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    William Kristan

    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0357
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-4760
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      A Neuronal Network that Regulates Motor Synchrony
      NIH/FIC R03TW006832Jan 15, 2004 - Dec 31, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      SENSORY INPUT ONTO THE SEROTONERGIC NEURONS IN THE LEECH
      NIH/FIC R03TW000929May 1, 1998 - Apr 30, 2001
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Development of Neuronal Circuits for Simple Behaviors
      NIH/NINDS R01NS035336Jan 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neuronal Control of Interactions Among Behaviors
      NIH/NIMH R01MH043396Feb 1, 1988 - Nov 30, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Systems and Integrative Neurobiology Training Grant
      NIH/NIGMS T32GM008107Jul 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE NEURONAL CIRCUIT
      NIH/NINDS R01NS020746Dec 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 1987
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Scientific Review and Evaluation Award - NSD Initial Review Group
      NIH/NINDS U09NS020453Jul 1, 1983 - Aug 31, 2006
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      NEURONAL BASIS OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
      NIH/NINDS R01NS014410Jan 1, 1979 - Dec 31, 1987
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Kristan W. Functional Connectomics: How Maggots Make Up Their Minds. Curr Biol. 2017 Jan 09; 27(1):R38-R41. PMID: 28073023.
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      2. Pipkin JE, Bushong EA, Ellisman MH, Kristan W. Patterns and distribution of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements within serial electron microscopic reconstructions of neuronal arbors from the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana. J Comp Neurol. 2016 Dec 15; 524(18):3677-3695. PMID: 27636374.
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      3. Kristan W. Early evolution of neurons. Curr Biol. 2016 Oct 24; 26(20):R949-R954. PMID: 27780067.
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      4. Frady EP, Kapoor A, Horvitz E, Kristan W. Scalable Semisupervised Functional Neurocartography Reveals Canonical Neurons in Behavioral Networks. Neural Comput. 2016 Aug; 28(8):1453-97. PMID: 27348420.
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      5. Kristan W. Pinning down randomness. Cell. 2015 Apr 9; 161(2):189-90. PMID: 25860598.
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      6. Woodford CR, Frady EP, Smith RS, Morey B, Canzi G, Palida SF, Araneda RC, Kristan W, Kubiak CP, Miller EW, Tsien RY. Improved PeT Molecules for Optically Sensing Voltage in Neurons. J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Feb 11; 137(5):1817-24. PMID: 25584688.
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      7. Briggman KL, Kristan W, González JE, Kleinfeld D, Tsien RY. Monitoring Integrated Activity of Individual Neurons Using FRET-Based Voltage-Sensitive Dyes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 859:149-69. PMID: 26238052.
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      8. Kristan W. Behavioral sequencing: competitive queuing in the fly CNS. Curr Biol. 2014 Aug 18; 24(16):R743-6. PMID: 25137585.
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      9. Palmer CR, Barnett MN, Copado S, Gardezy F, Kristan W. Multiplexed modulation of behavioral choice. J Exp Biol. 2014 Aug 15; 217(Pt 16):2963-73. PMID: 24902753.
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      10. Striedter GF, Belgard TG, Chen CC, Davis FP, Finlay BL, Güntürkün O, Hale ME, Harris JA, Hecht EE, Hof PR, Hofmann HA, Holland LZ, Iwaniuk AN, Jarvis ED, Karten HJ, Katz PS, Kristan W, Macagno ER, Mitra PP, Moroz LL, Preuss TM, Ragsdale CW, Sherwood CC, Stevens CF, Stüttgen MC, Tsumoto T, Wilczynski W. NSF workshop report: Discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species. J Comp Neurol. 2014 May 1; 522(7):1445-53. PMID: 24596113.
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      11. Striedter GF, Belgard TG, Chen CC, Davis FP, Finlay BL, Güntürkün O, Hale ME, Harris JA, Hecht EE, Hof PR, Hofmann HA, Holland LZ, Iwaniuk AN, Jarvis ED, Karten HJ, Katz PS, Kristan W, Macagno ER, Mitra PP, Moroz LL, Preuss TM, Ragsdale CW, Sherwood CC, Stevens CF, Stüttgen MC, Tsumoto T, Wilczynski W. NSF Workshop Report: Discovering General Principles of Nervous System Organization by Comparing Brain Maps across Species. Brain Behav Evol. 2014; 83(1):1-8. PMID: 24603302.
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      12. Katz P, Grillner S, Wilson R, Borst A, Greenspan R, Buzsáki G, Martin K, Marder E, Kristan W, Friedrich R, Chklovskii D. Vertebrate versus invertebrate neural circuits. Curr Biol. 2013 Jun 17; 23(12):R504-6. PMID: 23943928.
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      13. Frady EP, Palmer CR, Kristan W. Sexual attraction: sex-specific wiring of neural circuitry. Curr Biol. 2012 Nov 20; 22(22):R953-6. PMID: 23174297.
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      14. Migliori B, Di Ventra M, Kristan W. Photoactivation of neurons by laser-generated local heating. AIP Adv. 2012 Sep; 2(3):032154. PMID: 24753960.
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      15. Gaudry Q, Kristan W. Decision points: the factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech. Front Neurosci. 2012; 6:101. PMID: 22783162.
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      16. Miller EW, Lin JY, Frady EP, Steinbach PA, Kristan W, Tsien RY. Optically monitoring voltage in neurons by photo-induced electron transfer through molecular wires. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7; 109(6):2114-9. PMID: 22308458.
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      17. Palmer CR, Kristan W. Contextual modulation of behavioral choice. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2011 Aug; 21(4):520-6. PMID: 21624826.
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      18. Todd KL, Kristan W, French KA. Gap junction expression is required for normal chemical synapse formation. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 10; 30(45):15277-85. PMID: 21068332.
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      19. Wagenaar DA, Gonzalez R, Ries DC, Kristan W, French KA. Alpha-conotoxin ImI disrupts central control of swimming in the medicinal leech. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Nov 26; 485(3):151-6. PMID: 20833225.
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      20. Gaudry Q, Kristan W. Feeding-mediated distention inhibits swimming in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 21; 30(29):9753-61. PMID: 20660257.
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      21. Gaudry Q, Ruiz N, Huang T, Kristan WB, Kristan WB. Behavioral choice across leech species: chacun à son goût. J Exp Biol. 2010 Apr; 213(Pt 8):1356-65. PMID: 20348348.
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      22. Wagenaar DA, Hamilton MS, Huang T, Kristan W, French KA. A hormone-activated central pattern generator for courtship. Curr Biol. 2010 Mar 23; 20(6):487-95. PMID: 20226670.
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      23. Baltzley MJ, Gaudry Q, Kristan W. Species-specific behavioral patterns correlate with differences in synaptic connections between homologous mechanosensory neurons. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010 Mar; 196(3):181-97. PMID: 20135128.
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      24. Gaudry Q, Kristan W. Behavioral choice by presynaptic inhibition of tactile sensory terminals. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1450-7. PMID: 19801989.
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      25. Kristan W. Neuronal decision-making circuits. Curr Biol. 2008 Oct 14; 18(19):R928-32. PMID: 18957243.
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      26. Marin-Burgin A, Kristan W, French KA. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech. Dev Neurobiol. 2008 May; 68(6):779-87. PMID: 18383550.
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      27. Friesen WO, Kristan W. Leech locomotion: swimming, crawling, and decisions. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007 Dec; 17(6):704-11. PMID: 18339544.
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      28. Fortin DL, Banghart MR, Dunn TW, Borges K, Wagenaar DA, Gaudry Q, Karakossian MH, Otis TS, Kristan W, Trauner D, Kramer RH. Photochemical control of endogenous ion channels and cellular excitability. Nat Methods. 2008 Apr; 5(4):331-8. PMID: 18311146.
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      29. Mesce KA, Esch T, Kristan W. Cellular substrates of action selection: a cluster of higher-order descending neurons shapes body posture and locomotion. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2008 May; 194(5):469-81. PMID: 18297289.
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      30. Briggman KL, Kristan W. Multifunctional pattern-generating circuits. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008; 31:271-94. PMID: 18558856.
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      31. Kristan W, Boarman WI. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common raven nesting biology in the West Mojave Desert. Ecol Appl. 2007 Sep; 17(6):1703-13. PMID: 17913134.
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      32. Kristan W. Neuroscience. A push-me pull-you neural design. Science. 2007 Jan 19; 315(5810):339-40. PMID: 17234936.
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      33. Briggman KL, Kristan W. Imaging dedicated and multifunctional neural circuits generating distinct behaviors. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 18; 26(42):10925-33. PMID: 17050731.
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      34. Kristan W, Katz P. Form and function in systems neuroscience. Curr Biol. 2006 Oct 10; 16(19):R828-31. PMID: 17027473.
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      35. Thomson EE, Kristan W. Encoding and decoding touch location in the leech CNS. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 26; 26(30):8009-16. PMID: 16870746.
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      36. Briggman KL, Abarbanel HD, Kristan W. From crawling to cognition: analyzing the dynamical interactions among populations of neurons. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Apr; 16(2):135-44. PMID: 16564165.
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      37. Cornford A, Kristan WB, Malnove S, Kristan WB, French KA. Functions of the subesophageal ganglion in the medicinal leech revealed by ablation of neuromeres in embryos. J Exp Biol. 2006 Feb; 209(Pt 3):493-503. PMID: 16424099.
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      38. Kristan W, Calabrese RL, Friesen WO. Neuronal control of leech behavior. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Aug; 76(5):279-327. PMID: 16260077.
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      39. Marin-Burgin A, Eisenhart FJ, Kristan W, French KA. Embryonic electrical connections appear to pre-figure a behavioral circuit in the leech CNS. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006 Feb; 192(2):123-33. PMID: 16205960.
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      40. French KA, Chang J, Reynolds S, Gonzalez R, Kristan WB, Kristan WB. Development of swimming in the medicinal leech, the gradual acquisition of a behavior. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2005 Sep; 191(9):813-21. PMID: 16001183.
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      41. Thomson EE, Kristan W. Quantifying stimulus discriminability: a comparison of information theory and ideal observer analysis. Neural Comput. 2005 Apr; 17(4):741-78. PMID: 15829089.
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      42. Marin-Burgin A, Eisenhart FJ, Baca SM, Kristan W, French KA. Sequential development of electrical and chemical synaptic connections generates a specific behavioral circuit in the leech. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 9; 25(10):2478-89. PMID: 15758156.
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      43. Briggman KL, Abarbanel HD, Kristan W. Optical imaging of neuronal populations during decision-making. Science. 2005 Feb 11; 307(5711):896-901. PMID: 15705844.
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      44. Baca SM, Thomson EE, Kristan W. Location and intensity discrimination in the leech local bend response quantified using optic flow and principal components analysis. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3560-72. PMID: 15689387.
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      45. Taylor AL, Cottrell GW, Kleinfeld D, Kristan W. Imaging reveals synaptic targets of a swim-terminating neuron in the leech CNS. J Neurosci. 2003 Dec 10; 23(36):11402-10. PMID: 14673004.
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      46. Esch T, Mesce KA, Kristan W. Evidence for sequential decision making in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 2002 Dec 15; 22(24):11045-54. PMID: 12486200.
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      47. Esch T, Kristan W. Decision-making in the leech nervous system. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Aug; 42(4):716-24. PMID: 21708768.
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      48. Taylor AL, Cottrell GW, Kristan W. Analysis of oscillations in a reciprocally inhibitory network with synaptic depression. Neural Comput. 2002 Mar; 14(3):561-81. PMID: 11860683.
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      49. Kristan W, Eisenhart FJ, Johnson LA, French KA. Development of neuronal circuits and behaviors in the medicinal leech. Brain Res Bull. 2000 Nov 15; 53(5):561-70. PMID: 11165792.
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      50. Eisenhart FJ, Cacciatore TW, Kristan W. A central pattern generator underlies crawling in the medicinal leech. J Comp Physiol A. 2000 Jul-Aug; 186(7-8):631-43. PMID: 11016780.
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      51. Johnson LA, Kristan W, Jellies J, French KA. Disruption of peripheral target contact influences the development of identified central dendritic branches in a leech motor neuron in vivo. J Neurobiol. 2000 Jun 15; 43(4):365-78. PMID: 10861562.
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      52. Cacciatore TW, Rozenshteyn R, Kristan W. Kinematics and modeling of leech crawling: evidence for an oscillatory behavior produced by propagating waves of excitation. J Neurosci. 2000 Feb 15; 20(4):1643-55. PMID: 10662854.
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      53. Wessel R, Kristan W, Kleinfeld D. Dendritic Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductances regulate electrical signal propagation in an invertebrate neuron. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 1; 19(19):8319-26. PMID: 10493733.
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      54. Shaw BK, Kristan W. Relative roles of the S cell network and parallel interneuronal pathways in the whole-body shortening reflex of the medicinal leech. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Sep; 82(3):1114-23. PMID: 10482731.
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      55. Wessel R, Kristan W, Kleinfeld D. Supralinear summation of synaptic inputs by an invertebrate neuron: dendritic gain is mediated by an "inward rectifier" K(+) current. J Neurosci. 1999 Jul 15; 19(14):5875-88. PMID: 10407027.
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      56. Cacciatore TW, Brodfuehrer PD, Gonzalez JE, Jiang T, Adams SR, Tsien RY, Kristan W, Kleinfeld D. Identification of neural circuits by imaging coherent electrical activity with FRET-based dyes. Neuron. 1999 Jul; 23(3):449-59. PMID: 10433258.
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      57. Deitmer JW, Kristan W. Glial responses during evoked behaviors in the leech. Glia. 1999 Apr; 26(2):186-9. PMID: 10384883.
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      58. Reynolds SA, French KA, Baader A, Kristan W. Development of spontaneous and evoked behaviors in the medicinal leech. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 14; 402(2):168-80. PMID: 9845241.
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      59. Reynolds SA, French KA, Baader A, Kristan W. Staging of middle and late embryonic development in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Dec 14; 402(2):155-67. PMID: 9845240.
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      60. Kristan W. He's got rhythm: single neurons signal timing on a scale of seconds. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Dec; 1(8):643-5. PMID: 10196575.
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      61. Lewis JE, Kristan W. Representation of touch location by a population of leech sensory neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Nov; 80(5):2584-92. PMID: 9819265.
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      62. Szczupak L, Edgar J, Peralta ML, Kristan W. Long-lasting depolarization of leech neurons mediated by receptors with a nicotinic binding site. J Exp Biol. 1998 Jun; 201(Pt 12):1895-906. PMID: 9722428.
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      63. Lewis JE, Kristan W. Quantitative analysis of a directed behavior in the medicinal leech: implications for organizing motor output. J Neurosci. 1998 Feb 15; 18(4):1571-82. PMID: 9454862.
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      64. Misell LM, Shaw BK, Kristan W. Behavioral hierarchy in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis: feeding as a dominant behavior. Behav Brain Res. 1998 Jan; 90(1):13-21. PMID: 9520210.
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      65. Lewis JE, Kristan W. A neuronal network for computing population vectors in the leech. Nature. 1998 Jan 1; 391(6662):76-9. PMID: 9422507.
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      66. Kristan W, Shaw BK. Population coding and behavioral choice. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997 Dec; 7(6):826-31. PMID: 9464982.
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      67. Shaw BK, Kristan W. The neuronal basis of the behavioral choice between swimming and shortening in the leech: control is not selectively exercised at higher circuit levels. J Neurosci. 1997 Jan 15; 17(2):786-95. PMID: 8987800.
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      68. Skierczynski BA, Wilson RJ, Kristan W, Skalak R. A model of the hydrostatic skeleton of the leech. J Theor Biol. 1996 Aug 21; 181(4):329-42. PMID: 8949581.
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      69. Wilson RJ, Kristan W, Kleinhaus AL. An increase in activity of serotonergic Retzius neurones may not be necessary for the consummatory phase of feeding in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. J Exp Biol. 1996 Jun; 199(Pt 6):1405-14. PMID: 8691114.
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      70. Wilson RJ, Skierczynski BA, Blackwood S, Skalak R, Kristan W. Mapping motor neurone activity to overt behaviour in the leech: internal pressures produced during locomotion. J Exp Biol. 1996 Jun; 199(Pt 6):1415-28. PMID: 8691115.
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      71. Wilson RJ, Skierczynski BA, Meyer JK, Skalak R, Kristan W. Mapping motor neuron activity to overt behavior in the leech. I. Passive biomechanical properties of the body wall. J Comp Physiol A. 1996 May; 178(5):637-54. PMID: 8618216.
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      72. Szczupak L, Kristan W. Widespread mechanosensory activation of the serotonergic system of the medicinal leech. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Dec; 74(6):2614-24. PMID: 8747219.
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      73. Shaw BK, Kristan W. The whole-body shortening reflex of the medicinal leech: motor pattern, sensory basis, and interneuronal pathways. J Comp Physiol A. 1995 Dec; 177(6):667-81. PMID: 8537936.
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      74. Kristan W, Lockery SR, Lewis JE. Using reflexive behaviors of the medicinal leech to study information processing. J Neurobiol. 1995 Jul; 27(3):380-9. PMID: 7673896.
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      75. Baader AP, Kristan W. Parallel pathways coordinate crawling in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Physiol A. 1995 Jun; 176(6):715-26. PMID: 7776267.
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      76. French KA, Kristan W. Cell-cell interactions that modulate neuronal development in the leech. J Neurobiol. 1994 Jun; 25(6):640-51. PMID: 7915301.
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      77. Szczupak L, Jordan S, Kristan W. Segment-specific modulation of the electrophysiological activity of leech Retzius neurons by acetylcholine. J Exp Biol. 1993 Oct; 183:115-35. PMID: 7504050.
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      78. Kristan W, French KA, Szczupak L. Developmental regulation of segment-specific cholinergic receptors on Retzius neurons in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 13(4):1577-87. PMID: 8096542.
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      79. Kristan W. Neuronal basis of behavior. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1992 Dec; 2(6):781-7. PMID: 1477542.
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      80. Wittenberg G, Kristan W. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. II. Role of identified interneurons. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Nov; 68(5):1693-707. PMID: 1479439.
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      81. Wittenberg G, Kristan W. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. I. Motor output pattern. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Nov; 68(5):1683-92. PMID: 1479438.
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      82. French KA, Jordan SM, Loer CM, Kristan W. Mesenchyme of embryonic reproductive ducts directs process outgrowth of Retzius neurons in the medicinal leech. Dev Biol. 1992 Sep; 153(1):122-40. PMID: 1516742.
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      83. Baader AP, Kristan W. Monitoring neuronal activity during discrete behaviors: a crawling, swimming and shortening device for tethered leeches. J Neurosci Methods. 1992 Jul; 43(2-3):215-23. PMID: 1405744.
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      84. French KA, Kristan W. Target influences on the development of leech neurons. Trends Neurosci. 1992 May; 15(5):169-74. PMID: 1377423.
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      85. Stent GS, Kristan W, Torrence SA, French KA, Weisblat DA. Development of the leech nervous system. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1992; 33:109-93. PMID: 1592567.
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      86. Jellies J, Kristan W. The oblique muscle organizer in Hirudo medicinalis, an identified embryonic cell projecting multiple parallel growth cones in an orderly array. Dev Biol. 1991 Nov; 148(1):334-54. PMID: 1936570.
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      87. Lockery SR, Kristan W. Two forms of sensitization of the local bending reflex of the medicinal leech. J Comp Physiol A. 1991 Feb; 168(2):165-77. PMID: 2046043.
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      88. Wittenberg G, Loer CM, Adamo SA, Kristan W. Segmental specialization of neuronal connectivity in the leech. J Comp Physiol A. 1990 Sep; 167(4):453-9. PMID: 2258834.
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      89. Lockery SR, Kristan W. Distributed processing of sensory information in the leech. I. Input-output relations of the local bending reflex. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun; 10(6):1811-5. PMID: 2355251.
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      90. Lockery SR, Kristan W. Distributed processing of sensory information in the leech. II. Identification of interneurons contributing to the local bending reflex. J Neurosci. 1990 Jun; 10(6):1816-29. PMID: 2355252.
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      91. Lytton WW, Kristan W. Localization of a leech inhibitory synapse by photo-ablation of individual dendrites. Brain Res. 1989 Dec 11; 504(1):43-8. PMID: 2598016.
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      92. Lockery SR, Wittenberg G, Kristan W, Cottrell GW. Function of identified interneurons in the leech elucidated using neural networks trained by back-propagation. Nature. 1989 Aug 10; 340(6233):468-71. PMID: 2755509.
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      93. Loer CM, Kristan W. Central synaptic inputs to identified leech neurons determined by peripheral targets. Science. 1989 Apr 7; 244(4900):64-6. PMID: 2704990.
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      94. Loer CM, Kristan W. Peripheral target choice by homologous neurons during embryogenesis of the medicinal leech. II. Innervation of ectopic reproductive tissue by nonreproductive Retzius cells. J Neurosci. 1989 Feb; 9(2):528-38. PMID: 2918376.
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      95. Loer CM, Kristan W. Peripheral target choice by homologous neurons during embryogenesis of the medicinal leech. I. Segment-specific preferences of Retzius cells. J Neurosci. 1989 Feb; 9(2):513-27. PMID: 2918375.
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      96. Jellies J, Kristan W. Embryonic assembly of a complex muscle is directed by a single identified cell in the medicinal leech. J Neurosci. 1988 Sep; 8(9):3317-26. PMID: 3171679.
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      97. Kristan W, Wittenberg G, Nusbaum MP, Stern-Tomlinson W. Multifunctional interneurons in behavioral circuits of the medicinal leech. Experientia. 1988 May 15; 44(5):383-9. PMID: 3286283.
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      98. Jellies J, Kristan W. An identified cell is required for the formation of a major nerve during embryogenesis in the leech. J Neurobiol. 1988 Mar; 19(2):153-65. PMID: 3351507.
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      99. Jellies J, Loer CM, Kristan W. Morphological changes in leech Retzius neurons after target contact during embryogenesis. J Neurosci. 1987 Sep; 7(9):2618-29. PMID: 3625266.
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      100. Loer CM, Jellies J, Kristan W. Segment-specific morphogenesis of leech Retzius neurons requires particular peripheral targets. J Neurosci. 1987 Sep; 7(9):2630-8. PMID: 3625267.
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      101. Nusbaum MP, Friesen WO, Kristan W, Pearce RA. Neural mechanisms generating the leech swimming rhythm: swim-initiator neurons excite the network of swim oscillator neurons. J Comp Physiol A. 1987 Aug; 161(3):355-66. PMID: 3668878.
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      102. Loer CM, Schley C, Zipser B, Kristan W. Development of segmental differences in the pressure mechanosensory neurons of the leech Haementeria ghilianii. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Dec 15; 254(3):403-9. PMID: 3794014.
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      103. Nusbaum MP, Kristan W. Swim initiation in the leech by serotonin-containing interneurones, cells 21 and 61. J Exp Biol. 1986 May; 122:277-302. PMID: 3723072.
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      104. Stern-Tomlinson W, Nusbaum MP, Perez LE, Kristan W. A kinematic study of crawling behavior in the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. J Comp Physiol A. 1986 Apr; 158(4):593-603. PMID: 3723440.
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      105. Granzow B, Kristan W. Inhibitory connections between motor neurons modify a centrally generated motor pattern in the leech nervous system. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 26; 369(1-2):321-5. PMID: 3697747.
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      106. Cline HT, Nusbaum MP, Kristan W. Identified GABAergic inhibitory motor neurons in the leech central nervous system take up GABA. Brain Res. 1985 Dec 2; 348(2):359-62. PMID: 4075094.
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      107. Granzow B, Friesen WO, Kristan W. Physiological and morphological analysis of synaptic transmission between leech motor neurons. J Neurosci. 1985 Aug; 5(8):2035-50. PMID: 2991480.
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      108. Kristan W, Weeks JC. Neurons controlling the initiation, generation and modulation of leech swimming. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1983; 37:243-60. PMID: 6679114.
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      109. Kristan W, Nusbaum MP. The dual role of serotonin in leech swimming. J Physiol (Paris). 1982-1983; 78(8):743-7. PMID: 7187448.
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      110. Macagno ER, Muller KJ, Kristan W, Deriemer SA, Stewart R, Granzow B. Mapping of neuronal contacts with intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase and Lucifer yellow in combination. Brain Res. 1981 Jul 27; 217(1):143-9. PMID: 7020878.
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      111. Kristan W. Neuronal changes related to behavioral changes in chronically isolated segments of the medicinal leech. Brain Res. 1979 May 5; 167(1):215-20. PMID: 455070.
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      112. Stent GS, Kristan W, Friesen WO, Ort CA, Poon M, Calabrese RL. Neuronal generation of the leech swimming movement. Science. 1978 Jun 23; 200(4348):1348-57. PMID: 663615.
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