID: 22123122; PMCID: PMC3264760.
    55. Blasius AL, Dubin AE, Petrus MJ, Lim BK, Narezkina A, Criado JR, Wills DN, Xia Y, Moresco EM, Ehlers C, Knowlton KU, Patapoutian A, Beutler B. Hypermorphic mutation of the voltage-gated sodium channel encoding gene Scn10a causes a dramatic stimulus-dependent neurobehavioral phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 29; 108(48):19413-8. PMID: 22087007; PMCID: PMC3228463.
    56. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC. Linkage analyses of stimulant dependence, craving, and heavy use in American Indians. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Dec; 156B(7):772-80. PMID: 21812097; PMCID: PMC3188982.
    57. Gizer IR, Edenberg HJ, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Association of alcohol dehydrogenase genes with alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):2008-18. PMID: 21635275; PMCID: PMC3197765.
    58. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Criado JR, Gilder DA. N4 component responses to pre-pulse startle stimuli in young adults: relationship to alcohol dependence. Psychiatry Res. 2011 Jul 30; 188(2):237-44. PMID: 21550123; PMCID: PMC3114177.
    59. Criado JR, Liu T, Ehlers C, Mathé AA. Prolonged chronic ethanol exposure alters neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor levels in the brain of adult Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 Jul; 99(1):104-11. PMID: 21527271; PMCID: PMC3120013.
    60. Gilder DA, Gizer IR, Ehlers C. Item response theory analysis of binge drinking and its relationship to lifetime alcohol use disorder symptom severity in an American Indian community sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 May; 35(5):984-95. PMID: 21314696; PMCID: PMC3083452.
    61. Gizer IR, Ehlers C, Vieten C, Seaton-Smith KL, Feiler HS, Lee JV, Segall SK, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC. Linkage scan of alcohol dependence in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Jan 15; 113(2-3):125-32. PMID: 20817416; PMCID: PMC3008755.
    62. Gilder DA, Luna JA, Calac D, Moore RS, Monti PM, Ehlers C. Acceptability of the use of motivational interviewing to reduce underage drinking in a Native American community. Subst Use Misuse. 2011; 46(6):836-42. PMID: 21210721; PMCID: PMC3075848.
    63. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Criado JR, Caetano R. Sleep quality and alcohol-use disorders in a select population of young-adult Mexican Americans. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010 Nov; 71(6):879-84. PMID: 20946745; PMCID: PMC2965486.
    64. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Schuckit MA, Wilhelmsen KC. Genome-wide scan for self-rating of the effects of alcohol in American Indians. Psychiatr Genet. 2010 Oct; 20(5):221-8. PMID: 20505555; PMCID: PMC2933945.
    65. Walker BM, Drimmer DA, Walker JL, Liu T, Mathé AA, Ehlers C. Effects of prolonged ethanol vapor exposure on forced swim behavior, and neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor levels in rat brains. Alcohol. 2010 Sep; 44(6):487-93. PMID: 20705420; PMCID: PMC2954060.
    66. Criado JR, Ehlers C. Event-related oscillations in the parietal cortex of adult alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring rats (NP). Alcohol. 2010 Jun; 44(4):335-42. PMID: 20598842; PMCID: PMC2918714.
    67. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Vieten C, Wilhelmsen KC. Linkage analyses of cannabis dependence, craving, and withdrawal in the San Francisco family study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Apr 05; 153B(3):802-11. PMID: 19937978; PMCID: PMC2940710.
    68. Crabbe JC, Bell RL, Ehlers C. Human and laboratory rodent low response to alcohol: is better consilience possible? Addict Biol. 2010 Apr; 15(2):125-44. PMID: 20148776; PMCID: PMC2853481.
    69. Ehlers C, Walter NA, Dick DM, Buck KJ, Crabbe JC. A comparison of selected quantitative trait loci associated with alcohol use phenotypes in humans and mouse models. Addict Biol. 2010 Apr; 15(2):185-99. PMID: 20148779; PMCID: PMC2848508.
    70. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Phillips E, Wilhelmsen KC. EEG alpha phenotypes: linkage analyses and relation to alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study. BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 18; 11:43. PMID: 20298578; PMCID: PMC2851592.
    71. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Vieten C, Gilder A, Gilder DA, Stouffer GM, Lau P, Wilhelmsen KC. Age at regular drinking, clinical course, and heritability of alcohol dependence in the San Francisco family study: a gender analysis. Am J Addict. 2010 Mar-Apr; 19(2):101-10. PMID: 20163381; PMCID: PMC2835733.
    72. Criado JR, Ehlers C. Effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on event-related oscillations (EROs) in the hippocampus of adult rats. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Jul 11; 210(2):164-70. PMID: 20170688; PMCID: PMC2862110.
    73. Ehlers C, Criado JR. Adolescent ethanol exposure: does it produce long-lasting electrophysiological effects? Alcohol. 2010 Feb; 44(1):27-37. PMID: 20113872; PMCID: PMC2818286.
    74. Gizer IR, Seaton-Smith KL, Ehlers C, Vieten C, Wilhelmsen KC. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF family alcoholism study. J Addict Dis. 2010 Jan; 29(1):84-97. PMID: 20390702; PMCID: PMC2856115.
    75. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Criado JR, Caetano R. Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans. J Addict Med. 2009 Dec; 3(4):227-33. PMID: 20161543.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Gilder DA, Lau P, Ehlers C. Item response theory analysis of lifetime cannabis-use disorder symptom severity in an American Indian community sample. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009 Nov; 70(6):839-49. PMID: 19895760; PMCID: PMC2776116.
    77. Ehlers C, Gizer IR, Vieten C, Gilder DA, Stouffer GM, Lau P, Wilhelmsen KC. Cannabis dependence in the San Francisco Family Study: age of onset of use, DSM-IV symptoms, withdrawal, and heritability. Addict Behav. 2010 Feb; 35(2):102-10. PMID: 19818563; PMCID: PMC2805269.
    78. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Gizer IR, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jan 15; 106(2-3):101-10. PMID: 19748744; PMCID: PMC2815012.
    79. Pian JP, Criado JR, Walker BM, Ehlers C. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Nov; 94(1):179-85. PMID: 19698741; PMCID: PMC2758077.
    80. Walker BM, Ehlers C. Appetitive motivational experience during adolescence results in enhanced alcohol consumption during adulthood. Behav Neurosci. 2009 Aug; 123(4):926-35. PMID: 19634953; PMCID: PMC2787447.
    81. Moore SM, Liang T, Graves TJ, McCall KM, Carr LG, Ehlers C. Identification of a novel cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH1A1*4. Hum Genomics. 2009 Jul; 3(4):304-7. PMID: 19706361; PMCID: PMC2885287.
    82. Ehlers C, Criado JR. Event-related oscillations in mice: effects of stimulus characteristics. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Jun 30; 181(1):52-7. PMID: 19406149; PMCID: PMC2743542.
    83. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Gizer IR, Wilhelmsen KC. Heritability and a genome-wide linkage analysis of a Type II/B cluster construct for cannabis dependence in an American Indian community. Addict Biol. 2009 Jul; 14(3):338-48. PMID: 19413562; PMCID: PMC2850263.
    84. Montane-Jaime LK, Shafe S, Joseph R, Moore S, Gilder DA, Crooks H, Ramcharan C, Ehlers C. The clinical course of alcoholism in Trinidad and Tobago. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2008 Nov; 69(6):834-9. PMID: 18925341; PMCID: PMC2583374.
    85. Criado JR, Wills DN, Walker BM, Ehlers C. Effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on sleep in adult rats. Alcohol. 2008 Dec; 42(8):631-9. PMID: 18922666; PMCID: PMC2858580.
    86. Walker BM, Ehlers C. Age-related differences in the blood alcohol levels of Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Feb; 91(4):560-5. PMID: 18940195; PMCID: PMC2766013.
    87. Pian JP, Criado JR, Ehlers C. Differential effects of acute alcohol on prepulse inhibition and event-related potentials in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Dec; 32(12):2062-73. PMID: 18828807; PMCID: PMC2726007.
    88. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Slutske WS, Lind PA, Wilhelmsen KC. Externalizing disorders in American Indians: comorbidity and a genome wide linkage analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Sep 05; 147B(6):690-8. PMID: 18286631; PMCID: PMC2839892.
    89. Criado JR, Wills DN, Walker BM, Ehlers C. Electrophysiological effects of dizocilpine (MK-801) in adult rats exposed to ethanol during adolescence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Oct; 32(10):1752-62. PMID: 18652596.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Gilder DA, Lau P, Corey L, Ehlers C. Factors associated with remission from alcohol dependence in an American Indian community group. Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Sep; 165(9):1172-8. PMID: 18519526; PMCID: PMC2835695.
    91. Hodgkinson CA, Yuan Q, Xu K, Shen PH, Heinz E, Lobos EA, Binder EB, Cubells J, Ehlers C, Gelernter J, Mann J, Riley B, Roy A, Tabakoff B, Todd RD, Zhou Z, Goldman D. Addictions biology: haplotype-based analysis for 130 candidate genes on a single array. Alcohol Alcohol. 2008 Sep-Oct; 43(5):505-15. PMID: 18477577.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Ehlers C, Lind PA, Wilhelmsen KC. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) and self-reported responses to alcohol in American Indians. BMC Med Genet. 2008 Apr 23; 9:35. PMID: 18433502; PMCID: PMC2386778.
    93. Walker BM, Walker JL, Ehlers C. Dissociable effects of ethanol consumption during the light and dark phase in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. Alcohol. 2008 Mar; 42(2):83-9. PMID: 18358986; PMCID: PMC2387129.
    94. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Phillips E. P3 components of the event-related potential and marijuana dependence in Southwest California Indians. Addict Biol. 2008 Mar; 13(1):130-42. PMID: 18201292.
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    95. Pian JP, Criado JR, Walker BM, Ehlers C. Differential effects of acute alcohol on EEG and sedative responses in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. Brain Res. 2008 Feb 15; 1194:28-36. PMID: 18191821; PMCID: PMC2275718.
    96. Ehlers C, Slutske WS, Lind PA, Wilhelmsen KC. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and impulsivity in southwest California Indians. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007 Dec; 10(6):805-11. PMID: 18179391.
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    97. Criado JR, Ehlers C. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in Southwest California Indians: relationship to alcohol dependence. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007 Nov; 68(6):813-23. PMID: 17960299.
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    98. Criado JR, Ehlers C. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in Mexican Americans: Relationship to alcohol dependence and personality traits. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Dec; 88(2):148-57. PMID: 17764730; PMCID: PMC2042967.
    99. Ehlers C, Wall TL, Corey L, Lau P, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen K. Heritability of illicit drug use and transition to dependence in Southwest California Indians. Psychiatr Genet. 2007 Jun; 17(3):171-6. PMID: 17417061.
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    100. Moore S, Montane-Jaime K, Shafe S, Joseph R, Crooks H, Carr LG, Ehlers C. Association of ALDH1 promoter polymorphisms with alcohol-related phenotypes in Trinidad and Tobago. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007 Mar; 68(2):192-6. PMID: 17286337.
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    101. Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Genomic screen for substance dependence and body mass index in southwest California Indians. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Mar; 6(2):184-91. PMID: 16764678.
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    102. Ehlers C, Walker BM, Pian JP, Roth JL, Slawecki CJ. Increased alcohol drinking in isolate-housed alcohol-preferring rats. Behav Neurosci. 2007 Feb; 121(1):111-9. PMID: 17324055.
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    103. Ehlers C, Phillips E. Association of EEG alpha variants and alpha power with alcohol dependence in Mexican American young adults. Alcohol. 2007 Feb; 41(1):13-20. PMID: 17452295; PMCID: PMC2047338.
    104. Ehlers C, Montane-Jaime K, Moore S, Shafe S, Joseph R, Carr LG. Association of the ADHIB*3 allele with alcohol-related phenotypes in Trinidad. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Feb; 31(2):216-20. PMID: 17250612.
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    105. Gilder DA, Lau P, Gross A, Ehlers C. A co-morbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders in young adult Mexican Americans. J Addict Dis. 2007; 26(4):31-40. PMID: 18032230.
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    106. Gilder DA, Lau P, Corey L, Ehlers C. Factors associated with remission from cannabis dependence in southwest California Indians. J Addict Dis. 2007; 26(4):23-30. PMID: 18032229.
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    107. Moore S, Montane-Jaime LK, Carr LG, Ehlers C. Variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in people of East Indian and African descent from Trinidad and Tobago. Alcohol Res Health. 2007; 30(1):28-30. PMID: 17718398; PMCID: PMC3860431.
    108. Ehlers C. Variations in ADH and ALDH in Southwest California Indians. Alcohol Res Health. 2007; 30(1):14-7. PMID: 17718395; PMCID: PMC3860438.
    109. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Finnerman G, Gilder D, Lau P, Criado J. P3 components and adolescent binge drinking in Southwest California Indians. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 Jan-Feb; 29(1):153-63. PMID: 17196788.
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    110. Ehlers C, Slutske WS, Gilder DA, Lau P, Wilhelmsen KC. Age at first intoxication and alcohol use disorders in Southwest California Indians. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Nov; 30(11):1856-65. PMID: 17067349.
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    111. Venner KL, Wall TL, Lau P, Ehlers C. Testing of an orthogonal measure of cultural identification with adult mission Indians. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2006 Oct; 12(4):632-43. PMID: 17087525.
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    112. Ehlers C, Slutske WS, Gilder DA, Lau P. Age of first marijuana use and the occurrence of marijuana use disorders in Southwest California Indians. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Feb; 86(2):290-6. PMID: 16930685.
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    113. Ehlers C, Hurst S, Phillips E, Gilder DA, Dixon M, Gross A, Lau P, Yehuda R. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in American Indians experiencing trauma with and without PTSD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jul; 1071:125-36. PMID: 16891567.
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    114. Montane-Jaime K, Moore S, Shafe S, Joseph R, Crooks H, Carr L, Ehlers C. ADH1C*2 allele is associated with alcohol dependence and elevated liver enzymes in Trinidad and Tobago. Alcohol. 2006 Jun; 39(2):81-6. PMID: 17134660.
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    115. Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Genomic screen for loci associated with tobacco usage in Mission Indians. BMC Med Genet. 2006 Feb 10; 7:9. PMID: 16472381; PMCID: PMC1386651.
    116. Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, El Khoury A, Mathe AA, Ehlers C. The effects of social isolation on neuropeptide Y levels, exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jan; 83(1):28-34. PMID: 16458953.
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    117. Gilder DA, Lau P, Dixon M, Corey L, Phillips E, Ehlers C. Co-morbidity of select anxiety, affective, and psychotic disorders with cannabis dependence in Southwest California Indians. J Addict Dis. 2006; 25(4):67-79. PMID: 17088227.
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    118. Irwin MR, Valladares EM, Motivala S, Thayer JF, Ehlers C. Association between nocturnal vagal tone and sleep depth, sleep quality, and fatigue in alcohol dependence. Psychosom Med. 2006 Jan-Feb; 68(1):159-66. PMID: 16449427.
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    119. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. Enhanced prepulse inhibition following adolescent ethanol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Oct; 29(10):1829-36. PMID: 16269912.
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    120. Barron S, White A, Swartzwelder HS, Bell RL, Rodd ZA, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C, Levin ED, Rezvani AH, Spear LP. Adolescent vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure: findings from rodent models. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Sep; 29(9):1720-5. PMID: 16205372.
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    121. Slawecki CJ, Thorsell AK, El Khoury A, Mathé AA, Ehlers C. Increased CRF-like and NPY-like immunoreactivity in adult rats exposed to nicotine during adolescence: relation to anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior. Neuropeptides. 2005 Aug; 39(4):369-77. PMID: 16038974.
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    122. Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Khoury A, Mathe AA, Ehlers C. Effect of social isolation on ethanol consumption and substance P/neurokinin expression in Wistar rats. Alcohol. 2005 Jun; 36(2):91-7. PMID: 16396742.
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    123. Wilhelmsen KC, Ehlers C. Heritability of substance dependence in a native American population. Psychiatr Genet. 2005 Jun; 15(2):101-7. PMID: 15900224.
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    124. Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a history of ethanol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Apr; 29(4):584-90. PMID: 15834223.
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    125. Ehlers C, Wilhelmsen KC. Genomic scan for alcohol craving in Mission Indians. Psychiatr Genet. 2005 Mar; 15(1):71-5. PMID: 15722961.
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    126. Cook TA, Luczak SE, Shea SH, Ehlers C, Carr LG, Wall TL. Associations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes with response to alcohol in Asian Americans. J Stud Alcohol. 2005 Mar; 66(2):196-204. PMID: 15957670.
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    127. Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. Effects of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor on ethanol intake in Wistar rats: interaction with chronic ethanol exposure. Behav Brain Res. 2005 Jun 03; 161(1):133-40. PMID: 15904720.
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    128. Slawecki CJ, Jiménez-Vasquez P, Mathé AA, Ehlers C. Effect of ethanol on brain neuropeptides in adolescent and adult rats. J Stud Alcohol. 2005 Jan; 66(1):46-52. PMID: 15830902.
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    129. Slawecki CJ, Purdy RH, Ehlers C. Electrophysiological effects of allopregnanolone in rats with a history of ethanol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Jan; 29(1):66-74. PMID: 15654293.
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    130. Gilder DA, Wall TL, Ehlers C. Comorbidity of select anxiety and affective disorders with alcohol dependence in southwest California Indians. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Dec; 28(12):1805-13. PMID: 15608596.
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    131. Ehlers C, Spence JP, Wall TL, Gilder DA, Carr LG. Association of ALDH1 promoter polymorphisms with alcohol-related phenotypes in southwest California Indians. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Oct; 28(10):1481-6. PMID: 15597079.
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    132. Slawecki CJ, Thomas JD, Riley EP, Ehlers C. Neurophysiologic consequences of neonatal ethanol exposure in the rat. Alcohol. 2004 Oct-Nov; 34(2-3):187-96. PMID: 15902912.
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    133. Ehlers C, Gilder DA, Wall TL, Phillips E, Feiler H, Wilhelmsen KC. Genomic screen for loci associated with alcohol dependence in Mission Indians. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004 Aug 15; 129B(1):110-5. PMID: 15274051.
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    134. Ehlers C, Wall TL, Betancourt M, Gilder DA. The clinical course of alcoholism in 243 Mission Indians. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul; 161(7):1204-10. PMID: 15229052.
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    135. Slawecki CJ, Thorsell A, Ehlers C. Long-term neurobehavioral effects of alcohol or nicotine exposure in adolescent animal models. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1021:448-52. PMID: 15251927.
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    136. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Schuckit MA. EEG alpha variants and alpha power in Hispanic American and white non-Hispanic American young adults with a family history of alcohol dependence. Alcohol. 2004 Jun; 33(2):99-106. PMID: 15528007.
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    137. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Wall TL, Wilhelmsen K, Schuckit MA. EEG alpha and level of response to alcohol in Hispanic- and non-Hispanic-American young adults with a family history of alcoholism. J Stud Alcohol. 2004 May; 65(3):301-8. PMID: 15222586.
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    138. Spence JP, Liang T, Eriksson CJ, Taylor RE, Wall TL, Ehlers C, Carr LG. Evaluation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 promoter polymorphisms identified in human populations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Sep; 27(9):1389-94. PMID: 14506398; PMCID: PMC4560114.
    139. Dahl RE, Williamson DE, Bertocci MA, Stolz MV, Ryan ND, Ehlers C. Spectral analyses of sleep EEG in depressed offspring of fathers with or without a positive history of alcohol abuse or dependence: a pilot study. Alcohol. 2003 Jul; 30(3):193-200. PMID: 13679113.
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    140. Ehlers C, Phillips E, Sweeny A, Slawecki CJ. Event-related potential responses to alcohol-related stimuli in African-American young adults: relation to family history of alcoholism and drug usage. Alcohol Alcohol. 2003 Jul-Aug; 38(4):332-8. PMID: 12814900.
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    141. Slawecki CJ, Gilder A, Roth J, Ehlers C. Increased anxiety-like behavior in adult rats exposed to nicotine as adolescents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 May; 75(2):355-61. PMID: 12873627.
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    142. Ehlers C, Phillips E. EEG low-voltage alpha and alpha power in African American young adults: relation to family history of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 May; 27(5):765-72. PMID: 12766620.
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    143. Ehlers C, Carr L, Betancourt M, Montane-Jaime K. Association of the ADH2*3 allele with greater alcohol expectancies in African-American young adults. J Stud Alcohol. 2003 Mar; 64(2):176-81. PMID: 12713190.
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    144. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on the cortical EEG are reduced following adolescent nicotine exposure. Neuropeptides. 2003 Feb; 37(1):66-73. PMID: 12637038.
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    145. Wall TL, Carr LG, Ehlers C. Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jan; 160(1):41-6. PMID: 12505800.
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    146. Ehlers C, Somes C. Long latency event-related potentials in mice: effects of stimulus characteristics and strain. Brain Res. 2002 Dec 06; 957(1):117-28. PMID: 12443987.
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    147. Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. Lasting effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the electroencephalogram, event related potentials, and locomotor activity in the rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002 Sep 20; 138(1):15-25. PMID: 12234654.
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    148. Katner SN, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers C. Neuropeptide Y administration into the amygdala does not affect ethanol consumption. Alcohol. 2002 Aug; 28(1):29-38. PMID: 12377358.
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    149. Gilder DA, Wall TL, Ehlers C. Psychiatric diagnoses among Mission Indian children with and without a parental history of alcohol dependence. J Stud Alcohol. 2002 Jan; 63(1):18-23. PMID: 11925054.
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    150. Ehlers C, Somes C, Li TK, Lumeng L, Hwang BH, Jimenez P, Mathé AA. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels and alcohol. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999 Sep; 2(3):173-179. PMID: 11281986.
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