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Sonya Norman

Title(s)Professor Of Clinical, Psychiatry
SchoolHealth Sciences
Phone858-642-3885
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    Biography

    Dr. Norman received her B.A. from Vassar College and her Ph.D. from Stanford University. She completed her pre-doctoral internship at the University of California, San Diego/V.A. San Diego Healthcare System. After receiving her Ph.D., Dr. Norman completed a postdoctoral fellowship at UCSD focusing on neurobiology of trauma in women. She completed an NIAAA-funded career development award on concurrent treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder.

    Research Interests

    Dr. Norman’s research primarily involves etiology, assessment, and treatment of PTSD. She is particularly interested in co-occurring PTSD and alcohol/substance use disorders as well as in developing and evaluating psychotherapy treatments for guilt and PTSD in recently deployed combat Veterans. She is co-chair of the VA's workgroup on PTSD-SUD implementation research through the HSR&D QUERI.

    Clinical Focus

    Dr. Norman is the director of the PTSD Consultation Program through the Executive Branch of the National Center for PTSD. She previously directed for the VA San Diego OEF/OIF PTSD clinic which treats PTSD in recently deployed Veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Combining Topiramate and Prolonged Exposure for PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder
    VA I01RX002412Nov 1, 2017 - Oct 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Integrated Alcohol Disorder and PTSD Treatment
    VA I01CX000756Oct 1, 2012 - Sep 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AUDs and PTSD Treatment for Victims of Partner Violence
    NIH/NIAAA K23AA015707Sep 25, 2005 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Clinical Trials
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Hamblen JL, Norman SB, Sonis JH, Phelps AJ, Bisson JI, Nunes VD, Megnin-Viggars O, Forbes D, Riggs DS, Schnurr PP. A guide to guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: An update. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2019 Sep; 56(3):359-373. PMID: 31282712.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Salas J, Scherrer JF, Tuerk P, van den Berk-Clark C, Chard KM, Schneider FD, Schnurr PP, Friedman MJ, Norman SB, Cohen BE, Lustman P. Large posttraumatic stress disorder improvement and antidepressant medication adherence. J Affect Disord. 2019 Aug 31; 260:119-123. PMID: 31494363.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Scherrer JF, Salas J, Norman SB, Schnurr PP, Chard KM, Tuerk P, Schneider FD, van den Berk-Clark C, Cohen BE, Friedman MJ, Lustman PJ. Association Between Clinically Meaningful Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Improvement and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 21. PMID: 31433443.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Norman SB. Concerns About Potential Bias in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Integrated Prolonged Exposure Therapy vs Seeking Safety Integrated Coping Skills Therapy-Reply. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 14. PMID: 31411645.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lyons R, Haller M, Curry I, Norman SB. The relationship between negative trauma-related cognitions and psychosocial functioning in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorder. Subst Abus. 2019 Jul 17; 1-7. PMID: 31314701.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Nichter B, Norman S, Haller M, Pietrzak RH. Psychological burden of PTSD, depression, and their comorbidity in the U.S. veteran population: Suicidality, functioning, and service utilization. J Affect Disord. 2019 Jul 02; 256:633-640. PMID: 31299445.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Walters EM, Jenkins MM, Nappi CM, Clark J, Lies J, Norman SB, Drummond SPA. The impact of prolonged exposure on sleep and enhancing treatment outcomes with evidence-based sleep interventions: A pilot study. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31246050.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Nichter B, Norman S, Haller M, Pietrzak RH. Physical health burden of PTSD, depression, and their comorbidity in the U.S. veteran population: Morbidity, functioning, and disability. J Psychosom Res. 2019 Sep; 124:109744. PMID: 31443821.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Stein MB, Norman SB. When Does Meta-analysis of a Network Not Work?: Fishing for Answers. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 12. PMID: 31188403.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Loflin MJE, Babson K, Sottile J, Norman SB, Gruber S, Bonn-Miller MO. A cross-sectional examination of choice and behavior of veterans with access to free medicinal cannabis. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2019 May 28; 1-8. PMID: 31135227.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Crocker LD, Jurick SM, Thomas KR, Keller AV, Sanderson-Cimino M, Hoffman SN, Boyd B, Rodgers C, Norman SB, Lang AJ, Twamley EW, Jak AJ. Mild traumatic brain injury characteristics do not negatively influence cognitive processing therapy attendance or outcomes. J Psychiatr Res. 2019 Sep; 116:7-13. PMID: 31174014.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Scherrer JF, Salas J, Lustman P, Tuerk P, Gebauer S, Norman SB, Schneider FD, Chard KM, van den Berk-Clark C, Cohen BE, Schnurr PP. Combined effect of posttraumatic stress disorder and prescription opioid use on risk of cardiovascular disease. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2019 May 13; 2047487319850717. PMID: 31084262.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Norman SB, Trim R, Haller M, Davis BC, Myers US, Colvonen PJ, Blanes E, Lyons R, Siegel EY, Angkaw AC, Norman GJ, Mayes T. Efficacy of Integrated Exposure Therapy vs Integrated Coping Skills Therapy for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31017639.
      View in: PubMed
    14. van den Berk Clark C, Moore R, Secrest S, Tuerk P, Norman S, Myers U, Lustman PJ, Schneider FD, Barnes J, Gallamore R, Ovais M, Plurad JA, Scherrer JF. Factors Associated With Receipt of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Prolonged Exposure Therapy Among Individuals With PTSD. Psychiatr Serv. 2019 Apr 23; appips201800408. PMID: 31010409.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Osma J, Quilez-Orden A, Suso-Ribera C, Peris-Baquero O, Norman SB, Bentley KH, Sauer-Zavala S. Psychometric properties and validation of the Spanish versions of the overall anxiety and depression severity and impairment scales. J Affect Disord. 2019 Jun 01; 252:9-18. PMID: 30953927.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Curry I, Malaktaris AL, Lyons R, Herbert MS, Norman SB. The Association Between Negative Trauma-Related Cognitions and Pain-Related Functional Status Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2019 Apr; 32(2):317-322. PMID: 30913347.
      View in: PubMed
    17. McCarthy E, DeViva JC, Norman SB, Southwick SM, Pietrzak RH. Self-assessed sleep quality partially mediates the relationship between PTSD symptoms and functioning and quality of life in U.S. Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Feb 28. PMID: 30816770.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Scherrer JF, Salas J, Cohen BE, Schnurr PP, Schneider FD, Chard KM, Tuerk P, Friedman MJ, Norman SB, van den Berk-Clark C, Lustman PJ. Comorbid Conditions Explain the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Feb 19; 8(4):e011133. PMID: 30755078.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Jak AJ, Jurick S, Crocker LD, Sanderson-Cimino M, Aupperle R, Rodgers CS, Thomas KR, Boyd B, Norman SB, Lang AJ, Keller AV, Schiehser DM, Twamley EW. SMART-CPT for veterans with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and history of traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019 Mar; 90(3):333-341. PMID: 30554135.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Rauch SAM, Kim HM, Powell C, Tuerk PW, Simon NM, Acierno R, Allard CB, Norman SB, Venners MR, Rothbaum BO, Stein MB, Porter K, Martis B, King AP, Liberzon I, Phan KL, Hoge CW. Efficacy of Prolonged Exposure Therapy, Sertraline Hydrochloride, and Their Combination Among Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 05. PMID: 30516797.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Scherrer JF, Salas J, Lustman PJ, van den Berk-Clark C, Schnurr PP, Tuerk P, Cohen BE, Friedman MJ, Norman SB, Schneider FD, Chard KM. The Role of Obesity in the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Incident Diabetes. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 01; 75(11):1189-1198. PMID: 30090920.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Straus E, Norman SB, Haller M, Southwick SM, Hamblen JL, Pietrzak RH. Differences in protective factors among U.S. Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use disorder, and their comorbidity: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 01 01; 194:6-12. PMID: 30390551.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Colvonen PJ, Drummond SPA, Angkaw AC, Norman SB. Piloting cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia integrated with prolonged exposure. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Jan; 11(1):107-113. PMID: 30211598.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Malaktaris AL, Buzzella BA, Siegel ME, Myers US, Browne KC, Norman SB, Angkaw AC. OEF/OIF/OND Veterans Seeking PTSD Treatment: Perceptions of Partner Involvement in Trauma-Focused Treatment. Mil Med. 2018 Sep 12. PMID: 30215768.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Myers US, Haller M, Angkaw AC, Harik JM, Norman SB. Evidence-based psychotherapy completion and symptom improvement among returning combat veterans with PTSD. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Feb; 11(2):216-223. PMID: 30035552.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Straus LD, Norman SB, Risbrough VB, Acheson DT, Drummond SPA. REM sleep and safety signal learning in posttraumatic stress disorder: A preliminary study in military veterans. Neurobiol Stress. 2018 Nov; 9:22-28. PMID: 30116769.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Bannister JA, Colvonen PJ, Angkaw AC, Norman SB. Differential relationships of guilt and shame on posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Jan; 11(1):35-42. PMID: 30010379.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Colvonen PJ, Straus LD, Stepnowsky C, McCarthy MJ, Goldstein LA, Norman SB. Recent Advancements in Treating Sleep Disorders in Co-Occurring PTSD. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018 06 21; 20(7):48. PMID: 29931537.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Vujanovic AA, Farris SG, Bartlett BA, Lyons RC, Haller M, Colvonen PJ, Norman SB. Anxiety sensitivity in the association between posttraumatic stress and substance use disorders: A systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2018 06; 62:37-55. PMID: 29778929.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Norman SB, Haller M, Hamblen JL, Southwick SM, Pietrzak RH. The burden of co-occurring alcohol use disorder and PTSD in U.S. Military veterans: Comorbidities, functioning, and suicidality. Psychol Addict Behav. 2018 03; 32(2):224-229. PMID: 29553778.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Norman SB, Haller M, Kim HM, Allard CB, Porter KE, Stein MB, Venners MR, Authier CC, Rauch SAM. Trauma related guilt cognitions partially mediate the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and functioning among returning combat veterans. J Psychiatr Res. 2018 05; 100:56-62. PMID: 29486403.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Colvonen PJ, Ellison J, Haller M, Norman SB. Examining Insomnia and PTSD Over Time in Veterans in Residential Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and PTSD. Behav Sleep Med. 2019 Jul-Aug; 17(4):524-535. PMID: 29364693.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Straus E, Haller M, Lyons RC, Norman SB. Functional and Psychiatric Correlates of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder. Alcohol Res. 2018; 39(2):121-129. PMID: 31198652.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Straus LD, Drummond SPA, Risbrough VB, Norman SB. Sleep Disruption, Safety Learning, and Fear Extinction in Humans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2018; 38:193-205. PMID: 28942597.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Rauch SAM, Simon NM, Kim HM, Acierno R, King AP, Norman SB, Venners MR, Porter K, Phan KL, Tuerk PW, Allard C, Liberzon I, Rothbaum BO, Martis B, Stein MB, Hoge CW. Integrating biological treatment mechanisms into randomized clinical trials: Design of PROGrESS (PROlonGed ExpoSure and Sertraline Trial). Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 01; 64:128-138. PMID: 29081351.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Colvonen PJ, Glassman LH, Crocker LD, Buttner MM, Orff H, Schiehser DM, Norman SB, Afari N. Corrigendum to "Pretreatment biomarkers predicting PTSD psychotherapy outcomes: A systematic review" [Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 75 (2017) 140-156]. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 01; 84:495. PMID: 28951017.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Siegel EY, Haller M, Cui R, Trim RS, Tate SR, Norman SB. Examining changes in negative mood regulation expectancies, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance use following integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy. Subst Abus. 2017 Oct-Dec; 38(4):468-472. PMID: 28632462.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Norman SB, Hamblen JL. Promising Directions for Treating Comorbid PTSD and Substance Use Disorder. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 04; 41(4):708-710. PMID: 28181264.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Colvonen PJ, Glassman LH, Crocker LD, Buttner MM, Orff H, Schiehser DM, Norman SB, Afari N. Pretreatment biomarkers predicting PTSD psychotherapy outcomes: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017 Apr; 75:140-156. PMID: 28143760.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Haller M, Myers US, McKnight A, Angkaw AC, Norman SB. Predicting engagement in psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy among returning veterans seeking PTSD treatment. Psychol Serv. 2016 11; 13(4):341-348. PMID: 27428257.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Crocker LD, Haller M, Norman SB, Angkaw AC. Shame versus trauma-related guilt as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans. Psychol Trauma. 2016 07; 8(4):520-7. PMID: 27348068.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Haller M, Colvonen PJ, Davis BC, Trim RS, Bogner R, Sevcik J, Norman SB. Examining Pretreatment Differences Between Veterans in Residential Versus Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Combat-Related PTSD. J Dual Diagn. 2016 Jul-Dec; 12(3-4):282-289. PMID: 27808661.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Lang AJ, Schnurr PP, Jain S, He F, Walser RD, Bolton E, Benedek DM, Norman SB, Sylvers P, Flashman L, Strauss J, Raman R, Chard KM. Randomized controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for distress and impairment in OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Psychol Trauma. 2017 Aug; 9(Suppl 1):74-84. PMID: 27322609.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Harik JM, Hundt NE, Bernardy NC, Norman SB, Hamblen JL. Desired Involvement in Treatment Decisions Among Adults with PTSD Symptoms. J Trauma Stress. 2016 06; 29(3):221-8. PMID: 27171567.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Allard CB, Norman SB, Thorp SR, Browne KC, Stein MB. Mid-Treatment Reduction in Trauma-Related Guilt Predicts PTSD and Functioning Following Cognitive Trauma Therapy for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. J Interpers Violence. 2018 12; 33(23):3610-3629. PMID: 26969690.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Aupperle RL, Stillman AN, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Allard CB, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Intimate Partner Violence PTSD and Neural Correlates of Inhibition. J Trauma Stress. 2016 Feb; 29(1):33-40. PMID: 26748991.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Cui R, Haller M, Skidmore JR, Goldsteinholm K, Norman S, Tate SR. Treatment Attendance Among Veterans With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma. J Dual Diagn. 2016; 12(1):15-26. PMID: 26828770.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Haller M, Norman SB, Cummins K, Trim RS, Xu X, Cui R, Allard CB, Brown SA, Tate SR. Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2016 Mar; 62:38-48. PMID: 26718130.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Jak AJ, Aupperle R, Rodgers CS, Lang AJ, Schiehser DM, Norman SB, Twamley EW. Evaluation of a hybrid treatment for Veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 45(Pt B):210-216. PMID: 26500169.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Jenkins MM, Colvonen PJ, Norman SB, Afari N, Allard CB, Drummond SP. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Insomnia in First-Encounter Veterans with and without Military Sexual Trauma. Sleep. 2015 Oct 01; 38(10):1547-54. PMID: 26085301.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Haller M, Angkaw AC, Hendricks BA, Norman SB. Does Reintegration Stress Contribute to Suicidal Ideation Among Returning Veterans Seeking PTSD Treatment? Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2016 Apr; 46(2):160-71. PMID: 26235282.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Linke SE, Noble M, Hurst S, Strong DR, Redwine L, Norman SB, Lindamer LA. An Exercise-Based Program for Veterans with Substance Use Disorders: Formative Research. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2015 Jul-Aug; 47(3):248-57. PMID: 26098629.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Angkaw AC, Haller M, Pittman JO, Nunnink SE, Norman SB, Lemmer JA, McLay RN, Baker DG. Alcohol-Related Consequences Mediating PTSD Symptoms and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans. Mil Med. 2015 Jun; 180(6):670-5. PMID: 26032382.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Norman SB, Haller M, Spadoni AD, Drummond SP, Risbrough V, Hamblen JL, Trim RS, Blanes EX. Maximizing the utility of a single site randomized controlled psychotherapy trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 May; 42:244-51. PMID: 25933919.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Colvonen PJ, Masino T, Drummond SP, Myers US, Angkaw AC, Norman SB. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Apr 15; 11(5):513-8. PMID: 25665698.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Browne KC, Trim RS, Myers US, Norman SB. Trauma-related guilt: conceptual development and relationship with posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Apr; 28(2):134-41. PMID: 25864504.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Straus LD, Drummond SP, Nappi CM, Jenkins MM, Norman SB. Sleep variability in military-related PTSD: a comparison to primary insomnia and healthy controls. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Feb; 28(1):8-16. PMID: 25630526.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Myers US, Browne KC, Norman SB. Treatment Engagement: Female Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in Treatment for PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder. J Dual Diagn. 2015; 11(3-4):238-47. PMID: 26515712.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Norman SB, Rosen J, Himmerich S, Myers US, Davis B, Browne KC, Piland N. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2015; 52(6):701-12. PMID: 26561791.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Kuckertz JM, Amir N, Boffa JW, Warren CK, Rindt SE, Norman S, Ram V, Ziajko L, Webb-Murphy J, McLay R. The effectiveness of an attention bias modification program as an adjunctive treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2014 Dec; 63:25-35. PMID: 25277496.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Ito M, Oe Y, Kato N, Nakajima S, Fujisato H, Miyamae M, Kanie A, Horikoshi M, Norman SB. Validity and clinical interpretability of Overall Anxiety Severity And Impairment Scale (OASIS). J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:217-24. PMID: 25259673.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Norman SB, Schmied E, Larson GE. Predictors of continued problem drinking and substance use following military discharge. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2014 Jul; 75(4):557-66. PMID: 24988254.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Pedersen ER, Myers US, Browne KC, Norman SB. The role of alcohol expectancies in drinking behavior among women with alcohol use disorder and comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014 Jul-Aug; 46(3):178-87. PMID: 25052876.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Norman SB, Wilkins KC, Myers US, Allard CB. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction Therapy With Combat Veterans. Cogn Behav Pract. 2014 Feb 01; 21(1):78-88. PMID: 25404850.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Larson GE, Norman SB. Prospective prediction of functional difficulties among recently separated veterans. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014; 51(3):415-27. PMID: 25019664.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Taylor MK, Larson GE, Norman SB. Depression and pain: independent and additive relationships to anger expression. Mil Med. 2013 Oct; 178(10):1065-70. PMID: 24083919.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Simmons AN, Norman SB, Spadoni AD, Strigo IA. Neurosubstrates of remission following prolonged exposure therapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychother Psychosom. 2013; 82(6):382-9. PMID: 24061484.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Neural responses during emotional processing before and after cognitive trauma therapy for battered women. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Oct 30; 214(1):48-55. PMID: 23916537.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Heltemes KJ, Clouser MC, MacGregor AJ, Norman SB, Galarneau MR. Co-occurring mental health and alcohol misuse: dual disorder symptoms in combat injured veterans. Addict Behav. 2014 Feb; 39(2):392-8. PMID: 23830527.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Norman SB, Allard CB, Trim RS, Thorp SR, Behrooznia M, Masino TT, Stein MB. Psychometrics of the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) in a sample of women with and without trauma histories. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013 Apr; 16(2):123-9. PMID: 23296334.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Twamley EW, Baker DG, Norman SB, Pittman JO, Lohr JB, Resnick SG. Veterans Health Administration vocational services for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans with mental health conditions. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(5):663-70. PMID: 24013914.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Aupperle RL, Allard CB, Grimes EM, Simmons AN, Flagan T, Behrooznia M, Cissell SH, Twamley EW, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during emotional anticipation and neuropsychological performance in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):360-71. PMID: 22474105.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Chesher NJ, Bousman CA, Gale M, Norman SB, Twamley EW, Heaton RK, Everall IP, Judd PA. Chronic illness histories of adults entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental health disorders. Am J Addict. 2012 Jan-Feb; 21(1):1-4. PMID: 22211340.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Norman SB, Trim RS, Goldsmith AA, Dimsdale JE, Hoyt DB, Norman GJ, Stein MB. Role of risk factors proximate to time of trauma in the course of PTSD and MDD symptoms following traumatic injury. J Trauma Stress. 2011 Aug; 24(4):390-8. PMID: 21834085.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Wilkins KC, Lang AJ, Norman SB. Synthesis of the psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL) military, civilian, and specific versions. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Jul; 28(7):596-606. PMID: 21681864.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Norman SB, Myers US, Wilkins KC, Goldsmith AA, Hristova V, Huang Z, McCullough KC, Robinson SK. Review of biological mechanisms and pharmacological treatments of comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):542-51. PMID: 21600225.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Bousman CA, Twamley EW, Vella L, Gale M, Norman SB, Judd P, Everall IP, Heaton RK. Homelessness and neuropsychological impairment: preliminary analysis of adults entering outpatient psychiatric treatment. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Nov; 198(11):790-4. PMID: 21048468.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Norman SB, Campbell-Sills L, Hitchcock CA, Sullivan S, Rochlin A, Wilkins KC, Stein MB. Psychometrics of a brief measure of anxiety to detect severity and impairment: the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). J Psychiatr Res. 2011 Feb; 45(2):262-8. PMID: 20609450.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Fonzo GA, Simmons AN, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Paulus MP, Stein MB. Exaggerated and disconnected insular-amygdalar blood oxygenation level-dependent response to threat-related emotional faces in women with intimate-partner violence posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Sep 01; 68(5):433-41. PMID: 20573339.
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    80. Najavits LM, Norman SB, Kivlahan D, Kosten TR. Improving PTSD/substance abuse treatment in the VA: a survey of providers. Am J Addict. 2010 May-Jun; 19(3):257-63. PMID: 20525033.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Norman SB, Tate SR, Wilkins KC, Cummins K, Brown SA. Posttraumatic stress disorder's role in integrated substance dependence and depression treatment outcomes. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2010 Jun; 38(4):346-55. PMID: 20363091.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Norman SB, Wilkins KC, Tapert SF, Lang AJ, Najavits LM. A pilot study of seeking safety therapy with OEF/OIF veterans. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2010 Mar; 42(1):83-7. PMID: 20464809.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Twamley EW, Allard CB, Thorp SR, Norman SB, Hami Cissell S, Hughes Berardi K, Grimes EM, Stein MB. Cognitive impairment and functioning in PTSD related to intimate partner violence. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009 Nov; 15(6):879-87. PMID: 19703324.
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    84. Lang AJ, Norman SB, Means-Christensen A, Stein MB. Abbreviated brief symptom inventory for use as an anxiety and depression screening instrument in primary care. Depress Anxiety. 2009; 26(6):537-43. PMID: 19016462.
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    85. Luan FL, Zhang H, Schaubel DE, Miles CD, Cibrik D, Norman S, Ojo AO. Comparative risk of impaired glucose metabolism associated with cyclosporine versus tacrolimus in the late posttransplant period. Am J Transplant. 2008 Sep; 8(9):1871-7. PMID: 18786231.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Simmons AN, Paulus MP, Thorp SR, Matthews SC, Norman SB, Stein MB. Functional activation and neural networks in women with posttraumatic stress disorder related to intimate partner violence. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Oct 15; 64(8):681-90. PMID: 18639236.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Campbell-Sills L, Norman SB, Craske MG, Sullivan G, Lang AJ, Chavira DA, Bystritsky A, Sherbourne C, Roy-Byrne P, Stein MB. Validation of a brief measure of anxiety-related severity and impairment: the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). J Affect Disord. 2009 Jan; 112(1-3):92-101. PMID: 18486238.
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    88. Norman SB, Inaba RK, Smith TL, Brown SA. Development of the PTSD-alcohol expectancy questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2008 Jun; 33(6):841-7. PMID: 18261858.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Norman SB, Stein MB, Dimsdale JE, Hoyt DB. Pain in the aftermath of trauma is a risk factor for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med. 2008 Apr; 38(4):533-42. PMID: 17825121.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Norman SB, Tate SR, Anderson KG, Brown SA. Do trauma history and PTSD symptoms influence addiction relapse context? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Sep 06; 90(1):89-96. PMID: 17459611.
      View in: PubMed
    91. Tate SR, Norman SB, McQuaid JR, Brown SA. Health problems of substance-dependent veterans with and those without trauma history. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007 Jul; 33(1):25-32. PMID: 17588486.
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    92. Norman SB, Stein MB, Davidson JR. Profiling posttraumatic functional impairment. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Jan; 195(1):48-53. PMID: 17220739.
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    94. Harris AH, Luskin F, Norman SB, Standard S, Bruning J, Evans S, Thoresen CE. Effects of a group forgiveness intervention on forgiveness, perceived stress, and trait-anger. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Jun; 62(6):715-33. PMID: 16538652.
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    95. Norman SB, Cissell SH, Means-Christensen AJ, Stein MB. Development and validation of an Overall Anxiety Severity And Impairment Scale (OASIS). Depress Anxiety. 2006; 23(4):245-9. PMID: 16688739.
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    96. Norman SB, Norman GJ, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO. Identifying high- and low-success smoking cessation subgroups using signal detection analysis. Addict Behav. 2006 Jan; 31(1):31-41. PMID: 15936153.
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    97. Norman SB, Lang AJ. The functional impact of anxiety sensitivity in the chronically physically ill. Depress Anxiety. 2005; 21(4):154-60. PMID: 16035054.
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    98. Norman S, Castro C, Albright C, King A. Comparing acculturation models in evaluating dietary habits among low-income Hispanic women. Ethn Dis. 2004; 14(3):399-404. PMID: 15328942.
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    99. Swendsen JD, Norman S. Preparing for community violence: mood and behavioral correlates of the second Rodney King verdicts. J Trauma Stress. 1998 Jan; 11(1):57-70. PMID: 9479676.
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    100. Lumley MA, Norman S. Alexithymia and health care utilization. Psychosom Med. 1996 May-Jun; 58(3):197-202. PMID: 8771617.
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    101. Dennis RJ, Maldonado D, Norman S, Baena E, Martinez G. Woodsmoke exposure and risk for obstructive airways disease among women. Chest. 1996 Jan; 109(1):115-9. PMID: 8549171.
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    102. Halpern AC, Guerry D, Elder DE, Clark WH, Synnestvedt M, Norman S, Ayerle R. Dysplastic nevi as risk markers of sporadic (nonfamilial) melanoma. A case-control study. Arch Dermatol. 1991 Jul; 127(7):995-9. PMID: 2064418.
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