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    Tony Yaksh

    TitleEmeritus Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentAnesthesiology
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0818
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone619-543-3597
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Ph.D.Purdue University

      Collapse Overview 

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      AIBP and regulation of neuropathic pain
      NIH/NINDS R01NS102432Aug 15, 2017 - May 31, 2022
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Sex, Stress and Immunity in the Acute to Chronic Pain Transition
      NIH/NINDS R01NS099338Dec 15, 2016 - Nov 30, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Construction and Analysis of BoNT derivatives as Pain Specific Inhibitors
      NIH/NIAID R21AI113580Aug 7, 2014 - Jul 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Discovery of novel small molecule analgesics
      NIH/NINDS R41NS086244May 15, 2014 - Apr 30, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Proteolysis of Myelin as a Source of Neuropathic Pain
      NIH/NIDCR R01DE022757Jul 30, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      The role of selective brain penetrating GRPR antagonists in pruritis.
      NIH/NINDS R21NS077348Sep 30, 2011 - Dec 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Pain Mechanisms and the Development of Analgesics
      NIH/NIDA R13DA021484Mar 1, 2006 - Feb 28, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Characterization of Toxicity with Spinal Opiates
      NIH/NIDA R01DA015353Jul 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Spinal Galanin and its Receptors in Pain Processing
      NIH/NINDS R01NS041954Jun 1, 2002 - May 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neurobiology of Pain
      NIH/NINDS T32NS007407Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF NMDA ANTAGONISTS
      NIH/NINDS R01NS033846Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NEW MODALITIES FOR TREATMENT OF PAIN AND DRUG ABUSE
      NIH P01DA006284Sep 30, 1989 - Mar 31, 2016
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Pain Evoked Release of Amino Acids and Prostanoids
      NIH/NINDS R37NS016541Sep 1, 1988 - Feb 28, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PEPTIDE RELEASE FROM PERIPHERAL TERMINALS OF AFFERENTS
      NIH/NIAID R01AI026249Apr 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 1992
      Role: Principal Investigator
      The Pharmacology of Spinal Analgesics
      NIH/NIDA R01DA002110Jul 1, 1983 - Jan 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      SPINAL PHARMACOLOGY OF BLADDER FUNCTION
      NIH/NINDS R01NS019650Jul 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1986
      Role: Principal Investigator
      PAIN EVOKED RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROSTANOIDS
      NIH/NINDS R01NS016541Jul 1, 1980 - Dec 31, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Specialized Cancer Center Support Grant
      NIH/NCI P30CA023100Apr 1, 1978 - Apr 30, 2019
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Mamet J, Yeomans DC, Yaksh T, Manning DC, Harris S. Editor's Highlight: Formulation and Toxicology Evaluation of the Intrathecal AYX1 DNA-Decoy in Sprague Dawley Rats. Toxicol Sci. 2017 Sep 01; 159(1):76-85. PMID: 28903493.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Yaksh T, Schwarcz R, Snodgrass HR. Characterization of the Effects of L-4-Chlorokynurenine on Nociception in Rodents. J Pain. 2017 Apr 18. PMID: 28428091.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Flinspach M, Xu Q, Piekarz AD, Fellows R, Hagan R, Gibbs A, Liu Y, Neff RA, Freedman J, Eckert WA, Zhou M, Bonesteel R, Pennington MW, Eddinger KA, Yaksh T, Hunter M, Swanson RV, Wickenden AD. Insensitivity to pain induced by a potent selective closed-state Nav1.7 inhibitor. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 03; 7:39662. PMID: 28045073.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Deer TR, Pope JE, Hayek SM, Bux A, Buchser E, Eldabe S, De Andrés JA, Erdek M, Patin D, Grider JS, Doleys DM, Jacobs MS, Yaksh T, Poree L, Wallace MS, Prager J, Rauck R, DeLeon O, Diwan S, Falowski SM, Gazelka HM, Kim P, Leong M, Levy RM, McDowell G, McRoberts P, Naidu R, Narouze S, Perruchoud C, Rosen SM, Rosenberg WS, Saulino M, Staats P, Stearns LJ, Willis D, Krames E, Huntoon M, Mekhail N. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations on Intrathecal Drug Infusion Systems Best Practices and Guidelines. Neuromodulation. 2017 02; 20(2):96-132. PMID: 28042904.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Deer TR, Pope JE, Hayek SM, Lamer TJ, Veizi IE, Erdek M, Wallace MS, Grider JS, Levy RM, Prager J, Rosen SM, Saulino M, Yaksh T, De Andrés JA, Abejon Gonzalez D, Vesper J, Schu S, Simpson B, Mekhail N. The Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference (PACC): Recommendations for Intrathecal Drug Delivery: Guidance for Improving Safety and Mitigating Risks. Neuromodulation. 2017 Feb; 20(2):155-176. PMID: 28042914.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Yaksh T, Fisher CJ, Hockman TM, Wiese AJ. Current and Future Issues in the Development of Spinal Agents for the Management of Pain. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017; 15(2):232-259. PMID: 26861470.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hong S, Remacle AG, Shiryaev SA, Choi W, Hullugundi SK, Dolkas J, Angert M, Nishihara T, Yaksh T, Strongin AY, Shubayev VI. Reciprocal relationship between membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and the algesic peptides of myelin basic protein contributes to chronic neuropathic pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Feb; 60:282-292. PMID: 27833045.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Eisenach JC, Yaksh T. Ethical Concerns Regarding Human Study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016 Oct; 22(10):866. PMID: 27577599.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Veizi IE, Hayek SM, Hanes M, Galica R, Katta S, Yaksh T. Primary Hydromorphone-Related Intrathecal Catheter Tip Granulomas: Is There a Role for Dose and Concentration? Neuromodulation. 2016 Oct; 19(7):760-769. PMID: 27505059.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Eddinger KA, Rondon ES, Shubayev VI, Grafe MR, Scadeng M, Hildebrand KR, Page LM, Malkmus SA, Steinauer JJ, Yaksh T. Intrathecal Catheterization and Drug Delivery in Guinea Pigs: A Small-animal Model for Morphine-evoked Granuloma Formation. Anesthesiology. 2016 Aug; 125(2):378-94. PMID: 27272672.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Shubayev VI, Strongin AY, Yaksh T. Role of myelin auto-antigens in pain: a female connection. Neural Regen Res. 2016 Jun; 11(6):890-1. PMID: 27482203; PMCID: PMC4962572.
      12. Sikandar S, Gustavsson Y, Marino MJ, Dickenson AH, Yaksh T, Sorkin LS, Ramachandran R. Effects of intraplantar botulinum toxin-B on carrageenan-induced changes in nociception and spinal phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt. Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Jul; 44(1):1714-22. PMID: 27108664; PMCID: PMC4931962 [Available on 07/01/17].
      13. Woller SA, Ravula SB, Tucci FC, Beaton G, Corr M, Isseroff RR, Soulika AM, Chigbrow M, Eddinger KA, Yaksh T. Systemic TAK-242 prevents intrathecal LPS evoked hyperalgesia in male, but not female mice and prevents delayed allodynia following intraplantar formalin in both male and female mice: The role of TLR4 in the evolution of a persistent pain state. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug; 56:271-80. PMID: 27044335; PMCID: PMC4917460 [Available on 08/01/17].
      14. Merrick J, Lane B, Sebree T, Yaksh T, O'Neill C, Banks SL. Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiological Fluid. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2016; 1(1):102-112. PMID: 28861485.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Ko JS, Eddinger KA, Angert M, Chernov AV, Dolkas J, Strongin AY, Yaksh T, Shubayev VI. Spinal activity of interleukin 6 mediates myelin basic protein-induced allodynia. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug; 56:378-89. PMID: 26970355; PMCID: PMC4917441 [Available on 08/01/17].
      16. Podvin S, Yaksh T, Hook V. The Emerging Role of Spinal Dynorphin in Chronic Pain: A Therapeutic Perspective. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 56:511-33. PMID: 26738478; PMCID: PMC4902163 [Available on 01/01/17].
      17. Rijsdijk M, Svensson CI, Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh T. Analgesic properties of intrathecal glucocorticoids in three well established preclinical pain models. Scand J Pain. 2016 Jan; 10:90-102. PMID: 28361779.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Pellett S, Yaksh T, Ramachandran R. Current status and future directions of botulinum neurotoxins for targeting pain processing. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Nov 04; 7(11):4519-63. PMID: 26556371; PMCID: PMC4663519.
      19. Park HJ, Sandor K, McQueen J, Woller SA, Svensson CI, Corr M, Yaksh T. The effect of gabapentin and ketorolac on allodynia and conditioned place preference in antibody-induced inflammation. Eur J Pain. 2016 Jul; 20(6):917-25. PMID: 26517300.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Park HJ, Marino MJ, Rondon ES, Xu Q, Yaksh T. The effects of intraplantar and intrathecal botulinum toxin type B on tactile allodynia in mono and polyneuropathy in the mouse. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jul; 121(1):229-38. PMID: 26039418.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Yaksh T, Woller SA, Ramachandran R, Sorkin LS. The search for novel analgesics: targets and mechanisms. F1000Prime Rep. 2015; 7:56. PMID: 26097729; PMCID: PMC4447049.
      22. Ramachandran R, Lam C, Yaksh T. Botulinum toxin in migraine: Role of transport in trigemino-somatic and trigemino-vascular afferents. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Jul; 79:111-22. PMID: 25958249; PMCID: PMC4458441.
      23. Woller SA, Corr M, Yaksh T. Differences in cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in male and female mice. Eur J Pain. 2015 Nov; 19(10):1476-85. PMID: 25716290; PMCID: PMC4755718.
      24. Pleticha J, Malkmus SA, Heilmann LF, Veesart SL, Rezek R, Xu Q, Yaksh T, Beutler AS. High cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-10 attained by AAV in dogs. Gene Ther. 2015 Feb; 22(2):202-8. PMID: 25354684.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Ramachandran R, Yaksh T. Therapeutic use of botulinum toxin in migraine: mechanisms of action. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep; 171(18):4177-92. PMID: 24819339; PMCID: PMC4241086.
      26. Bas DB, Abdelmoaty S, Sandor K, Codeluppi S, Fitzsimmons B, Steinauer J, Hua XY, Yaksh T, Svensson CI. Spinal release of tumour necrosis factor activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mediates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity. Eur J Pain. 2015 Feb; 19(2):260-70. PMID: 24942612; PMCID: PMC4270961.
      27. Rijsdijk M, van Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh T. The effects of glucocorticoids on neuropathic pain: a review with emphasis on intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate delivery. Anesth Analg. 2014 May; 118(5):1097-112. PMID: 24781577.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Yaksh T. TRPV1 expression regulation… A further step in defining its biology: commentary for K. Zavala et al. "The anticancer antibiotic mithramycin-A inhibits TRPV1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons" [Neurosci. Lett. (2014) doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.01.021]. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Aug 22; 578:209-10. PMID: 24769421.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Yaksh T, Hobo S, Peters C, Osborn KG, Richter PJ, Rossi SS, Grafe MR, Eisenach JC. Preclinical toxicity screening of intrathecal oxytocin in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 2014 Apr; 120(4):951-61. PMID: 24492326.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Leung A, Shukla S, Li E, Duann JR, Yaksh T. Supraspinal characterization of the thermal grill illusion with fMRI. Mol Pain. 2014 Mar 11; 10:18. PMID: 24612493; PMCID: PMC3995740.
      31. Ishikawa T, Suzuki H, Ishikawa K, Yasuda S, Matsui T, Yamamoto M, Kakeda T, Yamamoto S, Owada Y, Yaksh T. Spinal cord ischemia/injury. Curr Pharm Des. 2014; 20(36):5738-43. PMID: 24502574.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Marino MJ, Terashima T, Steinauer JJ, Eddinger KA, Yaksh T, Xu Q. Botulinum toxin B in the sensory afferent: transmitter release, spinal activation, and pain behavior. Pain. 2014 Apr; 155(4):674-84. PMID: 24333775; PMCID: PMC3960322.
      33. Stokes JA, Cheung J, Eddinger K, Corr M, Yaksh T. Toll-like receptor signaling adapter proteins govern spread of neuropathic pain and recovery following nerve injury in male mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2013 Dec 09; 10:148. PMID: 24321498; PMCID: PMC3896749.
      34. Wiese AJ, Rathbun M, Butt MT, Malkmus SA, Richter PJ, Osborn KG, Xu Q, Veesart SL, Steinauer JJ, Higgins D, Lappi DA, Russell B, Yaksh T. Intrathecal substance P-saporin in the dog: distribution, safety, and spinal neurokinin-1 receptor ablation. Anesthesiology. 2013 Nov; 119(5):1163-77. PMID: 24051388.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Park HJ, Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh T. Toll-like receptor signaling regulates cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Jan; 73(1):25-34. PMID: 24162377; PMCID: PMC3917999.
      36. Mamet J, Klukinov M, Yaksh T, Malkmus SA, Williams S, Harris S, Manning DC, Taylor BK, Donahue RR, Porreca F, Xie JY, Oyarzo J, Brennan TJ, Subieta A, Schmidt WK, Yeomans DC. Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury. Pain. 2014 Feb; 155(2):322-33. PMID: 24145208.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Kouchek M, Takasusuki T, Terashima T, Yaksh T, Xu Q. Effects of intrathecal SNC80, a delta receptor ligand, on nociceptive threshold and dorsal horn substance p release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Nov; 347(2):258-64. PMID: 23978562; PMCID: PMC3807063.
      38. Nizet V, Yaksh T. Neuroscience: Bacteria get on your nerves. Nature. 2013 Sep 05; 501(7465):43-4. PMID: 23965630.
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      39. Takasusuki T, Yamaguchi S, Hamaguchi S, Yaksh T. Effects of general anesthetics on substance P release and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Anesthesiology. 2013 Aug; 119(2):433-42. PMID: 23708866; PMCID: PMC3788114.
      40. Hamurtekin E, Fitzsimmons BL, Shubayev VI, Grafe MR, Deumens R, Yaksh T, Walker SM. Evaluation of spinal toxicity and long-term spinal reflex function after intrathecal levobupivaciane in the neonatal rat. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jul; 119(1):142-55. PMID: 23514721; PMCID: PMC3732172.
      41. Terashima T, Xu Q, Yamaguchi S, Yaksh T. Intrathecal P/Q- and R-type calcium channel blockade of spinal substance P release and c-Fos expression. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Dec; 75:1-8. PMID: 23810829; PMCID: PMC3865027.
      42. Svensson E, Persson J, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T. Intrathecal neurosteroids and a neurosteroid antagonist: effects on inflammation-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. Neurosci Lett. 2013 Aug 26; 548:27-32. PMID: 23707652; PMCID: PMC3761066.
      43. Yaksh T, Allen JW, Veesart SL, Horais KA, Malkmus SA, Scadeng M, Steinauer JJ, Rossi SS. Role of meningeal mast cells in intrathecal morphine-evoked granuloma formation. Anesthesiology. 2013 Mar; 118(3):664-78. PMID: 23426209; PMCID: PMC3788115.
      44. Gregus AM, Dumlao DS, Wei SC, Norris PC, Catella LC, Meyerstein FG, Buczynski MW, Steinauer JJ, Fitzsimmons BL, Yaksh T, Dennis EA. Systematic analysis of rat 12/15-lipoxygenase enzymes reveals critical role for spinal eLOX3 hepoxilin synthase activity in inflammatory hyperalgesia. FASEB J. 2013 May; 27(5):1939-49. PMID: 23382512; PMCID: PMC3633813.
      45. Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh T. Spinal toll-like receptor signaling and nociceptive processing: regulatory balance between TIRAP and TRIF cascades mediated by TNF and IFNß. Pain. 2013 May; 154(5):733-42. PMID: 23489833; PMCID: PMC3622773.
      46. Wahlert A, Funkelstein L, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T, Hook V. Spinal astrocytes produce and secrete dynorphin neuropeptides. Neuropeptides. 2013 Apr; 47(2):109-15. PMID: 23290538; PMCID: PMC3606903.
      47. Park HJ, Stokes JA, Pirie E, Skahen J, Shtaerman Y, Yaksh T. Persistent hyperalgesia in the cisplatin-treated mouse as defined by threshold measures, the conditioned place preference paradigm, and changes in dorsal root ganglia activated transcription factor 3: the effects of gabapentin, ketorolac, and etanercept. Anesth Analg. 2013 Jan; 116(1):224-31. PMID: 23223118; PMCID: PMC3530135.
      48. Yaksh T, Steinauer JJ, Veesart SL, Malkmus SA. Alfentanil: correlations between absence of effect upon subcutaneous mast cells and absence of granuloma formation after intrathecal infusion in the dog. Neuromodulation. 2013 Sep-Oct; 16(5):459-66; discussion 466. PMID: 23170763; PMCID: PMC3582801.
      49. Marino M, Huang P, Malkmus S, Robertshaw E, Mac EA, Shatterman Y, Yaksh T. Development and validation of an automated system for detection and assessment of scratching in the rodent. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Oct 15; 211(1):1-10. PMID: 22971351; PMCID: PMC3473159.
      50. Deer TR, Levy R, Prager J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality in intrathecal drug delivery in the treatment of chronic pain. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):467-82; discussion 482. PMID: 22849581.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Wallace M, Yaksh T. Characteristics of distribution of morphine and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma with chronic intrathecal morphine infusion in humans. Anesth Analg. 2012 Oct; 115(4):797-804. PMID: 22822192; PMCID: PMC3456964.
      52. Lampa J, Westman M, Kadetoff D, Agréus AN, Le Maître E, Gillis-Haegerstrand C, Andersson M, Khademi M, Corr M, Christianson CA, Delaney A, Yaksh T, Kosek E, Svensson CI. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12728-33. PMID: 22802629; PMCID: PMC3411968.
      53. Walker SM, Yaksh T. Neuraxial analgesia in neonates and infants: a review of clinical and preclinical strategies for the development of safety and efficacy data. Anesth Analg. 2012 Sep; 115(3):638-62. PMID: 22798528; PMCID: PMC4451199.
      54. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference 2012: recommendations for the management of pain by intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):436-64; discussion 464-6. PMID: 22748024.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Yaksh T, de Kater A, Dean R, Best BM, Miljanich GP. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ziconotide (SNX-111), an intrathecal N-type calcium channel blocking analgesic, delivered by bolus and infusion in the dog. Neuromodulation. 2012 Nov-Dec; 15(6):508-19; discussion 519. PMID: 22748108; PMCID: PMC3514653.
      56. Yaksh T, Ilfeld BM, Wiese AJ. Perineural local anesthetic and adjuvant action: the meaning of an ex vivo data set for efficacy and safety. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012 Jul-Aug; 37(4):366-8. PMID: 22660488.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Cohen SP, White RL, Kurihara C, Larkin TM, Chang A, Griffith SR, Gilligan C, Larkin R, Morlando B, Pasquina PF, Yaksh T, Nguyen C. Epidural steroids, etanercept, or saline in subacute sciatica: a multicenter, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 17; 156(8):551-9. PMID: 22508732.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Rathmell J, Buchser E, Burton A, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs MS, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell GC, Panchal S, Rauck R, Saulino M, Sitzman BT, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: consensus on diagnosis, detection, and treatment of catheter-tip granulomas (inflammatory masses). Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):483-95; discussion 496. PMID: 22494332.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Deer TR, Prager J, Levy R, Burton A, Buchser E, Caraway D, Cousins M, De Andrés J, Diwan S, Erdek M, Grigsby E, Huntoon M, Jacobs M, Kim P, Kumar K, Leong M, Liem L, McDowell G, Panchal SJ, Rauck R, Saulino M, Staats P, Stanton-Hicks M, Stearns L, Sitzman BT, Wallace M, Willis KD, Witt W, Yaksh T, Mekhail N. Polyanalgesic Consensus Conference--2012: recommendations on trialing for intrathecal (intraspinal) drug delivery: report of an interdisciplinary expert panel. Neuromodulation. 2012 Sep-Oct; 15(5):420-35; discussion 435. PMID: 22494357.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Gregus AM, Doolen S, Dumlao DS, Buczynski MW, Takasusuki T, Fitzsimmons BL, Hua XY, Taylor BK, Dennis EA, Yaksh T. Spinal 12-lipoxygenase-derived hepoxilin A3 contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia via activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 24; 109(17):6721-6. PMID: 22493235; PMCID: PMC3340022.
      61. Walker SM, Grafe M, Yaksh T. Intrathecal clonidine in the neonatal rat: dose-dependent analgesia and evaluation of spinal apoptosis and toxicity. Anesth Analg. 2012 Aug; 115(2):450-60. PMID: 22467896; PMCID: PMC4455964.
      62. Christianson CA, Corr M, Yaksh T, Svensson CI. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis as a model of inflammatory joint pain. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 851:249-60. PMID: 22351097.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Rijsdijk M, van Wijck AJ, Kalkman CJ, Meulenhoff PC, Grafe MR, Steinauer J, Yaksh T. Safety assessment and pharmacokinetics of intrathecal methylprednisolone acetate in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jan; 116(1):170-81. PMID: 22139590.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Suhail MS, Christianson C, Koehrn F, Malkmus SA, Mitchell W, Corr M, Yaksh T. Effects of long term polyarthritis and subsequent NSAID treatment on activity with disassociation of tactile allodynia in the mouse. Neurocomputing. 2012 May 01; 84:47-52. PMID: 22547902.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Christianson CA, Dumlao DS, Stokes JA, Dennis EA, Svensson CI, Corr M, Yaksh T. Spinal TLR4 mediates the transition to a persistent mechanical hypersensitivity after the resolution of inflammation in serum-transferred arthritis. Pain. 2011 Dec; 152(12):2881-91. PMID: 22019135; PMCID: PMC3347973.
      66. Christianson CA, Fitzsimmons BL, Shim JH, Agrawal A, Cohen SM, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Spinal matrix metalloproteinase 3 mediates inflammatory hyperalgesia via a tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanism. Neuroscience. 2012 Jan 03; 200:199-210. PMID: 22056600; PMCID: PMC3346277.
      67. Kim HJ, Seol TK, Lee HJ, Yaksh T, Jun JH. The effect of intrathecal mu, delta, kappa, and alpha-2 agonists on thermal hyperalgesia induced by mild burn on hind paw in rats. J Anesth. 2011 Dec; 25(6):884-91. PMID: 21983967.
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      68. Stokes JA, Corr M, Yaksh T. Transient tactile allodynia following intrathecal puncture in mouse: contributions of Toll-like receptor signaling. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Oct 31; 504(3):215-8. PMID: 21964382; PMCID: PMC3338641.
      69. Fuchigami T, Kakinohana O, Hefferan MP, Lukacova N, Marsala S, Platoshyn O, Sugahara K, Yaksh T, Marsala M. Potent suppression of stretch reflex activity after systemic or spinal delivery of tizanidine in rats with spinal ischemia-induced chronic spastic paraplegia. Neuroscience. 2011 Oct 27; 194:160-9. PMID: 21871540; PMCID: PMC3192017.
      70. Xu Q, Yaksh T. A brief comparison of the pathophysiology of inflammatory versus neuropathic pain. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011 Aug; 24(4):400-7. PMID: 21659872; PMCID: PMC3290396.
      71. Yaksh T. Care to wrestle with a Brazilian armed spider? Pain. 2011 Oct; 152(10):2193-5. PMID: 21782344.
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      72. Takasusuki T, Yaksh T. Regulation of spinal substance p release by intrathecal calcium channel blockade. Anesthesiology. 2011 Jul; 115(1):153-64. PMID: 21577088; PMCID: PMC3360553.
      73. Yaksh T. Spinal toxins can have persistent adverse effects. Pain Med. 2011 Jul; 12(7):991-2. PMID: 21752177.
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      74. Huang PP, Khan I, Suhail MS, Malkmus S, Yaksh T. Spinal botulinum neurotoxin B: effects on afferent transmitter release and nociceptive processing. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 29; 6(4):e19126. PMID: 21559464; PMCID: PMC3084763.
      75. Takasusuki T, Yaksh T. The effects of intrathecal and systemic gabapentin on spinal substance P release. Anesth Analg. 2011 Apr; 112(4):971-6. PMID: 21385982; PMCID: PMC3347974.
      76. Xu Q, Fitzsimmons B, Steinauer J, O'Neill A, Newton AC, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Spinal phosphinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascades in inflammation-induced hyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 09; 31(6):2113-24. PMID: 21307248; PMCID: PMC3097059.
      77. Oshiro M, Hefferan MP, Kakinohana O, Lukacova N, Sugahara K, Yaksh T, Marsala M. Suppression of stretch reflex activity after spinal or systemic treatment with AMPA receptor antagonist NGX424 in rats with developed baclofen tolerance. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Nov; 161(5):976-85. PMID: 20977450; PMCID: PMC2998680.
      78. Poole R, Blake S, Buschmann M, Goldring S, Laverty S, Lockwood S, Matyas J, McDougall J, Pritzker K, Rudolphi K, van den Berg W, Yaksh T. Recommendations for the use of preclinical models in the study and treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010 Oct; 18 Suppl 3:S10-6. PMID: 20864015.
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      79. Christianson CA, Corr M, Firestein GS, Mobargha A, Yaksh T, Svensson CI. Characterization of the acute and persistent pain state present in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):394-403. PMID: 20739123; PMCID: PMC2955775.
      80. Saito O, Svensson CI, Buczynski MW, Wegner K, Hua XY, Codeluppi S, Schaloske RH, Deems RA, Dennis EA, Yaksh T. Spinal glial TLR4-mediated nociception and production of prostaglandin E(2) and TNF. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug; 160(7):1754-64. PMID: 20649577; PMCID: PMC2936846.
      81. Peters CM, Hayashida K, Ewan EE, Nakajima K, Obata H, Xu Q, Yaksh T, Eisenach JC. Lack of analgesic efficacy of spinal ondansetron on thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following spinal nerve ligation in the rat. Brain Res. 2010 Sep 17; 1352:83-93. PMID: 20637741; PMCID: PMC2943762.
      82. Matsui T, Svensson CI, Hirata Y, Mizobata K, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Release of prostaglandin E(2) and nitric oxide from spinal microglia is dependent on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Anesth Analg. 2010 Aug; 111(2):554-60. PMID: 20610553.
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      83. Walker SM, Westin BD, Deumens R, Grafe M, Yaksh T. Effects of intrathecal ketamine in the neonatal rat: evaluation of apoptosis and long-term functional outcome. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jul; 113(1):147-59. PMID: 20526188; PMCID: PMC2904694.
      84. Westin BD, Walker SM, Deumens R, Grafe M, Yaksh T. Validation of a preclinical spinal safety model: effects of intrathecal morphine in the neonatal rat. Anesthesiology. 2010 Jul; 113(1):183-99. PMID: 20526189; PMCID: PMC2902725.
      85. Watabiki T, Nagakura Y, Wegner K, Kakimoto S, Tozier NA, Malkmus SA, Yaksh T. Assessment of canine sensory function by using sine-wave electrical stimuli paradigm. Physiol Behav. 2010 Oct 05; 101(3):327-30. PMID: 20570687.
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      86. Buczynski MW, Svensson CI, Dumlao DS, Fitzsimmons BL, Shim JH, Scherbart TJ, Jacobsen FE, Hua XY, Yaksh T, Dennis EA. Inflammatory hyperalgesia induces essential bioactive lipid production in the spinal cord. J Neurochem. 2010 Aug; 114(4):981-93. PMID: 20492349; PMCID: PMC3994888.
      87. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Rauck R, Pan P, Yaksh T. Role of spinal cyclooxygenase in human postoperative and chronic pain. Anesthesiology. 2010 May; 112(5):1225-33. PMID: 20395820; PMCID: PMC2892621.
      88. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Tong C, Houle TT, Yaksh T. Effects of intrathecal ketorolac on human experimental pain. Anesthesiology. 2010 May; 112(5):1216-24. PMID: 20395821; PMCID: PMC2924167.
      89. Usvald D, Vodicka P, Hlucilova J, Prochazka R, Motlik J, Kuchorova K, Johe K, Marsala S, Scadeng M, Kakinohana O, Navarro R, Santa M, Hefferan MP, Yaksh T, Marsala M. Analysis of dosing regimen and reproducibility of intraspinal grafting of human spinal stem cells in immunosuppressed minipigs. Cell Transplant. 2010; 19(9):1103-22. PMID: 20412634.
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      90. Yaksh T, Eisenach JC, Shafer SL. Consent contraindicated? Science. 2010 Apr 02; 328(5974):45; author reply 45. PMID: 20360092.
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      91. Eisenach JC, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. The need for a journal policy on intrathecal, epidural, and perineural administration of non-approved drugs. Pain. 2010 Jun; 149(3):417-9. PMID: 20227830.
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      92. Fitzsimmons BL, Zattoni M, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Role of spinal p38alpha and beta MAPK in inflammatory hyperalgesia and spinal COX-2 expression. Neuroreport. 2010 Mar 10; 21(4):313-7. PMID: 20134354; PMCID: PMC2877130.
      93. Yaksh T. [Vacuoles: a hollow threat?]. Can J Anaesth. 2010 Mar; 57(3):195-200. PMID: 20054677; PMCID: PMC2821579.
      94. McCann S, Yaksh T, von Gunten CF. Correlation between myoclonus and the 3-glucuronide metabolites in patients treated with morphine or hydromorphone: a pilot study. J Opioid Manag. 2010 Mar-Apr; 6(2):87-94. PMID: 20481173.
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      95. Scholz J, Yaksh T. Preclinical research on persistent postsurgical pain: what we don't know, but should start studying. Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar; 112(3):511-3. PMID: 20124975; PMCID: PMC2828501.
      96. Park P, Schachter S, Yaksh T. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Feb 05; 470(1):6-9. PMID: 20026382; PMCID: PMC2834555.
      97. Sorkin LS, Yaksh T. Behavioral models of pain states evoked by physical injury to the peripheral nerve. Neurotherapeutics. 2009 Oct; 6(4):609-19. PMID: 19789066.
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      98. Walker SM, Yaksh T. New caudal additives in children: benefit vs. risk? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009 Sep; 53(8):1097-8; author reply 1098-9. PMID: 19694618.
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      99. Cohen SP, Bogduk N, Dragovich A, Buckenmaier CC, Griffith S, Kurihara C, Raymond J, Richter PJ, Williams N, Yaksh T. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response, and preclinical safety study of transforaminal epidural etanercept for the treatment of sciatica. Anesthesiology. 2009 May; 110(5):1116-26. PMID: 19387178.
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      100. Ilfeld BM, Yaksh T. The end of postoperative pain--a fast-approaching possibility? And, if so, will we be ready? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009 Mar-Apr; 34(2):85-7. PMID: 19282704.
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      101. Bradesi S, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Pothoulakis C, Yaksh T, Mayer EA. Role of spinal microglia in visceral hyperalgesia and NK1R up-regulation in a rat model of chronic stress. Gastroenterology. 2009 Apr; 136(4):1339-48, e1-2. PMID: 19249394; PMCID: PMC2812027.
      102. Ray SB, Yaksh T. Spinal antinociceptive action of loperamide is mediated by opioid receptors in the formalin test in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Dec 31; 448(3):260-2. PMID: 18973791; PMCID: PMC2753543.
      103. Svensson CI, Medicherla S, Malkmus S, Jiang Y, Ma JY, Kerr I, Brainin-Mattos J, Powell HC, Luo ZD, Chakravarty S, Dugar S, Higgins LS, Protter AA, Yaksh T. Role of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in a model of osteosarcoma-induced pain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Oct; 90(4):664-75. PMID: 18584857.
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      104. Nazarian A, Christianson CA, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Dexmedetomidine and ST-91 analgesia in the formalin model is mediated by alpha2A-adrenoceptors: a mechanism of action distinct from morphine. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Dec; 155(7):1117-26. PMID: 18846040; PMCID: PMC2597249.
      105. Ilieva HS, Yamanaka K, Malkmus S, Kakinohana O, Yaksh T, Marsala M, Cleveland DW. Mutant dynein (Loa) triggers proprioceptive axon loss that extends survival only in the SOD1 ALS model with highest motor neuron death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 26; 105(34):12599-604. PMID: 18719118; PMCID: PMC2527957.
      106. Nagakura Y, Jones TL, Malkmus SA, Sorkin L, Yaksh T. The sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory nerve fibers in a rat model of acute postoperative pain and its response to intrathecal pharmacotherapy. Pain. 2008 Oct 31; 139(3):569-77. PMID: 18692315; PMCID: PMC3346272.
      107. Crawley B, Saito O, Malkmus S, Fitzsimmons B, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Acetaminophen prevents hyperalgesia in central pain cascade. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Sep 05; 442(1):50-3. PMID: 18601979; PMCID: PMC2669887.
      108. Yaksh T, Tozier N, Horais KA, Malkmus S, Rathbun M, Lafranco L, Eisenach J. Toxicology profile of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists delivered by intrathecal infusion in the canine model. Anesthesiology. 2008 May; 108(5):938-49. PMID: 18431131.
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      109. Leung AY, Kim SJ, Schulteis G, Yaksh T. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 May 01; 8:18. PMID: 18452622; PMCID: PMC2386116.
      110. Kim DH, Fitzsimmons B, Hefferan MP, Svensson CI, Wancewicz E, Monia BP, Hung G, Butler M, Marsala M, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Inhibition of spinal cytosolic phospholipase A(2) expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia. Neuroscience. 2008 Jun 26; 154(3):1077-87. PMID: 18511207; PMCID: PMC2640426.
      111. Nazarian A, Gu G, Gracias NG, Wilkinson K, Hua XY, Vasko MR, Yaksh T. Spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and nociception-evoked release of primary afferent substance P. Neuroscience. 2008 Mar 03; 152(1):119-27. PMID: 18222611; PMCID: PMC2730522.
      112. Hefferan MP, Kucharova K, Kinjo K, Kakinohana O, Sekerkova G, Nakamura S, Fuchigami T, Tomori Z, Yaksh T, Kurtz N, Marsala M. Spinal astrocyte glutamate receptor 1 overexpression after ischemic insult facilitates behavioral signs of spasticity and rigidity. J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 17; 27(42):11179-91. PMID: 17942713.
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      113. Khan IM, Wart CV, Singletary EA, Stanislaus S, Deerinck T, Yaksh T, Printz MP. Elimination of rat spinal substance P receptor bearing neurons dissociates cardiovascular and nocifensive responses to nicotinic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Feb; 54(2):269-79. PMID: 18037142; PMCID: PMC4418974.
      114. Wegner K, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Rathbun ML, Shtaerman Y, Yaksh T. Development of a canine nociceptive thermal escape model. J Neurosci Methods. 2008 Feb 15; 168(1):88-97. PMID: 18054083; PMCID: PMC2266689.
      115. Yaksh T. Neonates have a spinal alpha receptor too, as do adults. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug; 151(8):1139-40. PMID: 17641678; PMCID: PMC2189816.
      116. Ilfeld BM, Yaksh T, Neal JM. Mandating two-year regional anesthesia fellowships: fanning the academic flame or extinguishing it? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 32(4):275-9. PMID: 17720109; PMCID: PMC2048748.
      117. Nagakura Y, Malkmus S, Yaksh T. Determination of current threshold for paw withdrawal with sine-wave electrical stimulation in rats: effect of drugs and alteration in acute inflammation. Pain. 2008 Feb; 134(3):293-301. PMID: 17583428.
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      118. Allen JW, Hofer K, McCumber D, Wagstaff JD, Layer RT, McCabe RT, Yaksh T. An assessment of the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal and epidural contulakin-G in rats and dogs. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1505-13, table of contents. PMID: 17513650.
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      119. Kern SE, Allen J, Wagstaff J, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. The pharmacokinetics of the conopeptide contulakin-G (CGX-1160) after intrathecal administration: an analysis of data from studies in beagles. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1514-20, table of contents. PMID: 17513651.
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      120. Tang Q, Svensson CI, Fitzsimmons B, Webb M, Yaksh T, Hua XY. Inhibition of spinal constitutive NOS-2 by 1400W attenuates tissue injury and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia and spinal p38 activation. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May; 25(10):2964-72. PMID: 17561811.
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      121. Svensson CI, Tran TK, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T, Hua XY. Descending serotonergic facilitation of spinal ERK activation and pain behavior. FEBS Lett. 2006 Dec 11; 580(28-29):6629-34. PMID: 17113581; PMCID: PMC2291024.
      122. Leung AY, Park J, Schulteis G, Duann JR, Yaksh T. The electrophysiology of de qi sensations. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Oct; 12(8):743-50. PMID: 17034280.
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      123. Allen JW, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Wegner K, Corbeil JA, Mattrey RF, Rossi SS, Yaksh T. Time course and role of morphine dose and concentration in intrathecal granuloma formation in dogs: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology investigation. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep; 105(3):581-9. PMID: 16931993.
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      124. Allen JW, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Yaksh T. Opiate pharmacology of intrathecal granulomas. Anesthesiology. 2006 Sep; 105(3):590-8. PMID: 16931994.
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      125. Kakinohana O, Hefferan MP, Nakamura S, Kakinohana M, Galik J, Tomori Z, Marsala J, Yaksh T, Marsala M. Development of GABA-sensitive spasticity and rigidity in rats after transient spinal cord ischemia: a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological and histopathological study. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 01; 141(3):1569-83. PMID: 16797137.
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      126. Svensson CI, Schäfers M, Jones TL, Yaksh T, Sorkin LS. Covariance among age, spinal p38 MAP kinase activation and allodynia. J Pain. 2006 May; 7(5):337-45. PMID: 16632323.
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      127. Rossi S, Yaksh T, Bentley H, van den Brande G, Grant I, Ellis R. Characterization of interference with 6 commercial delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol immunoassays by efavirenz (glucuronide) in urine. Clin Chem. 2006 May; 52(5):896-7. PMID: 16638958.
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      128. Brainin-Mattos J, Smith ND, Malkmus S, Rew Y, Goodman M, Taulane J, Yaksh T. Cancer-related bone pain is attenuated by a systemically available delta-opioid receptor agonist. Pain. 2006 May; 122(1-2):174-81. PMID: 16545911.
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      129. Allen JW, Mantyh PW, Horais K, Tozier N, Rogers SD, Ghilardi JR, Cizkova D, Grafe MR, Richter P, Lappi DA, Yaksh T. Safety evaluation of intrathecal substance P-saporin, a targeted neurotoxin, in dogs. Toxicol Sci. 2006 May; 91(1):286-98. PMID: 16500924.
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      130. Shi TJ, Hua XY, Lu X, Malkmus S, Kinney J, Holmberg K, Wirz S, Ceccatelli S, Yaksh T, Bartfai T, Hökfelt T. Sensory neuronal phenotype in galanin receptor 2 knockout mice: focus on dorsal root ganglion neurone development and pain behaviour. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Feb; 23(3):627-36. PMID: 16487144.
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      131. Yaksh T. Calcium channels as therapeutic targets in neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2006 Jan; 7(1 Suppl 1):S13-30. PMID: 16426997.
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      132. Hua XY, Svensson CI, Matsui T, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T, Webb M. Intrathecal minocycline attenuates peripheral inflammation-induced hyperalgesia by inhibiting p38 MAPK in spinal microglia. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 22(10):2431-40. PMID: 16307586.
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      133. Yaksh T, Kokotos G, Svensson CI, Stephens D, Kokotos CG, Fitzsimmons B, Hadjipavlou-Litina D, Hua XY, Dennis EA. Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan; 316(1):466-75. PMID: 16203828.
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      134. Svensson CI, Hua XY, Powell HC, Lai J, Porreca F, Yaksh T. Prostaglandin E2 release evoked by intrathecal dynorphin is dependent on spinal p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Neuropeptides. 2005 Oct; 39(5):485-94. PMID: 16176831.
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      135. Nielsen CK, Lewis RJ, Alewood D, Drinkwater R, Palant E, Patterson M, Yaksh T, McCumber D, Smith MT. Anti-allodynic efficacy of the chi-conopeptide, Xen2174, in rats with neuropathic pain. Pain. 2005 Nov; 118(1-2):112-24. PMID: 16154696.
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      136. Torchia M, Yaksh T. Unexpected pain in a dog: aberration or worthy of a citation? Agree to disagree. Lab Anim (NY). 2005 Sep; 34(8):19. PMID: 16136070.
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      137. Leung A, Khadivi B, Duann JR, Cho ZH, Yaksh T. The effect of Ting point (tendinomuscular meridians) electroacupuncture on thermal pain: a model for studying the neuronal mechanism of acupuncture analgesia. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug; 11(4):653-61. PMID: 16131289.
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      138. Leung AY, Wallace MS, Schulteis G, Yaksh T. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the thermal grill. Pain. 2005 Jul; 116(1-2):26-32. PMID: 15935558.
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      139. Gu G, Kondo I, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Resting and evoked spinal substance P release during chronic intrathecal morphine infusion: parallels with tolerance and dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep; 314(3):1362-9. PMID: 15908510.
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      140. Kondo I, Marvizon JC, Song B, Salgado F, Codeluppi S, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Inhibition by spinal mu- and delta-opioid agonists of afferent-evoked substance P release. J Neurosci. 2005 Apr 06; 25(14):3651-60. PMID: 15814796.
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      141. Lucas KK, Svensson CI, Hua XY, Yaksh T, Dennis EA. Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of group IVA cPLA2. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 144(7):940-52. PMID: 15685208; PMCID: PMC1576074.
      142. Hua XY, Salgado KF, Gu G, Fitzsimmons B, Kondo I, Bartfai T, Yaksh T. Mechanisms of antinociception of spinal galanin: how does galanin inhibit spinal sensitization? Neuropeptides. 2005 Jun; 39(3):211-6. PMID: 15944014.
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      143. Svensson CI, Fitzsimmons B, Azizi S, Powell HC, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Spinal p38beta isoform mediates tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia and spinal sensitization. J Neurochem. 2005 Mar; 92(6):1508-20. PMID: 15748168.
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      144. Malkmus S, Lu X, Bartfai T, Yaksh T, Hua XY. Increased hyperalgesia after tissue injury and faster recovery of allodynia after nerve injury in the GalR1 knockout mice. Neuropeptides. 2005 Jun; 39(3):217-21. PMID: 15944015.
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      145. Butler M, Hayes CS, Chappell A, Murray SF, Yaksh T, Hua XY. Spinal distribution and metabolism of 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-modified oligonucleotides after intrathecal administration in rats. Neuroscience. 2005; 131(3):705-15. PMID: 15730875.
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      146. Svensson CI, Lucas KK, Hua XY, Powell HC, Dennis EA, Yaksh T. Spinal phospholipase A2 in inflammatory hyperalgesia: role of the small, secretory phospholipase A2. Neuroscience. 2005; 133(2):543-53. PMID: 15885922.
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      147. Marsala M, Kakinohana O, Yaksh T, Tomori Z, Marsala S, Cizkova D. Spinal implantation of hNT neurons and neuronal precursors: graft survival and functional effects in rats with ischemic spastic paraplegia. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Nov; 20(9):2401-14. PMID: 15525281.
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      148. Khan IM, Wennerholm M, Singletary E, Polston K, Zhang L, Deerinck T, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Ablation of primary afferent terminals reduces nicotinic receptor expression and the nociceptive responses to nicotinic agonists in the spinal cord. J Neurocytol. 2004 Sep; 33(5):543-56. PMID: 15906161.
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      149. Massie JB, Huang B, Malkmus S, Yaksh T, Kim CW, Garfin SR, Akeson WH. A preclinical post laminectomy rat model mimics the human post laminectomy syndrome. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Aug 30; 137(2):283-9. PMID: 15262072.
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      150. Bartfai T, Lu X, Badie-Mahdavi H, Barr AM, Mazarati A, Hua XY, Yaksh T, Haberhauer G, Ceide SC, Trembleau L, Somogyi L, Kröck L, Rebek J. Galmic, a nonpeptide galanin receptor agonist, affects behaviors in seizure, pain, and forced-swim tests. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13; 101(28):10470-5. PMID: 15240875; PMCID: PMC478593.
      151. Koetzner L, Gregory JA, Yaksh T. Intrathecal protease-activated receptor stimulation produces thermal hyperalgesia through spinal cyclooxygenase activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct; 311(1):356-63. PMID: 15175421.
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      152. Yaksh T, Allen JW. Preclinical insights into the implementation of intrathecal midazolam: a cautionary tale. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun; 98(6):1509-11. PMID: 15155298.
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      153. Yaksh T, Allen JW. The use of intrathecal midazolam in humans: a case study of process. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun; 98(6):1536-45, table of contents. PMID: 15155302.
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      154. Yaksh T, Horais KA, Tozier N, Rathbun M, Richter P, Rossi S, Grafe M, Tong C, Meschter C, Cline JM, Eisenach J. Intrathecal ketorolac in dogs and rats. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Aug; 80(2):322-34. PMID: 15141096.
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      155. Ghilardi JR, Svensson CI, Rogers SD, Yaksh T, Mantyh PW. Constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 participates in the initiation of tissue injury-induced hyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 17; 24(11):2727-32. PMID: 15028765.
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      156. Koetzner L, Hua XY, Lai J, Porreca F, Yaksh T. Nonopioid actions of intrathecal dynorphin evoke spinal excitatory amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 11; 24(6):1451-8. PMID: 14960618.
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      157. Eisenach JC, Hood DD, Curry R, Sawynok J, Yaksh T, Li X. Intrathecal but not intravenous opioids release adenosine from the spinal cord. J Pain. 2004 Feb; 5(1):64-8. PMID: 14975380.
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      158. Allen JW, Yaksh T. Assessment of acute thermal nociception in laboratory animals. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:11-23. PMID: 15131325.
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      159. Malkmus SA, Yaksh T. Intrathecal catheterization and drug delivery in the rat. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:109-21. PMID: 15131333.
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      160. Allen JW, Yaksh T. Tissue injury models of persistent nociception in rats. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:25-34. PMID: 15131326.
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      161. Schäfers M, Marziniak M, Sorkin LS, Yaksh T, Sommer C. Cyclooxygenase inhibition in nerve-injury- and TNF-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2004 Jan; 185(1):160-8. PMID: 14697327.
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      162. Khan I, Osaka H, Stanislaus S, Calvo RM, Deerinck T, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor distribution in relation to spinal neurotransmission pathways. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Dec 01; 467(1):44-59. PMID: 14574679.
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      163. Hua XY, Hayes CS, Hofer A, Fitzsimmons B, Kilk K, Langel U, Bartfai T, Yaksh T. Galanin acts at GalR1 receptors in spinal antinociception: synergy with morphine and AP-5. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb; 308(2):574-82. PMID: 14610237.
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      164. Svensson CI, Marsala M, Westerlund A, Calcutt NA, Campana WM, Freshwater JD, Catalano R, Feng Y, Protter AA, Scott B, Yaksh T. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing. J Neurochem. 2003 Sep; 86(6):1534-44. PMID: 12950462.
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      165. Yaksh T, Horais KA, Tozier NA, Allen JW, Rathbun M, Rossi SS, Sommer C, Meschter C, Richter PJ, Hildebrand KR. Chronically infused intrathecal morphine in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul; 99(1):174-87. PMID: 12826858.
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      166. Yaksh T. Preclinical work leading to the development of spinal analgesia. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul; 99(1):224-5. PMID: 12826864.
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      167. Hayes CS, Mulkmus SA, Cizkova D, Yaksh T, Hua XY. A double-lumen intrathecal catheter for studies of modulation of spinal opiate tolerance. J Neurosci Methods. 2003 Jun 30; 126(2):165-73. PMID: 12814841.
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      168. South SM, Kohno T, Kaspar BK, Hegarty D, Vissel B, Drake CT, Ohata M, Jenab S, Sailer AW, Malkmus S, Masuyama T, Horner P, Bogulavsky J, Gage FH, Yaksh T, Woolf CJ, Heinemann SF, Inturrisi CE. A conditional deletion of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in adult spinal cord dorsal horn reduces NMDA currents and injury-induced pain. J Neurosci. 2003 Jun 15; 23(12):5031-40. PMID: 12832526.
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      169. Svensson CI, Hua XY, Protter AA, Powell HC, Yaksh T. Spinal p38 MAP kinase is necessary for NMDA-induced spinal PGE(2) release and thermal hyperalgesia. Neuroreport. 2003 Jun 11; 14(8):1153-7. PMID: 12821799.
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      170. Kakinohana M, Marsala M, Carter C, Davison JK, Yaksh T. Neuraxial morphine may trigger transient motor dysfunction after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia: a clinical and experimental study. Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr; 98(4):862-70. PMID: 12657847.
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      171. Schäfers M, Lee DH, Brors D, Yaksh T, Sorkin LS. Increased sensitivity of injured and adjacent uninjured rat primary sensory neurons to exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha after spinal nerve ligation. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 01; 23(7):3028-38. PMID: 12684490.
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      172. Rossi S, Yaksh T. Rapid quantification of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 in canine cerebrospinal fluid and plasma by capillary gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Feb 26; 31(2):243-50. PMID: 12609663.
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      173. Eisenach JC, Yaksh T. Epidural ketamine in healthy children--what's the point? Anesth Analg. 2003 Feb; 96(2):626; author reply 626-7. PMID: 12538224.
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      174. Horais K, Hruby V, Rossi S, Cizkova D, Meschter C, Dorr R, Yaksh T. Effects of chronic intrathecal infusion of a partial differential opioid agonist in dogs. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Feb; 71(2):263-75. PMID: 12563112.
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      175. Ibuki T, Marsala M, Masuyama T, Yaksh T. Spinal amino acid release and repeated withdrawal in spinal morphine tolerant rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 138(4):689-97. PMID: 12598423; PMCID: PMC1573708.
      176. Svensson CI, Rew Y, Malkmus S, Schiller PW, Taulane JP, Goodman M, Yaksh T. Systemic and spinal analgesic activity of a delta-opioid-selective lanthionine enkephalin analog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb; 304(2):827-32. PMID: 12538839.
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      177. Yaksh T, Hassenbusch S, Burchiel K, Hildebrand KR, Page LM, Coffey RJ. Inflammatory masses associated with intrathecal drug infusion: a review of preclinical evidence and human data. Pain Med. 2002 Dec; 3(4):300-12. PMID: 15099235.
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      178. Eisenach JC, Yaksh T. Safety in numbers: how do we study toxicity of spinal analgesics? Anesthesiology. 2002 Nov; 97(5):1047-9. PMID: 12411784.
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      179. Khan IM, Singletary E, Alemayehu A, Stanislaus S, Printz MP, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Nicotinic receptor gene cluster on rat chromosome 8 in nociceptive and blood pressure hyperresponsiveness. Physiol Genomics. 2002 Oct 29; 11(2):65-72. PMID: 12388796.
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      180. Eisenach JC, Curry R, Hood DD, Yaksh T. Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal ketorolac. Pain. 2002 Oct; 99(3):599-604. PMID: 12406536.
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      181. Luger NM, Sabino MA, Schwei MJ, Mach DB, Pomonis JD, Keyser CP, Rathbun M, Clohisy DR, Honore P, Yaksh T, Mantyh PW. Efficacy of systemic morphine suggests a fundamental difference in the mechanisms that generate bone cancer vs inflammatory pain. Pain. 2002 Oct; 99(3):397-406. PMID: 12406514.
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      182. Cizkova D, Marsala J, Lukacova N, Marsala M, Jergova S, Orendacova J, Yaksh T. Localization of N-type Ca2+ channels in the rat spinal cord following chronic constrictive nerve injury. Exp Brain Res. 2002 Dec; 147(4):456-63. PMID: 12444477.
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      183. Rew Y, Malkmus S, Svensson C, Yaksh T, Chung NN, Schiller PW, Cassel JA, DeHaven RN, Taulane JP, Goodman M. Synthesis and biological activities of cyclic lanthionine enkephalin analogues: delta-opioid receptor selective ligands. J Med Chem. 2002 Aug 15; 45(17):3746-54. PMID: 12166947.
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      184. Rossi S, Yaksh T. Rapid quantification of the delta-opioid receptor selective enkephalin DPDPE in canine cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 May 25; 772(1):73-9. PMID: 12016017.
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      185. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh T. Spinal and peripheral mu opioids and the development of secondary tactile allodynia after thermal injury. Anesth Analg. 2002 Apr; 94(4):968-74, table of contents. PMID: 11916806.
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      186. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of spinal glutamatergic receptors in post-thermal injury-evoked tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 2002 Mar; 96(3):617-26. PMID: 11873037.
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      187. Schäfers M, Geis C, Brors D, Yaksh T, Sommer C. Anterograde transport of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the intact and injured rat sciatic nerve. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15; 22(2):536-45. PMID: 11784800.
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      188. Svensson CI, Yaksh T. The spinal phospholipase-cyclooxygenase-prostanoid cascade in nociceptive processing. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002; 42:553-83. PMID: 11807183.
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      189. Yaksh T, Scott B, LeBel CL. Effects of continuous lumbar intrathecal infusion of leptin in rats on weight regulation. Neuroscience. 2002; 110(4):703-10. PMID: 11934477.
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      190. Wallace MS, Ridgeway B, Leung A, Schulteis G, Yaksh T. Concentration-effect relationships for intravenous alfentanil and ketamine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Jan; 42(1):70-80. PMID: 11808827.
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      191. Yaksh T. Future advances in pain pharmacology: what does the present say about the future? Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2002; 45:211-8. PMID: 12434582.
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      192. Hua XY, Moore A, Malkmus S, Murray SF, Dean N, Yaksh T, Butler M. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase Calpha expression by an antisense oligonucleotide attenuates morphine infusion-induced tolerance. Neuroscience. 2002; 113(1):99-107. PMID: 12123688.
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      193. Khan IM, Stanislaus S, Zhang L, Vaughn D, Printz MP, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Spinal nicotinic receptor activity in a genetic model of hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2001 Oct; 23(7):555-68. PMID: 11710757.
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      194. Sorkin LS, Yaksh T, Doom CM. Pain models display differential sensitivity to Ca2+-permeable non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct; 95(4):965-73. PMID: 11605940.
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      195. Yaksh T, Dirig DM, Conway CM, Svensson C, Luo ZD, Isakson PC. The acute antihyperalgesic action of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and release of spinal prostaglandin E2 is mediated by the inhibition of constitutive spinal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) but not COX-1. J Neurosci. 2001 Aug 15; 21(16):5847-53. PMID: 11487607.
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      196. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Chaplan SR, Higuera ES, Ajakwe RC, Yaksh T. Vincristine-induced allodynia in the rat. Pain. 2001 Jul; 93(1):69-76. PMID: 11406340.
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      197. Mantyh PW, Yaksh T. Sensory neurons are PARtial to pain. Nat Med. 2001 Jul; 7(7):772-3. PMID: 11433334.
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      198. Yaksh T, Ozaki G, McCumber D, Rathbun M, Svensson C, Malkmus S, Yaksh MC. An automated flinch detecting system for use in the formalin nociceptive bioassay. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001 Jun; 90(6):2386-402. PMID: 11356806.
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      199. Khan IM, Stanislaus S, Zhang L, Taylor P, Yaksh T. A-85380 and epibatidine each interact with disparate spinal nicotinic receptor subtypes to achieve analgesia and nociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Apr; 297(1):230-9. PMID: 11259549.
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      200. Luo ZD, Chaplan SR, Higuera ES, Sorkin LS, Stauderman KA, Williams ME, Yaksh T. Upregulation of dorsal root ganglion (alpha)2(delta) calcium channel subunit and its correlation with allodynia in spinal nerve-injured rats. J Neurosci. 2001 Mar 15; 21(6):1868-75. PMID: 11245671.
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      201. Leung A, Wallace MS, Ridgeway B, Yaksh T. Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous alfentanil and ketamine on peripheral neurosensory thresholds, allodynia and hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2001 Mar; 91(1-2):177-87. PMID: 11240090.
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      202. Wajima Z, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C blocks substance P-mediated hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 2000 Sep 22; 877(2):314-21. PMID: 10986346.
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      203. Yaksh T, Birnbach DJ. Intrathecal nalbuphine after cesarean delivery: are we ready? Anesth Analg. 2000 Sep; 91(3):505-8. PMID: 10960366.
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      204. Bennett G, Serafini M, Burchiel K, Buchser E, Classen A, Deer T, Du Pen S, Ferrante FM, Hassenbusch SJ, Lou L, Maeyaert J, Penn R, Portenoy RK, Rauck R, Willis KD, Yaksh T. Evidence-based review of the literature on intrathecal delivery of pain medication. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S12-36. PMID: 10989255.
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      205. Bennett G, Burchiel K, Buchser E, Classen A, Deer T, Du Pen S, Ferrante FM, Hassenbusch SJ, Lou L, Maeyaert J, Penn R, Portenoy RK, Rauck R, Serafini M, Willis KD, Yaksh T. Clinical guidelines for intraspinal infusion: report of an expert panel. PolyAnalgesic Consensus Conference 2000. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S37-43. PMID: 10989256.
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      206. Bennett G, Deer T, Du Pen S, Rauck R, Yaksh T, Hassenbusch SJ. Future directions in the management of pain by intraspinal drug delivery. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000 Aug; 20(2):S44-50. PMID: 10989257.
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      207. Nishiyama T, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh T. The effects of intrathecal morphine encapsulated in L- and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline liposomes on acute nociception in rats. Anesth Analg. 2000 Aug; 91(2):423-8. PMID: 10910861.
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      208. Yang LC, Orendacova J, Wang V, Ishikawa T, Yaksh T, Marsala M. Transient spinal cord ischemia in rat: the time course of spinal FOS protein expression and the effect of intraischemic hypothermia (27 degrees C). Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000 Jun; 20(3):351-65. PMID: 10789833.
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      209. Granados-Soto V, Kalcheva I, Hua X, Newton A, Yaksh T. Spinal PKC activity and expression: role in tolerance produced by continuous spinal morphine infusion. Pain. 2000 Apr; 85(3):395-404. PMID: 10781912.
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      210. Wallace M, Yaksh T. Long-term spinal analgesic delivery: a review of the preclinical and clinical literature. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2000 Mar-Apr; 25(2):117-57. PMID: 10746527.
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      211. Ishikawa T, Marsala M, Sakabe T, Yaksh T. Characterization of spinal amino acid release and touch-evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine or GABA(A) receptor antagonist. Neuroscience. 2000; 95(3):781-6. PMID: 10670445.
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      212. Wallace MS, Ridgeway BM, Leung AY, Gerayli A, Yaksh T. Concentration-effect relationship of intravenous lidocaine on the allodynia of complex regional pain syndrome types I and II. Anesthesiology. 2000 Jan; 92(1):75-83. PMID: 10638902.
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      213. Yaksh T, Provencher JC, Rathbun ML, Myers RR, Powell H, Richter P, Kohn FR. Safety assessment of encapsulated morphine delivered epidurally in a sustained-release multivesicular liposome preparation in dogs. Drug Deliv. 2000 Jan-Mar; 7(1):27-36. PMID: 10895417.
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      214. Hua XY, Chen P, Yaksh T. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C reduces nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Dec 03; 276(2):99-102. PMID: 10624801.
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      215. Sorkin LS, Yaksh T, Doom CM. Mechanical allodynia in rats is blocked by a Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist. Neuroreport. 1999 Nov 26; 10(17):3523-6. PMID: 10619637.
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      216. Luo ZD, Chaplan SR, Scott BP, Cizkova D, Calcutt NA, Yaksh T. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA upregulation in rat sensory neurons after spinal nerve ligation: lack of a role in allodynia development. J Neurosci. 1999 Nov 01; 19(21):9201-8. PMID: 10531423.
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      217. Yaksh T. A drug has to do what a drug has to do. Anesth Analg. 1999 Nov; 89(5):1075-7. PMID: 10553814.
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      218. Sailer A, Swanson GT, Pérez-Otaño I, O'Leary L, Malkmus SA, Dyck RH, Dickinson-Anson H, Schiffer HH, Maron C, Yaksh T, Gage FH, O'Gorman S, Heinemann SF. Generation and analysis of GluR5(Q636R) kainate receptor mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 15; 19(20):8757-64. PMID: 10516295.
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      219. Yoon MH, Yaksh T. Evaluation of interaction between gabapentin and ibuprofen on the formalin test in rats. Anesthesiology. 1999 Oct; 91(4):1006-13. PMID: 10519504.
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      220. Chiari A, Yaksh T, Myers RR, Provencher J, Moore L, Lee CS, Eisenach JC. Preclinical toxicity screening of intrathecal adenosine in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 1999 Sep; 91(3):824-32. PMID: 10485794.
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      221. Yaksh T. Regulation of spinal nociceptive processing: where we went when we wandered onto the path marked by the gate. Pain. 1999 Aug; Suppl 6:S149-52. PMID: 10491984.
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      222. Yaksh T. Spinal systems and pain processing: development of novel analgesic drugs with mechanistically defined models. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1999 Aug; 20(8):329-37. PMID: 10431212.
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      223. Yoon MH, Yaksh T. The effect of intrathecal gabapentin on pain behavior and hemodynamics on the formalin test in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1999 Aug; 89(2):434-9. PMID: 10439761.
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      224. Yaksh T, Hua XY, Kalcheva I, Nozaki-Taguchi N, Marsala M. The spinal biology in humans and animals of pain states generated by persistent small afferent input. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jul 06; 96(14):7680-6. PMID: 10393880; PMCID: PMC33601.
      225. Yaksh T, Provencher JC, Rathbun ML, Kohn FR. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of epidurally delivered sustained-release encapsulated morphine in dogs. Anesthesiology. 1999 May; 90(5):1402-12. PMID: 10319789.
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      226. DeHaven-Hudkins DL, Burgos LC, Cassel JA, Daubert JD, DeHaven RN, Mansson E, Nagasaka H, Yu G, Yaksh T. Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr; 289(1):494-502. PMID: 10087042.
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      227. Hua XY, Chen P, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Intrathecal substance P-induced thermal hyperalgesia and spinal release of prostaglandin E2 and amino acids. Neuroscience. 1999 Mar; 89(2):525-34. PMID: 10077333.
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      228. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. In vitro prostanoid release from spinal cord following peripheral inflammation: effects of substance P, NMDA and capsaicin. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar; 126(6):1333-40. PMID: 10217526; PMCID: PMC1565904.
      229. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh T. Characterization of the antihyperalgesic action of a novel peripheral mu-opioid receptor agonist--loperamide. Anesthesiology. 1999 Jan; 90(1):225-34. PMID: 9915332.
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      230. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. Spinal synthesis and release of prostanoids after peripheral injury and inflammation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 469:401-8. PMID: 10667359.
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      231. Khan IM, Buerkle H, Taylor P, Yaksh T. Nociceptive and antinociceptive responses to intrathecally administered nicotinic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 1998 Dec; 37(12):1515-25. PMID: 9886674.
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      232. Eisenach JC, James FM, Gordh T, Yaksh T. New epidural drugs: primum non nocere. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov; 87(5):1211-2. PMID: 9806714.
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      233. Nozaki-Taguchi N, Yaksh T. A novel model of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after mild thermal injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1998 Sep 18; 254(1):25-8. PMID: 9780083.
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      234. Nishiyama T, Yaksh T, Weber E. Effects of intrathecal NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on acute thermal nociception and their interaction with morphine. Anesthesiology. 1998 Sep; 89(3):715-22. PMID: 9743410.
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      235. Buerkle H, Yaksh T. Pharmacological evidence for different alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites mediating analgesia and sedation in the rat. Br J Anaesth. 1998 Aug; 81(2):208-15. PMID: 9813525.
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      236. Shreder K, Zhang L, Dang T, Yaksh T, Umeno H, DeHaven R, Daubert J, Goodman M. Synthesis and biological activity of a novel methylamine-bridged enkephalin analogue (MABE): a new route to cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics. J Med Chem. 1998 Jul 02; 41(14):2631-5. PMID: 9651168.
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      237. Dirig DM, Isakson PC, Yaksh T. Effect of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition on induction and maintenance of carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jun; 285(3):1031-8. PMID: 9618405.
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      238. Vanický I, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Neurodegeneration induced by reversed microdialysis of NMDA; a quantitative model for excitotoxicity in vivo. Brain Res. 1998 Apr 13; 789(2):347-50. PMID: 9573401.
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      239. Högman M, Reber A, Hua XY, Dueck R, Yaksh T. Effects of endotracheal intubation on airway neuropeptide content, arterial oxygenation and lung volumes in anaesthetized rats. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar; 28(3):249-55. PMID: 9568472.
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      240. Buerkle H, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Effect of continuous spinal remifentanil infusion on behaviour and spinal glutamate release evoked by subcutaneous formalin in the rat. Br J Anaesth. 1998 Mar; 80(3):348-53. PMID: 9623437.
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      241. Hua XY, Chen P, Polgar E, Nagy I, Marsala M, Phillips E, Wollaston L, Urban L, Yaksh T, Webb M. Spinal neurokinin NK1 receptor down-regulation and antinociception: effects of spinal NK1 receptor antisense oligonucleotides and NK1 receptor occupancy. J Neurochem. 1998 Feb; 70(2):688-98. PMID: 9453563.
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      242. Jun JH, Yaksh T. The effect of intrathecal gabapentin and 3-isobutyl gamma-aminobutyric acid on the hyperalgesia observed after thermal injury in the rat. Anesth Analg. 1998 Feb; 86(2):348-54. PMID: 9459247.
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      243. Yaksh T, Dirig DM, Malmberg AB. Mechanism of action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Invest. 1998; 16(7):509-27. PMID: 9774958.
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      244. Yáñez AM, Peleteiro-Ramos R, Camba MA, Yaksh T. [Pharmacology of spinal facilitation: the basis for preventive analgesia]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1998 Jan; 45(1):17-23. PMID: 9580459.
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      245. Partridge BJ, Chaplan SR, Sakamoto E, Yaksh T. Characterization of the effects of gabapentin and 3-isobutyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid on substance P-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jan; 88(1):196-205. PMID: 9447873.
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      246. Kohn FR, Malkmus SA, Brownson EA, Rossi SS, Yaksh T. Fate of the predominant phospholipid component of DepoFoam drug delivery matrix after intrathecal administration of sustained-release encapsulated cytarabine in rats. Drug Deliv. 1998; 5(2):143-51. PMID: 19570006.
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      247. Chritton SL, Chinnow SL, Grabau C, Dousa MK, Lucas D, Roddy D, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Adrenomedullary secretion of DOPA, catecholamines, catechol metabolites, and neuropeptides. J Neurochem. 1997 Dec; 69(6):2413-20. PMID: 9375673.
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      248. Dirig DM, Salami A, Rathbun ML, Ozaki GT, Yaksh T. Characterization of variables defining hindpaw withdrawal latency evoked by radiant thermal stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 1997 Oct 03; 76(2):183-91. PMID: 9350970.
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      249. Wallace MS, Lee J, Sorkin L, Dunn JS, Yaksh T, Yu A. Intravenous lidocaine: effects on controlling pain after anti-GD2 antibody therapy in children with neuroblastoma--a report of a series. Anesth Analg. 1997 Oct; 85(4):794-6. PMID: 9322457.
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      250. Naguib M, Yaksh T. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes that mediate antinociception in the rat spinal cord. Anesth Analg. 1997 Oct; 85(4):847-53. PMID: 9322468.
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      251. Sharp B, Yaksh T. Pain killers of the immune system. Nat Med. 1997 Aug; 3(8):831-2. PMID: 9256267.
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      252. Dirig DM, Konin GP, Isakson PC, Yaksh T. Effect of spinal cyclooxygenase inhibitors in rat using the formalin test and in vitro prostaglandin E2 release. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul 23; 331(2-3):155-60. PMID: 9274974.
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      253. Yaksh T, Rathbun ML, Dragani JC, Malkmus S, Bourdeau AR, Richter P, Powell H, Myers RR, Lebel CP. Kinetic and safety studies on intrathecally infused recombinant-methionyl human brain-derived neurotrophic factor in dogs. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 Jul; 38(1):89-100. PMID: 9268608.
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      254. Hua XY, Chen P, Hwang J, Yaksh T. Antinociception induced by civamide, an orally active capsaicin analogue. Pain. 1997 Jul; 71(3):313-22. PMID: 9231875.
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      255. Marsala M, Galik J, Ishikawa T, Yaksh T. Technique of selective spinal cord cooling in rat: methodology and application. J Neurosci Methods. 1997 Jun 06; 74(1):97-106. PMID: 9210579.
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      256. Wallace MS, Laitin S, Licht D, Yaksh T. Concentration-effect relations for intravenous lidocaine infusions in human volunteers: effects on acute sensory thresholds and capsaicin-evoked hyperpathia. Anesthesiology. 1997 Jun; 86(6):1262-72. PMID: 9197294.
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      257. Dirig DM, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Temperature dependency of basal and evoked release of amino acids and calcitonin gene-related peptide from rat dorsal spinal cord. J Neurosci. 1997 Jun 01; 17(11):4406-14. PMID: 9151757.
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      258. Dunbar SA, Yaksh T. Spinal infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK801 induces hypersensitivity to the spinal alpha-2 agonist ST91 in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Jun; 281(3):1219-25. PMID: 9190856.
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      259. Hwang JH, Yaksh T. Effect of subarachnoid gabapentin on tactile-evoked allodynia in a surgically induced neuropathic pain model in the rat. Reg Anesth. 1997 May-Jun; 22(3):249-56. PMID: 9168217.
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      260. Khan IM, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Epibatidine binding sites and activity in the spinal cord. Brain Res. 1997 Apr 11; 753(2):269-82. PMID: 9125412.
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      261. Yang LC, Marsala M, Orendacova J, Yaksh T. Knee joint inflammation attenuates spinal FOS expression after unilateral paw formalin injection in rat. Neurosci Lett. 1997 Apr 04; 225(2):89-92. PMID: 9147381.
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      262. Ibuki T, Dunbar SA, Yaksh T. Effect of transient naloxone antagonism on tolerance development in rats receiving continuous spinal morphine infusion. Pain. 1997 Apr; 70(2-3):125-32. PMID: 9150285.
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      263. Rossi SS, Moore AC, Hagey LR, Yaksh T, Chaplan SR. An improved method for the measurement of lidocaine and its metabolites in rat plasma. Ther Drug Monit. 1997 Apr; 19(2):179-84. PMID: 9108647.
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      264. Zhang Y, Malmberg AB, Yaksh T, Sjölund B, Sundler F, Håkanson R. Capsaicin-evoked release of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from rat spinal cord in vivo. Regul Pept. 1997 Mar 26; 69(2):83-7. PMID: 9178350.
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      265. Hwang JH, Yaksh T. The effect of spinal GABA receptor agonists on tactile allodynia in a surgically-induced neuropathic pain model in the rat. Pain. 1997 Mar; 70(1):15-22. PMID: 9106805.
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      266. Chaplan SR, Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Efficacy of spinal NMDA receptor antagonism in formalin hyperalgesia and nerve injury evoked allodynia in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Feb; 280(2):829-38. PMID: 9023297.
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      267. Slart R, Yu AL, Yaksh T, Sorkin LS. An animal model of pain produced by systemic administration of an immunotherapeutic anti-ganglioside antibody. Pain. 1997 Jan; 69(1-2):119-25. PMID: 9060021.
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      268. Yaksh T. Pharmacology and mechanisms of opioid analgesic activity. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997 Jan; 41(1 Pt 2):94-111. PMID: 9061092.
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      269. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. Hyperalgesia-associated spinal synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 433:205-8. PMID: 9561136.
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      270. Dowlatshahi P, Yaksh T. Differential effects of two intraventricularly injected alpha 2 agonists, ST-91 and dexmedetomidine, on electroencephalogram, feeding, and electromyogram. Anesth Analg. 1997 Jan; 84(1):133-8. PMID: 8989014.
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      271. Yaksh T. Pain after injury: some basic mechanisms. J Fla Med Assoc. 1997 Jan; 84(1):16-9. PMID: 9037993.
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      273. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. Thermal hyperalgesia in rat evoked by intrathecal substance P at multiple stimulus intensities reflects an increase in the gain of nociceptive processing. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Dec 13; 220(2):93-6. PMID: 8981481.
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      274. Calcutt NA, Jorge MC, Yaksh T, Chaplan SR. Tactile allodynia and formalin hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin, aldose reductase inhibition and lidocaine. Pain. 1996 Dec; 68(2-3):293-9. PMID: 9121817.
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      275. Khan IM, Youngblood KL, Printz MP, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Spinal nicotinic receptor expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 1996 Dec; 28(6):1093-9. PMID: 8952602.
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      276. Yang LC, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Effect of spinal kainic acid receptor activation on spinal amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release in rat. Neuroscience. 1996 Nov; 75(2):453-61. PMID: 8931009.
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      277. Yaksh T. Epidural ketamine: a useful, mechanistically novel adjuvant for epidural morphine? Reg Anesth. 1996 Nov-Dec; 21(6):508-13. PMID: 8956385.
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      278. Nagasaka H, Awad H, Yaksh T. Peripheral and spinal actions of opioids in the blockade of the autonomic response evoked by compression of the inflamed knee joint. Anesthesiology. 1996 Oct; 85(4):808-16. PMID: 8873551.
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      279. Yang LC, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Characterization of time course of spinal amino acids, citrulline and PGE2 release after carrageenan/kaolin-induced knee joint inflammation: a chronic microdialysis study. Pain. 1996 Oct; 67(2-3):345-54. PMID: 8951928.
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      280. Takano Y, Takano M, Sato I, Yaksh T. Effects of spinal naloxone and naltrindole on the antinociceptive action of intrathecally administered dexmedetomidine. J Anesth. 1996 Sep; 10(3):194-8. PMID: 23839625.
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      281. Hamra JG, Yaksh T. Equianalgesic doses of subcutaneous but not intrathecal morphine alter phenotypic expression of cell surface markers and mitogen-induced proliferation in rat lymphocytes. Anesthesiology. 1996 Aug; 85(2):355-65. PMID: 8712452.
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      282. Wallace MS, Dyck JB, Rossi SS, Yaksh T. Computer-controlled lidocaine infusion for the evaluation of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Pain. 1996 Jul; 66(1):69-77. PMID: 8857633.
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      283. Khan IM, Marsala M, Printz MP, Taylor P, Yaksh T. Intrathecal nicotinic agonist-elicited release of excitatory amino acids as measured by in vivo spinal microdialysis in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jul; 278(1):97-106. PMID: 8764340.
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      284. Lee YW, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of the spinal adenosine receptor which mediates the antiallodynic action of intrathecal adenosine agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jun; 277(3):1642-8. PMID: 8667233.
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      285. Hamra JG, Yaksh T. Halothane inhibits T cell proliferation and interleukin-2 receptor expression in rats. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996 May; 18(2):323-36. PMID: 8771374.
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      286. Dunbar S, Yaksh T. Concurrent spinal infusion of MK801 blocks spinal tolerance and dependence induced by chronic intrathecal morphine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 May; 84(5):1177-88. PMID: 8624012.
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      287. Jhamandas KH, Marsala M, Ibuki T, Yaksh T. Spinal amino acid release and precipitated withdrawal in rats chronically infused with spinal morphine. J Neurosci. 1996 Apr 15; 16(8):2758-66. PMID: 8786451.
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      288. Zhang Y, Malmberg AB, Sjölund B, Yaksh T. The effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) on the nociceptive formalin test. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Apr 05; 207(3):187-90. PMID: 8728481.
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      289. Buerkle H, Yaksh T. Continuous intrathecal administration of shortlasting mu opioids remifentanil and alfentanil in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 Apr; 84(4):926-35. PMID: 8638848.
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      290. Ishikawa T, Yaksh T. [Concurrent characterization of spinal amino acid release and touch-evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine or GABAA receptor antagonists]. Masui. 1996 Apr; 45(4):439-44. PMID: 8725598.
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      291. Galik J, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Changes in spontaneous unit activity in lumbar spinal cord after reversible aortic occlusion in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 22; 207(1):45-8. PMID: 8710206.
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      292. Dunbar S, Yaksh T. Effect of spinal infusion of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on spinal tolerance and dependence induced by chronic intrathecal morphine in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 22; 207(1):33-6. PMID: 8710203.
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      293. Rossi SS, Dyck JB, Yaksh T. Simultaneous extraction of sufentanil and midazolam from human plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Jan 15; 244(1):103-10. PMID: 8919205.
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      294. Yaksh T. Horizons in Pain Research. San Diego, California, May 19-21, 1995. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan; 84(1):245-8. PMID: 8572351.
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      295. Buerkle H, Yaksh T. Comparison of the spinal actions of the mu-opioid remifentanil with alfentanil and morphine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 Jan; 84(1):94-102. PMID: 8572360.
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      296. Rothrock JF, Mar KR, Yaksh T, Golbeck A, Moore AC. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses in migraine patients and controls. Cephalalgia. 1995 Dec; 15(6):489-93. PMID: 8706112.
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      297. Bach FW, Yaksh T. Release of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity into ventriculo-cisternal perfusate by lumbar intrathecal capsaicin in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Dec 01; 701(1-2):192-200. PMID: 8925284.
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      298. Isackson J, Wallace MS, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh T. Antinociception and side effects of L- and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline liposome-encapsulated alfentanil after spinal delivery in rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Nov; 77(5):333-40. PMID: 8778746.
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      299. Marsala M, Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. The spinal loop dialysis catheter: characterization of use in the unanesthetized rat. J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Nov; 62(1-2):43-53. PMID: 8750084.
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      300. Lee YW, Chaplan SR, Yaksh T. Systemic and supraspinal, but not spinal, opiates suppress allodynia in a rat neuropathic pain model. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Oct 20; 199(2):111-4. PMID: 8584236.
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      301. Calcutt NA, Li L, Yaksh T, Malmberg AB. Different effects of two aldose reductase inhibitors on nociception and prostaglandin E. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 16; 285(2):189-97. PMID: 8566138.
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      302. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. Intrathecal baclofen and muscimol, but not midazolam, are antinociceptive using the rat-formalin model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Oct; 275(1):219-27. PMID: 7562553.
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      303. Chaplan SR, Bach FW, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. Prolonged alleviation of tactile allodynia by intravenous lidocaine in neuropathic rats. Anesthesiology. 1995 Oct; 83(4):775-85. PMID: 7574057.
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      304. Yaksh T, Malmberg AB, Ro S, Schiller P, Goodman M. Characterization of the spinal antinociceptive activity of constrained peptidomimetic opioids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Oct; 275(1):63-72. PMID: 7562596.
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      305. Bach FW, Chaplan SR, Jang J, Yaksh T. Cerebrospinal fluid beta-endorphin in models of hyperalgesia in the rat. Regul Pept. 1995 Sep 22; 59(1):79-86. PMID: 12506417.
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      306. Bach FW, Yaksh T. Release into ventriculo-cisternal perfusate of beta-endorphin- and Met-enkephalin-immunoreactivity: effects of electrical stimulation in the arcuate nucleus and periaqueductal gray of the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Sep 04; 690(2):167-76. PMID: 8535833.
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      307. Dirig DM, Yaksh T. Differential right shifts in the dose-response curve for intrathecal morphine and sufentanil as a function of stimulus intensity. Pain. 1995 Sep; 62(3):321-8. PMID: 8657432.
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      308. Hua XY, Wong S, Jinno S, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of calcitonin gene related peptide release from sensory terminals in the rat trachea. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jul; 73(7):999-1006. PMID: 8846444.
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      309. Ro S, Zhu Q, Lee CW, Goodman M, Darlak K, Spatola AF, Chung NN, Schiller PW, Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Highly potent side chain-main chain cyclized dermorphin-deltorphin analogues: an integrated approach including synthesis, bioassays, NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. J Pept Sci. 1995 May-Jun; 1(3):157-74. PMID: 9222993.
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      310. Yanez AM, Wallace M, Ho R, Shen D, Yaksh T. Touch-evoked agitation produced by spinally administered phospholipid emulsion and liposomes in rats. Structure-activity relation. Anesthesiology. 1995 May; 82(5):1189-98. PMID: 7741294.
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      311. Bach FW, Yaksh T. Release of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity from brain by activation of a hypothalamic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Neuroscience. 1995 Apr; 65(3):775-83. PMID: 7609876.
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      312. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Cyclooxygenase inhibition and the spinal release of prostaglandin E2 and amino acids evoked by paw formalin injection: a microdialysis study in unanesthetized rats. J Neurosci. 1995 Apr; 15(4):2768-76. PMID: 7722627.
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      313. Lee YW, Yaksh T. Analysis of drug interaction between intrathecal clonidine and MK-801 in peripheral neuropathic pain rat model. Anesthesiology. 1995 Mar; 82(3):741-8. PMID: 7879942.
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      314. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. The effect of morphine on formalin-evoked behaviour and spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandin E2 using microdialysis in conscious rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Mar; 114(5):1069-75. PMID: 7780642; PMCID: PMC1510315.
      315. Nagasaka H, Yaksh T. Effects of intrathecal mu, delta, and kappa agonists on thermally evoked cardiovascular and nociceptive reflexes in halothane-anesthetized rats. Anesth Analg. 1995 Mar; 80(3):437-43. PMID: 7864404.
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      316. Yaksh T, Grafe MR, Malkmus S, Rathbun ML, Eisenach JC. Studies on the safety of chronically administered intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in rats and dogs. Anesthesiology. 1995 Feb; 82(2):412-27. PMID: 7856900.
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      317. Hood DD, Eisenach JC, Tong C, Tommasi E, Yaksh T. Cardiorespiratory and spinal cord blood flow effects of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate, clonidine, and their combination in sheep. Anesthesiology. 1995 Feb; 82(2):428-35. PMID: 7856901.
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      318. Beutler AS, Banck MS, Bach FW, Gage FH, Porreca F, Bilsky EJ, Yaksh T. Retrovirus-mediated expression of an artificial beta-endorphin precursor in primary fibroblasts. J Neurochem. 1995 Feb; 64(2):475-81. PMID: 7830038.
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      319. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Effect of continuous intrathecal infusion of omega-conopeptides, N-type calcium-channel blockers, on behavior and antinociception in the formalin and hot-plate tests in rats. Pain. 1995 Jan; 60(1):83-90. PMID: 7715945.
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      320. Yaksh T, Pogrel JW, Lee YW, Chaplan SR. Reversal of nerve ligation-induced allodynia by spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Jan; 272(1):207-14. PMID: 7815335.
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      321. Yaksh T, Chaplan SR, Malmberg AB. Future directions in the pharmacological management of hyperalgesic and allodynic pain states: the NMDA receptor. NIDA Res Monogr. 1995; 147:84-103. PMID: 8742782.
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      322. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Capsaicin-evoked prostaglandin E2 release in spinal cord slices: relative effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Dec 27; 271(2-3):293-9. PMID: 7705429.
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      323. Khan IM, Taylor P, Yaksh T. Stimulatory pathways and sites of action of intrathecally administered nicotinic agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Dec; 271(3):1550-7. PMID: 7996469.
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      324. Khan IM, Printz MP, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Augmented responses to intrathecal nicotinic agonists in spontaneous hypertension. Hypertension. 1994 Nov; 24(5):611-9. PMID: 7960022.
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      325. Abram SE, Marsala M, Yaksh T. Analgesic and neurotoxic effects of intrathecal corticosteroids in rats. Anesthesiology. 1994 Nov; 81(5):1198-205. PMID: 7978478.
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      326. Nitecki S, Karmeli R, Harty GJ, Kamei C, Yaksh T, Szurszewski JH. Long-term perfusion of the cerebroventricular system of dogs without leakage to the peripheral circulation. Am J Physiol. 1994 Nov; 267(5 Pt 2):R1309-19. PMID: 7977859.
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      327. Hua XY, Back SM, Yaksh T. Characterization of muscarinic receptors involved in tracheal CGRP release. Neuroreport. 1994 Oct 27; 5(16):2133-6. PMID: 7865762.
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      328. Hua XY, Jinno S, Back SM, Tam EK, Yaksh T. Multiple mechanisms for the effects of capsaicin, bradykinin and nicotine on CGRP release from tracheal afferent nerves: role of prostaglandins, sympathetic nerves and mast cells. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Oct; 33(10):1147-54. PMID: 7862250.
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      329. Yaksh T, Rathbun M, Jage J, Mirzai T, Grafe M, Hiles RA. Pharmacology and toxicology of chronically infused epidural clonidine.HCl in dogs. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994 Oct; 23(3):319-35. PMID: 7835532.
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      330. Wallace MS, Yanez AM, Ho RJ, Shen DD, Yaksh T. Antinociception and side effects of liposome-encapsulated alfentanil after spinal delivery in rats. Anesth Analg. 1994 Oct; 79(4):778-86. PMID: 7943792.
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      331. Sabbe MB, Grafe MR, Mjanger E, Tiseo PJ, Hill HF, Yaksh T. Spinal delivery of sufentanil, alfentanil, and morphine in dogs. Physiologic and toxicologic investigations. Anesthesiology. 1994 Oct; 81(4):899-920. PMID: 7943841.
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      332. Marsala M, Vanicky I, Yaksh T. Effect of graded hypothermia (27 degrees to 34 degrees C) on behavioral function, histopathology, and spinal blood flow after spinal ischemia in rat. Stroke. 1994 Oct; 25(10):2038-46. PMID: 8091450.
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      333. Yaksh T. Spinal somatostatin for patients with cancer. Risk-benefit assessment of an analgesic. Anesthesiology. 1994 Sep; 81(3):531-3. PMID: 7916545.
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      334. Calcutt NA, Malmberg AB, Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Tolrestat treatment prevents modification of the formalin test model of prolonged pain in hyperglycemic rats. Pain. 1994 Sep; 58(3):413-20. PMID: 7838591.
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      335. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Voltage-sensitive calcium channels in spinal nociceptive processing: blockade of N- and P-type channels inhibits formalin-induced nociception. J Neurosci. 1994 Aug; 14(8):4882-90. PMID: 8046458.
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      336. Patel PM, Drummond JC, Cole DJ, Yaksh T. Differential temperature sensitivity of ischemia-induced glutamate release and eicosanoid production in rats. Brain Res. 1994 Jul 11; 650(2):205-11. PMID: 7953685.
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      337. Khan IM, Taylor P, Yaksh T. Cardiovascular and behavioral responses to nicotinic agents administered intrathecally. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jul; 270(1):150-8. PMID: 8035311.
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      338. Khan IM, Yaksh T, Taylor P. Ligand specificity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat spinal cord: studies with nicotine and cytisine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jul; 270(1):159-66. PMID: 8035312.
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      339. Chaplan SR, Bach FW, Pogrel JW, Chung JM, Yaksh T. Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw. J Neurosci Methods. 1994 Jul; 53(1):55-63. PMID: 7990513.
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      340. Marsala M, Sorkin LS, Yaksh T. Transient spinal ischemia in rat: characterization of spinal cord blood flow, extracellular amino acid release, and concurrent histopathological damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jul; 14(4):604-14. PMID: 8014207.
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      341. Naguib M, Yaksh T. Antinociceptive effects of spinal cholinesterase inhibition and isobolographic analysis of the interaction with mu and alpha 2 receptor systems. Anesthesiology. 1994 Jun; 80(6):1338-48. PMID: 8010479.
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      342. Chaplan SR, Pogrel JW, Yaksh T. Role of voltage-dependent calcium channel subtypes in experimental tactile allodynia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jun; 269(3):1117-23. PMID: 8014856.
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      343. Malmberg AB, Rafferty MF, Yaksh T. Antinociceptive effect of spinally delivered prostaglandin E receptor antagonists in the formalin test on the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1994 May 23; 173(1-2):193-6. PMID: 7936413.
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      344. Sabbe MB, Penning JP, Ozaki GT, Yaksh T. Spinal and systemic action of the alpha 2 receptor agonist dexmedetomidine in dogs. Antinociception and carbon dioxide response. Anesthesiology. 1994 May; 80(5):1057-72. PMID: 7912480.
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      345. Marsala M, Yaksh T. Transient spinal ischemia in the rat: characterization of behavioral and histopathological consequences as a function of the duration of aortic occlusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 May; 14(3):526-35. PMID: 8163596.
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      346. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Antinociception produced by spinal delivery of the S and R enantiomers of flurbiprofen in the formalin test. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Apr 21; 256(2):205-9. PMID: 8050472.
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      347. Jinno S, Hua XY, Yaksh T. Nicotine and acetylcholine induce release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from rat trachea. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994 Apr; 76(4):1651-6. PMID: 8045845.
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      348. Schick RR, Schusdziarra V, Yaksh T, Go VL. Brain regions where cholecystokinin exerts its effect on satiety. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Mar 23; 713:242-54. PMID: 8185166.
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      349. Abram SE, Yaksh T. Systemic lidocaine blocks nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia and nociceptor-driven spinal sensitization in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1994 Feb; 80(2):383-91; discussion 25A. PMID: 8311320.
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      350. Keipert PE, Otto S, Flaim SF, Weers JG, Schutt EA, Pelura TJ, Klein DH, Yaksh T. Influence of perflubron emulsion particle size on blood half-life and febrile response in rats. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 1994; 22(4):1169-74. PMID: 7849919.
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      351. Young RF, Bach FW, Van Norman AS, Yaksh T. Release of beta-endorphin and methionine-enkephalin into cerebrospinal fluid during deep brain stimulation for chronic pain. Effects of stimulation locus and site of sampling. J Neurosurg. 1993 Dec; 79(6):816-25. PMID: 8246048.
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      352. Murray MJ, Svingen BA, Yaksh T, Holman RT. Effects of endotoxin on pigs prefed omega-3 vs. omega-6 fatty acid-enriched diets. Am J Physiol. 1993 Dec; 265(6 Pt 1):E920-7. PMID: 8279548.
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      353. Calcutt NA, Mizisin AP, Yaksh T. Impaired induction of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide after sciatic nerve injury in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. J Neurol Sci. 1993 Nov; 119(2):154-61. PMID: 8277329.
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      354. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Effects of colchicine applied to the peripheral nerve on the thermal hyperalgesia evoked with chronic nerve constriction. Pain. 1993 Nov; 55(2):227-33. PMID: 7508592.
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      355. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T, Calcutt NA. Anti-nociceptive effects of the GM1 ganglioside derivative AGF 44 on the formalin test in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett. 1993 Oct 14; 161(1):45-8. PMID: 8255545.
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      356. Foley KM, Yaksh T. Another call for patience instead of patients. Developing novel therapies for chronic pain. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct; 79(4):637-40. PMID: 8214741.
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      357. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Spinal nitric oxide synthesis inhibition blocks NMDA-induced thermal hyperalgesia and produces antinociception in the formalin test in rats. Pain. 1993 Sep; 54(3):291-300. PMID: 8233543.
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      358. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of the spinal action of ketorolac, morphine, ST-91, U50488H, and L-PIA on the formalin test and an isobolographic analysis of the NSAID interaction. Anesthesiology. 1993 Aug; 79(2):270-81. PMID: 8102041.
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      359. Saeki S, Yaksh T. Suppression of nociceptive responses by spinal mu opioid agonists: effects of stimulus intensity and agonist efficacy. Anesth Analg. 1993 Aug; 77(2):265-74. PMID: 8346825.
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      360. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Effects of intrathecal strychnine and bicuculline on nerve compression-induced thermal hyperalgesia and selective antagonism by MK-801. Pain. 1993 Jul; 54(1):79-84. PMID: 8378105.
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      361. Patel PM, Drummond JC, Sano T, Cole DJ, Kalkman CJ, Yaksh T. Effect of ibuprofen on regional eicosanoid production and neuronal injury after forebrain ischemia in rats. Brain Res. 1993 Jun 18; 614(1-2):315-24. PMID: 8348324.
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      362. Tiseo PJ, Yaksh T. Dose-dependent antagonism of spinal opioid receptor agonists by naloxone and naltrindole: additional evidence for delta-opioid receptor subtypes in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993 May 12; 236(1):89-96. PMID: 8391455.
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      363. Hua XY, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of the effects of bradykinin, serotonin, and histamine on the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from C-fiber terminals in the rat trachea. J Neurosci. 1993 May; 13(5):1947-53. PMID: 8478685.
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      364. Yaksh T. The spinal pharmacology of facilitation of afferent processing evoked by high-threshold afferent input of the postinjury pain state. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg. 1993 Apr; 6(2):250-6. PMID: 8097639.
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      365. Yaksh T. New horizons in our understanding of the spinal physiology and pharmacology of pain processing. Semin Oncol. 1993 Apr; 20(2 Suppl 1):6-18. PMID: 8475414.
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      366. Abram SE, Yaksh T. Morphine, but not inhalation anesthesia, blocks post-injury facilitation. The role of preemptive suppression of afferent transmission. Anesthesiology. 1993 Apr; 78(4):713-21. PMID: 8385425.
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      367. Sawynok J, Yaksh T. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant: a review of pharmacology and mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Rev. 1993 Mar; 45(1):43-85. PMID: 8475169.
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      368. Takano M, Takano Y, Yaksh T. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from rat spinal cord: modulation by alpha 2 agonists. Peptides. 1993 Mar-Apr; 14(2):371-8. PMID: 7683402.
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      369. Myers RR, Yamamoto T, Yaksh T, Powell HC. The role of focal nerve ischemia and Wallerian degeneration in peripheral nerve injury producing hyperesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1993 Feb; 78(2):308-16. PMID: 8439027.
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      370. Takano Y, Yaksh T. Chronic spinal infusion of dexmedetomidine, ST-91 and clonidine: spinal alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtypes and intrinsic activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jan; 264(1):327-35. PMID: 8093729.
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      371. Yaksh T, Malmberg AB. Spinal actions of NSAIDS in blocking spinally mediated hyperalgesia: the role of cyclooxygenase products. Agents Actions Suppl. 1993; 41:89-100. PMID: 8317344.
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      372. Sabbe MB, Grafe MR, Pfeifer BL, Mirzai TH, Yaksh T. Toxicology of baclofen continuously infused into the spinal intrathecal space of the dog. Neurotoxicology. 1993; 14(4):397-410. PMID: 8164885.
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      373. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Effects of intrathecal capsaicin and an NK-1 antagonist, CP,96-345, on the thermal hyperalgesia observed following unilateral constriction of the sciatic nerve in the rat. Pain. 1992 Dec; 51(3):329-34. PMID: 1337198.
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      374. Penning JP, Yaksh T. Interaction of intrathecal morphine with bupivacaine and lidocaine in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Dec; 77(6):1186-2000. PMID: 1466469.
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      375. Cantor SL, Zornow MH, Miller LP, Yaksh T. The effect of cyclohexyladenosine on the periischemic increases of hippocampal glutamate and glycine in the rabbit. J Neurochem. 1992 Nov; 59(5):1884-92. PMID: 1357102.
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      376. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Antinociceptive actions of spinal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the formalin test in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct; 263(1):136-46. PMID: 1403779.
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      377. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Comparison of the antinociceptive effects of pre- and posttreatment with intrathecal morphine and MK801, an NMDA antagonist, on the formalin test in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Oct; 77(4):757-63. PMID: 1416174.
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      378. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Isobolographic and dose-response analyses of the interaction between intrathecal mu and delta agonists: effects of naltrindole and its benzofuran analog (NTB). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct; 263(1):264-75. PMID: 1328610.
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      379. Takano Y, Takano M, Yaksh T. The effect of intrathecally administered imiloxan and WB4101: possible role of alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Sep 04; 219(3):465-8. PMID: 1358645.
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      380. Herold EE, Yaksh T. Anesthesia and muscle relaxation with intrathecal injections of AR636 and AG489, two acylpolyamine spider toxins, in rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):507-12. PMID: 1519789.
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      381. Bernards CM, Luger TJ, Malmberg AB, Hill HF, Yaksh T. Liposome encapsulation prolongs alfentanil spinal analgesia and alters systemic redistribution in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Sep; 77(3):529-35. PMID: 1519790.
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      382. Malmberg AB, Yaksh T. Hyperalgesia mediated by spinal glutamate or substance P receptor blocked by spinal cyclooxygenase inhibition. Science. 1992 Aug 28; 257(5074):1276-9. PMID: 1381521.
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      383. Yaksh T. The spinal pharmacology of acutely and chronically administered opioids. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992 Aug; 7(6):356-61. PMID: 1325528.
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      384. Jang J, Yaksh T, Hill HF. Use of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an intrathecal drug vehicle with opioids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):592-600. PMID: 1349642.
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      385. Stoddard SL, Tyce GM, Cook JA, Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Adrenal medullary secretion with splanchnic stimulation in spinal cats. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1992 May 01; 38(2):105-16. PMID: 1619210.
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      386. Takano Y, Yaksh T. Characterization of the pharmacology of intrathecally administered alpha-2 agonists and antagonists in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):764-72. PMID: 1349648.
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      387. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Studies of morphine and D-ala2-D-leu5-enkephalin (DADLE) cross-tolerance after continuous intrathecal infusion in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1992 Apr; 76(4):596-603. PMID: 1550284.
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      388. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Spinal pharmacology of thermal hyperesthesia induced by constriction injury of sciatic nerve. Excitatory amino acid antagonists. Pain. 1992 Apr; 49(1):121-8. PMID: 1594273.
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      389. Saeki S, Yaksh T. Suppression by spinal alpha-2 agonists of motor and autonomic responses evoked by low- and high-intensity thermal stimuli. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Feb; 260(2):795-802. PMID: 1346645.
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      390. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Studies on the spinal interaction of morphine and the NMDA antagonist MK-801 on the hyperesthesia observed in a rat model of sciatic mononeuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Jan 20; 135(1):67-70. PMID: 1311824.
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      391. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. The antinociceptive activity of excitatory amino acids in the rat brainstem: an anatomical and pharmacological analysis. Brain Res. 1992 Jan 13; 569(2):255-67. PMID: 1347242.
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      392. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Brainstem excitatory amino acid receptors in nociception: microinjection mapping and pharmacological characterization of glutamate-sensitive sites in the brainstem associated with algogenic behavior. Neuroscience. 1992; 46(3):535-47. PMID: 1347650.
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      393. al-Rodhan NR, Yaksh T, Kelly PJ. Comparison of the neurochemistry of the endogenous opioid systems in two brainstem pain-processing centers. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1992; 59(1-4):15-9. PMID: 1295034.
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      394. Hua XY, Yaksh T. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and tachykinins from the rat trachea. Peptides. 1992 Jan-Feb; 13(1):113-20. PMID: 1377821.
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      395. Patel PM, Drummond JC, Mitchell MD, Yaksh T, Cole DJ. Eicosanoid production in the caudate nucleus and dorsal hippocampus after forebrain ischemia: a microdialysis study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992 Jan; 12(1):88-95. PMID: 1727145.
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      396. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Spinal pharmacology of thermal hyperesthesia induced by incomplete ligation of sciatic nerve. I. Opioid and nonopioid receptors. Anesthesiology. 1991 Nov; 75(5):817-26. PMID: 1659256.
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      397. Baker AJ, Zornow MH, Scheller MS, Yaksh T, Skilling SR, Smullin DH, Larson AA, Kuczenski R. Changes in extracellular concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, dopamine, serotonin, and dopamine metabolites after transient global ischemia in the rabbit brain. J Neurochem. 1991 Oct; 57(4):1370-9. PMID: 1895110.
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      398. al-Rodhan NR, Richelson E, Gilbert JA, McCormick DJ, Kanba KS, Pfenning MA, Nelson A, Larson EW, Yaksh T. Structure-antinociceptive activity of neurotensin and some novel analogues in the periaqueductal gray region of the brainstem. Brain Res. 1991 Aug 23; 557(1-2):227-35. PMID: 1660754.
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      399. Mjanger E, Yaksh T. Characteristics of dose-dependent antagonism by beta-funaltrexamine of the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal mu agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Aug; 258(2):544-50. PMID: 1650833.
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      400. Takano Y, Yaksh T. Relative efficacy of spinal alpha-2 agonists, dexmedetomidine, clonidine and ST-91, determined in vivo by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline, an irreversible antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Aug; 258(2):438-46. PMID: 1678011.
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      401. Hua XY, Boublik JH, Spicer MA, Rivier JE, Brown MR, Yaksh T. The antinociceptive effects of spinally administered neuropeptide Y in the rat: systematic studies on structure-activity relationship. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Jul 01; 258(1):243-8. PMID: 1677040.
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      402. Yaksh T, Sabbe MB, Lucas D, Mjanger E, Chipkin RE. Effects of [N-(L-(1-carboxy-2-phenyl)ethyl]-L-phenylalanyl-beta-alanine (SCH32615), a neutral endopeptidase (enkephalinase) inhibitor, on levels of enkephalin, encrypted enkephalins and substance P in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Mar; 256(3):1033-41. PMID: 1706428.
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      403. Chritton SL, Dousa MK, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Nicotinic- and muscarinic-evoked release of canine adrenal catecholamines and peptides. Am J Physiol. 1991 Mar; 260(3 Pt 2):R589-99. PMID: 2001009.
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      404. Murray MJ, Svingen BA, Holman RT, Yaksh T. Effects of a fish oil diet on pigs' cardiopulmonary response to bacteremia. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1991 Mar-Apr; 15(2):152-8. PMID: 1904949.
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      405. Yaksh T. Leakage of fluid after epidural injection. Pain. 1991 Mar; 44(3):325. PMID: 2052401.
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      406. Fisher B, Zornow MH, Yaksh T, Peterson BM. Antinociceptive properties of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Jan 10; 192(2):221-5. PMID: 1674472.
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      407. Yamamoto T, Yaksh T. Stereospecific effects of a nonpeptidic NK1 selective antagonist, CP-96,345: antinociception in the absence of motor dysfunction. Life Sci. 1991; 49(26):1955-63. PMID: 1721102.
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      408. Yaksh T, Jang JD, Nishiuchi Y, Braun KP, Ro SG, Goodman M. The utility of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a vehicle for the intracerebral and intrathecal administration of drugs. Life Sci. 1991; 48(7):623-33. PMID: 1703620.
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      409. Sosnowski M, Yaksh T. Differential cross-tolerance between intrathecal morphine and sufentanil in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1990 Dec; 73(6):1141-7. PMID: 1978988.
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      410. Nagasaka H, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of intrathecal adrenergic agonists: cardiovascular and nociceptive reflexes in halothane-anesthetized rats. Anesthesiology. 1990 Dec; 73(6):1198-207. PMID: 1978989.
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      411. Lucas D, Yaksh T. Release in vivo of Met-enkephalin and encrypted forms of Met-enkephalin from brain and spinal cord of the anesthetized cat. Peptides. 1990 Nov-Dec; 11(6):1119-25. PMID: 2087436.
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      412. Michener SR, Aimone LD, Yaksh T, Go VL. Distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the pig, rat and human central nervous system. Peptides. 1990 Nov-Dec; 11(6):1217-23. PMID: 1708138.
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      413. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Alpha-chloralose anesthesia inhibits the somato-sympathetic reflex response in cats more effectively than halothane. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1990 Oct; 37(9):669-75. PMID: 2127972.
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      414. Thomforde GM, Malagelada JR, Camilleri M, Yaksh T. Demonstration of intrathecal and systemic morphine and ST-91 effects on fed canine upper gut motility. Dig Dis Sci. 1990 Oct; 35(10):1249-56. PMID: 1976496.
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      415. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Effects of intrathecal morphine, clonidine, and midazolam on the somato-sympathoadrenal reflex response in halothane-anesthetized cats. Anesthesiology. 1990 Sep; 73(3):425-32. PMID: 2393126.
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      416. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Lucas DL. Cryptic Met-enkephalin in adrenal and portal vein during splanchnic artery occlusion shock in cats. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Aug 24; 116(3):387-92. PMID: 2243619.
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      417. Monasky MS, Zinsmeister AR, Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Interaction of intrathecal morphine and ST-91 on antinociception in the rat: dose-response analysis, antagonism and clearance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Aug; 254(2):383-92. PMID: 1974633.
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      418. Roddy DR, Yaksh T, Aimone LD, Go VL. Distribution of neuropeptide Y in the spinal cords of cat, dog, rat, man and pig. Regul Pept. 1990 Jul 30; 29(2-3):81-92. PMID: 2217906.
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      419. Yaksh T. Extradural somatostatin. Br J Anaesth. 1990 Jul; 65(1):152. PMID: 1974453.
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      420. al-Rodhan N, Chipkin R, Yaksh T. The antinociceptive effects of SCH-32615, a neutral endopeptidase (enkephalinase) inhibitor, microinjected into the periaqueductal, ventral medulla and amygdala. Brain Res. 1990 Jun 18; 520(1-2):123-30. PMID: 2207626.
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      421. Sabbe MB, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of spinal opioids. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1990 Jun; 5(3):191-203. PMID: 2164071.
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      422. Sosnowski M, Yaksh T. Spinal administration of receptor-selective drugs as analgesics: new horizons. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1990 Jun; 5(3):204-13. PMID: 2164072.
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      423. Waldman SD, Yaksh T. Spinal opioids: historical perspectives and future directions. Introduction. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1990 Jun; 5(3):137. PMID: 2366007.
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      424. Oshita S, Yaksh T, Chipkin R. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered SCH32615, an enkephalinase inhibitor in the rat. Brain Res. 1990 May 07; 515(1-2):143-8. PMID: 2357551.
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      425. Sosnowski M, Yaksh T. The role of spinal and brainstem adenosine receptors in the modulation of the volume-evoked micturition reflex in the unanesthetized rat. Brain Res. 1990 May 07; 515(1-2):207-13. PMID: 2357559.
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      426. Penning JP, Yaksh T. The analgesic interaction between intrathecal morphine, lidocaine and bupivacaine in the rat. Can J Anaesth. 1990 May; 37(4 Pt 2):S48. PMID: 2361295.
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      427. Penning JP, Nagasaka H, Yaksh T. Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine in the rat; analgesic synergy without augmentation of motor dysfunction or hypotension. Can J Anaesth. 1990 May; 37(4 Pt 2):S49. PMID: 2361296.
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      428. Yanez A, Sabbe MB, Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Interaction of midazolam and morphine in the spinal cord of the rat. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Apr; 29(4):359-64. PMID: 2160622.
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      429. Morón MA, Stevens CW, Yaksh T. The antiseizure activity of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists in the conscious rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Mar; 252(3):1150-5. PMID: 2319465.
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      430. Yaksh T, Carmichael SW, Stoddard SL, Tyce GM, Kelly PJ, Lucas D, van Heerden JA, Ahlskog JE, Byer DE. Measurement of lumbar CSF levels of met-enkephalin, encrypted met-enkephalin, and neuropeptide Y in normal patients and in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after autologous transplantation of adrenal medulla into the caudate nucleus. J Lab Clin Med. 1990 Mar; 115(3):346-51. PMID: 2313164.
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      431. Schick RR, Harty GJ, Yaksh T, Go VL. Sites in the brain at which cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) acts to suppress feeding in rats: a mapping study. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Feb; 29(2):109-18. PMID: 2330072.
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      432. Onofrio BM, Yaksh T. Long-term pain relief produced by intrathecal morphine infusion in 53 patients. J Neurosurg. 1990 Feb; 72(2):200-9. PMID: 1688618.
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      433. Gaumann DM, Grabow TS, Yaksh T, Casey SJ, Rodriguez M. Intrathecal somatostatin, somatostatin analogs, substance P analog and dynorphin A cause comparable neurotoxicity in rats. Neuroscience. 1990; 39(3):761-74. PMID: 1711172.
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      434. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Effects of sufentanil and naltrexone on adrenal vein catecholamines and neuropeptides during splanchnic nerve stimulation in cats. Synapse. 1990; 6(4):392-4. PMID: 2149618.
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      435. Tiseo PJ, Sabbe MB, Yaksh T. Epidural and intrathecal administration of sufentanil, alfentanil and morphine in the dog: a comparison of analgesic effects and the development of tolerance. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 105:560. PMID: 1831544.
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      436. Benarroch EE, Aimone LD, Yaksh T. Segmental analysis of neuropeptide concentrations in normal human spinal cord. Neurology. 1990 Jan; 40(1):137-44. PMID: 2296359.
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      437. Stevens MK, Yaksh T. Systematic studies on the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on cerebral blood flow and responsivity, EEG, and blood-brain barrier following complete reversible cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1990 Jan; 10(1):77-88. PMID: 2153692.
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      438. Tiseo PJ, Yaksh T. The spinal pharmacology of urinary function: studies on urinary continence in the unanaesthetized rat. Ciba Found Symp. 1990; 151:91-104; discussion 104-9. PMID: 1699710.
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      439. Carmichael SW, Stoddard SL, O'Connor DT, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. The secretion of catecholamines, chromogranin A and neuropeptide Y from the adrenal medulla of the cat via the adrenolumbar vein and thoracic duct: different anatomic routes based on size. Neuroscience. 1990; 34(2):433-40. PMID: 2333152.
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      440. Aimone LD, Yaksh T. Opioid modulation of capsaicin-evoked release of substance P from rat spinal cord in vivo. Peptides. 1989 Nov-Dec; 10(6):1127-31. PMID: 2482963.
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      441. Sosnowski M, Yaksh T. Role of spinal adenosine receptors in modulating the hyperesthesia produced by spinal glycine receptor antagonism. Anesth Analg. 1989 Nov; 69(5):587-92. PMID: 2552866.
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      442. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Time course characteristics of tolerance development to continuously infused antinociceptive agents in rat spinal cord. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Oct; 251(1):216-23. PMID: 2795458.
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      443. Sosnowski M, Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Assessment of the role of A1/A2 adenosine receptors mediating the purine antinociception, motor and autonomic function in the rat spinal cord. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Sep; 250(3):915-22. PMID: 2778719.
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      444. Yaksh T, Chipkin RE. Studies on the effect of SCH-34826 and thiorphan on [Met5]enkephalin levels and release in rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Aug 29; 167(3):367-73. PMID: 2806377.
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      445. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Magnitude of opioid dependence after continuous intrathecal infusion of mu- and delta-selective opioids in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Aug 03; 166(3):467-72. PMID: 2553435.
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      446. Tyce GM, Ahlskog JE, Carmichael SW, Chritton SL, Stoddard SL, van Heerden JA, Yaksh T, Kelly PJ. Catecholamines in CSF, plasma, and tissue after autologous transplantation of adrenal medulla to the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Lab Clin Med. 1989 Aug; 114(2):185-92. PMID: 2754305.
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      447. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Potency of infused spinal antinociceptive agents is inversely related to magnitude of tolerance after continuous infusion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Jul; 250(1):1-8. PMID: 2526212.
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      448. Borke JL, Caride AJ, Yaksh T, Penniston JT, Kumar R. Cerebrospinal fluid calcium homeostasis: evidence for a plasma membrane Ca2+-pump in mammalian choroid plexus. Brain Res. 1989 Jun 12; 489(2):355-60. PMID: 2525946.
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      449. Grabow TS, Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Electroencephalographic and behavioral assessment of intracerebroventricular somatostatin and a substance P analogue. Brain Res. 1989 Jun 12; 489(2):223-30. PMID: 2472857.
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      450. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Tyce GM, Stoddard SL. Adrenal vein catecholamines and neuropeptides during splanchnic nerve stimulation in cats. Peptides. 1989 May-Jun; 10(3):587-92. PMID: 2780418.
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      451. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Post C, Wilcox GL, Rodriguez M. Intrathecal somatostatin in cat and mouse studies on pain, motor behavior, and histopathology. Anesth Analg. 1989 May; 68(5):623-32. PMID: 2566288.
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      452. Morón MA, Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Diltiazem enhances and flunarizine inhibits nimodipine's antiseizure effects. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Apr 25; 163(2-3):299-307. PMID: 2721577.
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      453. Navarro E, Romero SD, Yaksh T. CNS stimulation and PGE2 release. III. Pentamethylenetetrazole-induced seizures. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1989 Apr; 9(2):180-6. PMID: 2921293.
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      454. Yaksh T. Behavioral and autonomic correlates of the tactile evoked allodynia produced by spinal glycine inhibition: effects of modulatory receptor systems and excitatory amino acid antagonists. Pain. 1989 Apr; 37(1):111-23. PMID: 2542867.
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      455. Ramberg DA, Yaksh T. Effects of cervical spinal hemisection on dihydromorphine binding in brainstem and spinal cord in cat. Brain Res. 1989 Mar 27; 483(1):61-7. PMID: 2539891.
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      456. Lisek CA, Bailey JE, Benson LM, Yaksh T, Jardine I. Quantitation of endogenous substance P by on-line microcolumn liquid chromatography/continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1989 Feb; 3(2):43-6. PMID: 2485177.
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      457. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Dousa MK, Tyce GM. Adrenal vein catecholamines and met-enkephalin during staged hemorrhage and naltrexone administration in cats. Circ Shock. 1989 Feb; 27(2):139-54. PMID: 2539919.
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      458. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Comparison of the antinociceptive effect of morphine and glutamate at coincidental sites in the periaqueductal gray and medial medulla in rats. Brain Res. 1989 Jan 02; 476(1):1-9. PMID: 2563331.
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      459. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Opioid dependence after continuous intrathecal infusion of mu and delta opioids in the rat. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:544-5. PMID: 2577051.
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      460. Bower TC, Murray MJ, Gloviczki P, Yaksh T, Hollier LH, Pairolero PC. Effects of thoracic aortic occlusion and cerebrospinal fluid drainage on regional spinal cord blood flow in dogs: correlation with neurologic outcome. J Vasc Surg. 1989 Jan; 9(1):135-44. PMID: 2911133.
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      461. Yaksh T, Collins JG. Studies in animals should precede human use of spinally administered drugs. Anesthesiology. 1989 Jan; 70(1):4-6. PMID: 2912314.
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      462. Murray MJ, Offord KP, Yaksh T. Physiologic and plasma hormone correlates of survival in endotoxic dogs: effects of opiate antagonists. Crit Care Med. 1989 Jan; 17(1):39-47. PMID: 2535799.
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      463. Schick RR, Yaksh T, Roddy DR, Go VL. Release of hypothalamic cholecystokinin in cats: effects of nutrient and volume loading. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 256(1 Pt 2):R248-54. PMID: 2912218.
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      464. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Adrenal and intestinal secretion of catecholamines and neuropeptides during splanchnic artery occlusion shock. Circ Shock. 1988 Dec; 26(4):391-407. PMID: 3214933.
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      465. Stevens MK, Yaksh T. Time course of release in vivo of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and TxB2 into the brain extracellular space after 15 min of complete global ischemia in the presence and absence of cyclooxygenase inhibition. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1988 Dec; 8(6):790-8. PMID: 3142890.
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      466. Navarro E, Romero SD, Yaksh T. Release of prostaglandin E2 from brain of cat: II. In vivo studies on the effects of adrenergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. Neuropharmacology. 1988 Oct; 27(10):1067-72. PMID: 2907118.
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      467. Hunter LW, Rorie DK, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Concurrent separation of catecholamines, dihydroxyphenylglycol, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y in superfusate and tissue extract. Anal Biochem. 1988 Sep; 173(2):340-52. PMID: 3189813.
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      468. Yaksh T. Substance P release from knee joint afferent terminals: modulation by opioids. Brain Res. 1988 Aug 23; 458(2):319-24. PMID: 2463049.
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      469. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Tyce GM, Stoddard S. Sympathetic stimulating effects of sufentanil in the cat are mediated centrally. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Aug 15; 91(1):30-5. PMID: 2845307.
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      470. Stoddard SL, Tyce GM, Carmichael SW, Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Effect of acute and chronic spinal transection on evoked secretion of adrenal medullary catecholamines in the cat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988 Aug; 23(2):175-9. PMID: 3171091.
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      471. Durant PA, Yaksh T. Micturition in the unanesthetized rat: effects of intrathecal capsaicin, N-vanillylnonanamide, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine. Brain Res. 1988 Jun 07; 451(1-2):301-8. PMID: 3150817.
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      472. Schick RR, Stevens CW, Yaksh T, Go VL. Chronic intraventricular administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) suppresses feeding in rats. Brain Res. 1988 May 17; 448(2):294-8. PMID: 3378151.
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      473. Durant PA, Lucas PC, Yaksh T. Micturition in the unanesthetized rat: spinal vs. peripheral pharmacology of the adrenergic system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 May; 245(2):426-35. PMID: 3367300.
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      474. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Tyce GM, Lucas DL. Opioids preserve the adrenal medullary response evoked by severe hemorrhage: studies on adrenal catecholamine and met-enkephalin secretion in halothane anesthetized cats. Anesthesiology. 1988 May; 68(5):743-53. PMID: 2835918.
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      475. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Intrathecal somatostatin in rats: antinociception only in the presence of toxic effects. Anesthesiology. 1988 May; 68(5):733-42. PMID: 2897175.
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      476. Yaksh T, Michener SR, Bailey JE, Harty GJ, Lucas DL, Nelson DK, Roddy DR, Go VL. Survey of distribution of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, Met-enkephalin, bombesin and PHI in the spinal cord of cat, dog, sloth and monkey. Peptides. 1988 Mar-Apr; 9(2):357-72. PMID: 2453858.
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      477. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T. Effects of hemorrhage and opiate antagonists on adrenal release of neuropeptides in cats. Peptides. 1988 Mar-Apr; 9(2):393-405. PMID: 3375139.
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      478. Durant PA, Yaksh T. Drug effects on urinary bladder tone during spinal morphine-induced inhibition of the micturition reflex in unanesthetized rats. Anesthesiology. 1988 Mar; 68(3):325-34. PMID: 3344988.
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      479. Yaksh T, Harty GJ. Pharmacology of the allodynia in rats evoked by high dose intrathecal morphine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Feb; 244(2):501-7. PMID: 3346833.
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      480. Carmichael SW, Wilson RJ, Brimijoin WS, Melton LJ, Okazaki H, Yaksh T, Ahlskog JE, Stoddard SL, Tyce GM. Decreased catecholamines in the adrenal medulla of patients with parkinsonism. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jan 28; 318(4):254. PMID: 3336415.
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      481. Stevens CW, Monasky MS, Yaksh T. Spinal infusion of opiate and alpha-2 agonists in rats: tolerance and cross-tolerance studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Jan; 244(1):63-70. PMID: 2891846.
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      482. Yaksh T, Gaumann DM, Stevens CW. Receptors in the dorsal horn and intrathecal drug administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 531:90-107. PMID: 2898231.
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      483. Stevens C, Yaksh T. Opioid and adrenergic spinal receptor systems and pain control. NIDA Res Monogr. 1988; 81:343-52. PMID: 2841603.
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      484. Go VL, Yaksh T. Quantification of bombesin-like peptides in mammalian spinal cord. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 547:70-5. PMID: 3239896.
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      485. Yaksh T. Frederick W.L. Kerr: comments on his life with notes on his contributions to the understanding of facial neuralgias. Appl Neurophysiol. 1988; 51(2-5):65-75. PMID: 3291758.
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      486. Yaksh T, Al-Rodhan NR, Jensen TS. Sites of action of opiates in production of analgesia. Prog Brain Res. 1988; 77:371-94. PMID: 2851148.
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      487. Yaksh T. CNS mechanisms of pain and analgesia. Cancer Surv. 1988; 7(1):5-28. PMID: 2838170.
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      488. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Chronic antagonist infusion does not increase morphine antinociception in rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1987 Nov 10; 425(2):388-90. PMID: 3427441.
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      489. Gaumann DM, Yaksh T, Dousa MK, Tyce GM, Lucas DL, Hench VS. Effects of hemorrhage and naloxone on adrenal release of methionine-enkephalin and catecholamines in halothane anesthetized dogs. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1987 Nov; 21(1):29-41. PMID: 3440817.
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      490. Yaksh T, Onofrio BM. Retrospective consideration of the doses of morphine given intrathecally by chronic infusion in 163 patients by 19 physicians. Pain. 1987 Nov; 31(2):211-23. PMID: 3431881.
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      491. Go VL, Yaksh T. Release of substance P from the cat spinal cord. J Physiol. 1987 Oct; 391:141-67. PMID: 2451003; PMCID: PMC1192207.
      492. Ots ME, Yaksh T, Anderson RE, Sundt TM. Effect of dihydropyridines and diphenylalkylamines on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and cerebral blood flow in cats. J Neurosurg. 1987 Sep; 67(3):406-13. PMID: 3612273.
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      493. Schick RR, Reilly WM, Roddy DR, Yaksh T, Go VL. Neuronal cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity is postprandially released from primate hypothalamus. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 18; 418(1):20-6. PMID: 3664270.
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      494. Yaksh T. Opioid receptor systems and the endorphins: a review of their spinal organization. J Neurosurg. 1987 Aug; 67(2):157-76. PMID: 3037042.
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      495. Kim P, Yaksh T, Romero SD, Sundt TM. Production of uric acid in cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage in dogs: investigation of the possible role of xanthine oxidase in chronic vasospasm. Neurosurgery. 1987 Jul; 21(1):39-44. PMID: 3614602.
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      496. Meyer FB, Anderson RE, Sundt TM, Yaksh T, Sharbrough FW. Suppression of pentylenetetrazole seizures by oral administration of a dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist. Epilepsia. 1987 Jul-Aug; 28(4):409-14. PMID: 3622416.
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      497. Stevens CW, Weinger MB, Yaksh T. Intrathecal dynorphins suppress hindlimb electromyographic activity in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1987 Jun 19; 138(2):299-302. PMID: 2887441.
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      498. Yaksh T, Wang JY, Go VL. Cortical vasodilatation produced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and by physiological stimuli in the cat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987 Jun; 7(3):315-26. PMID: 3108270.
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      499. Yaksh T, Anderson RE. In vivo studies on intracellular pH, focal flow, and vessel diameter in the cat cerebral cortex: effects of altered CO2 and electrical stimulation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987 Jun; 7(3):332-41. PMID: 3108271.
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      500. Howe JR, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Intrathecal 6-hydroxydopamine or cervical spinal hemisection reduces norepinephrine content, but not the density of alpha 2-adrenoceptors, in the cat lumbar spinal enlargement. Neuroscience. 1987 May; 21(2):377-84. PMID: 3039400.
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      501. Howe JR, Yaksh T, Go VL. The effect of unilateral dorsal root ganglionectomies or ventral rhizotomies on alpha 2-adrenoceptor binding to, and the substance P, enkephalin, and neurotensin content of, the cat lumbar spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1987 May; 21(2):385-94. PMID: 2441314.
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      502. Anderson RE, Sundt TM, Yaksh T. Regional cerebral blood flow and focal cortical perfusion: a comparative study of 133Xe, 85Kr, and umbelliferone as diffusible indicators. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987 Apr; 7(2):207-13. PMID: 3558502.
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      503. Yaksh T, Furui T, Kanawati IS, Go VL. Release of cholecystokinin from rat cerebral cortex in vivo: role of GABA and glutamate receptor systems. Brain Res. 1987 Mar 17; 406(1-2):207-14. PMID: 3032357.
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      504. Hashmonai M, Go VL, Yaksh T, Szurszewski JH. Effect of central administration of motilin on migrating complexes in the dog. Am J Physiol. 1987 Feb; 252(2 Pt 1):G195-9. PMID: 3826347.
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      505. Stevens CW, Pezalla PD, Yaksh T. Spinal antinociceptive action of three representative opioid peptides in frogs. Brain Res. 1987 Jan 27; 402(1):201-3. PMID: 2881600.
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      506. Kim P, Yaksh T, Burnett PC, Blum MR, Sundt TM. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of uric acid in dogs and the effect of allopurinol. Brain Res. 1987 Jan 27; 402(1):87-92. PMID: 3828791.
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      507. Yaksh T. Spinal opiates: a review of their effect on spinal function with emphasis on pain processing. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand Suppl. 1987; 85:25-37. PMID: 2821725.
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      508. Yaksh T, Durant PA, Gaumann DM, Stevens CW, Mjanger E. Issues in drug management. Part 2. The use of receptor-selective agents as analgesics in the spinal cord: trends and possibilities. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1987; 2(3):129-38. PMID: 3039016.
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      509. Yaksh T. Reflections on F.W.L. Kerr: a pain scientist. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1987; 2(2):71-4. PMID: 3295068.
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      510. Meyer FB, Anderson RE, Sundt TM, Yaksh T. Treatment of experimental focal cerebral ischemia with mannitol. Assessment by intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, and electroencephalography. J Neurosurg. 1987 Jan; 66(1):109-15. PMID: 3097275.
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      511. Stevens MK, Yaksh T, Hansen RB, Anderson RE. Effect of preischemia cyclooxygenase inhibition by zomepirac sodium on reflow, cerebral autoregulation, and EEG recovery in the cat after global ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Dec; 6(6):691-702. PMID: 3098746.
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      512. Atchison SR, Durant PA, Yaksh T. Cardiorespiratory effects and kinetics of intrathecally injected D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin and morphine in unanesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology. 1986 Dec; 65(6):609-16. PMID: 3098139.
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      513. Yaksh T, Durant PA, Brent CR. Micturition in rats: a chronic model for study of bladder function and effect of anesthetics. Am J Physiol. 1986 Dec; 251(6 Pt 2):R1177-85. PMID: 3789199.
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      514. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Spinal action of dermorphin, an extremely potent opioid peptide from frog skin. Brain Res. 1986 Oct 22; 385(2):300-4. PMID: 2877713.
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      515. Meyer FB, Tally PW, Anderson RE, Sundt TM, Yaksh T, Sharbrough FW. Inhibition of electrically induced seizures by a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Brain Res. 1986 Oct 01; 384(1):180-3. PMID: 2431742.
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      516. Walker GE, Yaksh T. Studies on the effects of intrathalamically injected DADL and morphine on nociceptive thresholds and electroencephalographic activity: a thalamic delta receptor syndrome. Brain Res. 1986 Sep 24; 383(1-2):1-14. PMID: 3021275.
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      517. Stevens CW, Yaksh T. Dynorphin A and related peptides administered intrathecally in the rat: a search for putative kappa opiate receptor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Sep; 238(3):833-8. PMID: 2875172.
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      518. Yaksh T, Stevens CW. Simple catheter preparation for permitting bolus intrathecal administration during chronic intrathecal infusion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Aug; 25(2):483-5. PMID: 3763669.
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      519. Schick RR, Yaksh T, Go VL. Intracerebroventricular injections of cholecystokinin octapeptide suppress feeding in rats--pharmacological characterization of this action. Regul Pept. 1986 Jul; 14(4):277-91. PMID: 3749526.
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      520. Tyce GM, Messick JM, Yaksh T, Byer DE, Danielson DR, Rorie DK. Amine sulfate formation in the central nervous system. Fed Proc. 1986 Jul; 45(8):2247-53. PMID: 3459671.
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      521. Kanawati IS, Yaksh T, Anderson RE, Marsh RW. Effects of clonidine on cerebral blood flow and the response to arterial CO2. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Jun; 6(3):358-65. PMID: 3011828.
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      522. Durant PA, Yaksh T. Distribution in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and lymph of epidurally injected morphine and inulin in dogs. Anesth Analg. 1986 Jun; 65(6):583-92. PMID: 3706799.
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      523. Tyce GM, Yaksh T. Conjugates of biogenic amines in ventriculocisternal perfusates of conscious African green monkeys. Brain Res. 1986 May 07; 372(2):269-76. PMID: 3708364.
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      524. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Comparison of the antinociceptive action of mu and delta opioid receptor ligands in the periaqueductal gray matter, medial and paramedial ventral medulla in the rat as studied by the microinjection technique. Brain Res. 1986 May 07; 372(2):301-12. PMID: 2871901.
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      525. Yaksh T, Harty GJ, Onofrio BM. High dose of spinal morphine produce a nonopiate receptor-mediated hyperesthesia: clinical and theoretic implications. Anesthesiology. 1986 May; 64(5):590-7. PMID: 2938524.
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      526. Schick RR, Yaksh T, Go VL. An intragastric meal releases the putative satiety factor cholecystokinin from hypothalamic neurons in cats. Brain Res. 1986 Apr 09; 370(2):349-53. PMID: 3085868.
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      527. Meyer FB, Anderson RE, Yaksh T, Sundt TM. Effect of nimodipine on intracellular brain pH, cortical blood flow, and EEG in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurosurg. 1986 Apr; 64(4):617-26. PMID: 3950744.
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      528. Howe JR, Yaksh T. Characterization of [3H]rauwolscine binding to alpha 2-adrenoceptor sites in the lumbar spinal cord of the cat: comparison to such binding sites in the cat frontal cerebral cortex. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 12; 368(1):87-100. PMID: 2869820.
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      529. Jeftinija S, Raspantini C, Randic M, Yaksh T, Go VL, Larson AA. Altered responsiveness to substance P and 5-hydroxytryptamine in cat dorsal horn neurons after 5-HT depletion with p-chlorophenylalanine. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 12; 368(1):107-15. PMID: 2420413.
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      530. Furui T, Harty GJ, Yaksh T. Studies on the effects of opioid, noradrenergic and serotonergic antagonists on the antinociceptive effects of electroconvulsive shock. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 05; 367(1-2):162-8. PMID: 2870768.
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      531. Reddy SV, Yaksh T, Anderson RE, Sundt TM. Effect in cat of locus coeruleus lesions on the response of cerebral blood flow and cardiac output to altered paCO2. Brain Res. 1986 Feb 19; 365(2):278-88. PMID: 3004658.
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      532. Meyer FB, Anderson RE, Sundt TM, Yaksh T. Intracellular brain pH, indicator tissue perfusion, electroencephalography, and histology in severe and moderate focal cortical ischemia in the rabbit. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1986 Feb; 6(1):71-8. PMID: 3944218.
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      533. Sill JC, Schumacher K, Southorn PA, Reuter J, Yaksh T. Bradycardia and hypotension associated with baclofen used during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1986 Feb; 64(2):255-8. PMID: 3511771.
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      534. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Examination of spinal monoamine receptors through which brainstem opiate-sensitive systems act in the rat. Brain Res. 1986 Jan 15; 363(1):114-27. PMID: 3004638.
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      535. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Comparison of antinociceptive action of morphine in the periaqueductal gray, medial and paramedial medulla in rat. Brain Res. 1986 Jan 15; 363(1):99-113. PMID: 3004644.
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      536. Wang JY, Yaksh T, Harty GJ, Go VL. Neurotransmitter modulation of VIP release from cat cerebral cortex. Am J Physiol. 1986 Jan; 250(1 Pt 2):R104-11. PMID: 2867688.
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      537. Durant PA, Yaksh T. Epidural injections of bupivacaine, morphine, fentanyl, lofentanil, and DADL in chronically implanted rats: a pharmacologic and pathologic study. Anesthesiology. 1986 Jan; 64(1):43-53. PMID: 2867721.
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      538. Micevych PE, Stroink A, Yaksh T, Go VL. Immunochemical studies of substance P and cholecystokinin octapeptide recovery in dorsal horn following unilateral lumbosacral ganglionectomy. Somatosens Res. 1986; 3(3):239-60. PMID: 2428085.
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      539. Yaksh T, Noueihed RY, Durant PA. Studies of the pharmacology and pathology of intrathecally administered 4-anilinopiperidine analogues and morphine in the rat and cat. Anesthesiology. 1986 Jan; 64(1):54-66. PMID: 2867722.
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      540. Kooistra KL, Rodriguez M, Powis G, Yaksh T, Harty GJ, Hilton JF, Laws ER. Development of experimental models for meningeal neoplasia using intrathecal injection of 9L gliosarcoma and Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in the rat. Cancer Res. 1986 Jan; 46(1):317-23. PMID: 3753551.
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      541. Moulin DE, Max MB, Kaiko RF, Inturrisi CE, Maggard J, Yaksh T, Foley KM. The analgesic efficacy of intrathecal D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin in cancer patients with chronic pain. Pain. 1985 Nov; 23(3):213-21. PMID: 3906516.
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      542. Yaksh T, Dirksen R, Harty GJ. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally injected cholinomimetic drugs in the rat and cat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1985 Oct 29; 117(1):81-8. PMID: 3841316.
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      543. Micevych PE, Yaksh T, Go VW, Finkelstein JA. Effect of opiates on the release of cholecystokinin from in vitro hypothalamus and frontal cortex of Zucker lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) rats. Brain Res. 1985 Jul 01; 337(2):382-5. PMID: 3896389.
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      544. Schmauss C, Shimohigashi Y, Jensen TS, Rodbard D, Yaksh T. Studies on spinal opiate receptor pharmacology. III. Analgetic effects of enkephalin dimers as measured by cutaneous-thermal and visceral-chemical evoked responses. Brain Res. 1985 Jul 01; 337(2):209-15. PMID: 2992678.
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      545. Camarata PJ, Yaksh T. Characterization of the spinal adrenergic receptors mediating the spinal effects produced by the microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1985 Jun 10; 336(1):133-42. PMID: 2988700.
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      546. Yaksh T. Pharmacology of spinal adrenergic systems which modulate spinal nociceptive processing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 May; 22(5):845-58. PMID: 2861606.
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      547. Wang JY, Yaksh T, Go VL. Studies on the in vivo release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) from the cerebral cortex: effects of cortical, brainstem and somatic stimuli. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 11; 326(2):317-34. PMID: 2982463.
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      548. Hammond DL, Tyce GM, Yaksh T. Efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline into spinal cord superfusates during stimulation of the rat medulla. J Physiol. 1985 Feb; 359:151-62. PMID: 2582112; PMCID: PMC1193369.
      549. Yaksh T, Noueihed R. The physiology and pharmacology of spinal opiates. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1985; 25:433-62. PMID: 2988422.
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      550. Romero SD, Chyatte D, Byer DE, Romero JC, Yaksh T. Measurement of prostaglandins in the cerebrospinal fluid in cat, dog, and man. J Neurochem. 1984 Dec; 43(6):1642-9. PMID: 6593432.
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      551. Howe JR, Yaksh T. [3H]p-Aminoclonidine binding to multiple alpha 2-adrenoceptor sites in homogenates of cat frontal cortex and cat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1984 Nov 27; 106(3):547-59. PMID: 6097461.
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      552. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Spinal monoamine and opiate systems partly mediate the antinociceptive effects produced by glutamate at brainstem sites. Brain Res. 1984 Nov 12; 321(2):287-97. PMID: 6149792.
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      553. Furui T, Satoh K, Asano Y, Shimosawa S, Hasuo M, Yaksh T. Increase of beta-endorphin levels in cerebrospinal fluid but not in plasma in patients with cerebral infarction. J Neurosurg. 1984 Oct; 61(4):748-51. PMID: 6088732.
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      554. Yaksh T. Multiple opioid receptor systems in brain and spinal cord: Part 2. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1984 Sep; 1(3):201-43. PMID: 6152614.
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      555. Jhamandas K, Yaksh T, Harty G, Szolcsanyi J, Go VL. Action of intrathecal capsaicin and its structural analogues on the content and release of spinal substance P: selectivity of action and relationship to analgesia. Brain Res. 1984 Jul 23; 306(1-2):215-25. PMID: 6205719.
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      556. Divinetz Romero S, Wang JY, Yaksh T. CNS stimulation and PGE2 release. I. Depolarizing agents. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 15; 303(2):375-83. PMID: 6331575.
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      557. Hammond DL, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Conjugates of dopamine and serotonin in ventriculocisternal perfusates of the cat. J Neurochem. 1984 Jun; 42(6):1752-7. PMID: 6726235.
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      558. Yaksh T. Multiple opioid receptor systems in brain and spinal cord: Part I. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1984 Jun; 1(2):171-99. PMID: 6152613.
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      559. Hammond DL, Yaksh T. Antagonism of stimulation-produced antinociception by intrathecal administration of methysergide or phentolamine. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 30; 298(2):329-37. PMID: 6326954.
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      560. Jhamandas K, Yaksh T, Go VL. Acute and chronic morphine modifies the in vivo release of methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the cat spinal cord and brain. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 09; 297(1):91-103. PMID: 6722539.
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      561. Jensen TS, Yaksh T. Effects of an intrathecal dopamine agonist, apomorphine, on thermal and chemical evoked noxious responses in rats. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 02; 296(2):285-93. PMID: 6322926.
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      562. Yaksh T. Obituary for Dr. Frederick W.L. Kerr. Pain. 1984 Mar; 18(3):217-20. PMID: 6374581.
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      563. Micevychi PE, Go VL, Yaksh T. Simultaneous measurement of cholecystokinin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity from cat frontal cortex in vitro: effect of morphine and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin. Brain Res. 1984 Jan 16; 291(1):55-62. PMID: 6697185.
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      564. Micevych PE, Yaksh T, Go VL. Studies on the opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of K+-stimulated cholecystokinin and substance P release from cat hypothalamus in vitro. Brain Res. 1984 Jan 02; 290(1):87-94. PMID: 6198038.
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      565. Schmauss C, Yaksh T. In vivo studies on spinal opiate receptor systems mediating antinociception. II. Pharmacological profiles suggesting a differential association of mu, delta and kappa receptors with visceral chemical and cutaneous thermal stimuli in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jan; 228(1):1-12. PMID: 6319664.
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      566. Micevych PE, Go VL, Yaksh T, Finkelstein J. In vitro, release of cholecystokinin from hypothalamus and frontal cortex of Sprague-Dawley, Zucker lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) rats. Peptides. 1984 Jan-Feb; 5(1):73-80. PMID: 6200866.
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      567. Wang JY, Yaksh T, Go VL. In vivo studies on the basal and evoked release of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from cat cerebral cortex and periventricular structures. Brain Res. 1983 Nov 28; 280(1):105-17. PMID: 6652473.
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      568. Yaksh T. Effects of spinally administered agents on spinal cord blood flow: a need for further studies. Anesthesiology. 1983 Sep; 59(3):173-4. PMID: 6688331.
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      569. Yaksh T. In vivo studies on spinal opiate receptor systems mediating antinociception. I. Mu and delta receptor profiles in the primate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Aug; 226(2):303-16. PMID: 6308205.
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      570. Bergstrom L, Hammond DL, Go VL, Yaksh T. Concurrent measurement of substance P and serotonin in spinal superfusates: failure of capsaicin and p-chloroamphetamine to co-release. Brain Res. 1983 Jun 27; 270(1):181-4. PMID: 6191841.
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      571. Onofrio BM, Yaksh T. Intrathecal delta-receptor ligand produces analgesia in man. Lancet. 1983 Jun 18; 1(8338):1386-7. PMID: 6134164.
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      572. Schmauss C, Hammond DL, Ochi JW, Yaksh T. Pharmacological antagonism of the antinociceptive effects of serotonin in the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 Jun 17; 90(4):349-57. PMID: 6688398.
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      573. Steinman JL, Komisaruk BR, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Spinal cord monoamines modulate the antinociceptive effects of vaginal stimulation in rats. Pain. 1983 Jun; 16(2):155-66. PMID: 6877846.
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      574. Yaksh T, Terenius L, Nyberg F, Jhamandas K, Wang JY. Studies on the release by somatic stimulation from rat and cat spinal cord of active materials which displace dihydromorphine in an opiate-binding assay. Brain Res. 1983 May 23; 268(1):119-28. PMID: 6860955.
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      575. Hammond DL, Tyce GM, Yaksh T. Drug-induced alterations in the efflux of 5-hydroxytryptamine and of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid into superfusates of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 Mar 04; 87(4):441-8. PMID: 6189730.
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      576. Howe JR, Wang JY, Yaksh T. Selective antagonism of the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally applied alpha adrenergic agonists by intrathecal prazosin and intrathecal yohimbine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Mar; 224(3):552-8. PMID: 6131120.
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      577. Yasuoka S, Yaksh T. Effects on nociceptive threshold and blood pressure of intrathecally administered morphine and alpha-adrenergic agonists. Neuropharmacology. 1983 Mar; 22(3):309-15. PMID: 6133234.
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      578. Micevych PE, Yaksh T, Szolcsanyi J. Effect of intrathecal capsaicin analogues on the immunofluorescence of peptides and serotonin in the dorsal horn in rats. Neuroscience. 1983 Jan; 8(1):123-31. PMID: 6188075.
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      579. Nyberg F, Yaksh T, Terenius L. Opioid activity released from cat spinal cord by sciatic nerve stimulation. Life Sci. 1983; 33 Suppl 1:17-20. PMID: 6664216.
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      580. Schmauss C, Yaksh T, Shimohigashi Y, Harty G, Jensen T, Rodbard D. Differential association of spinal mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors with cutaneous thermal and visceral chemical nociceptive stimuli in the rat. Life Sci. 1983; 33 Suppl 1:653-6. PMID: 6319919.
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      581. Yaksh T. Spinal pharmacology of pain and its modulation. Clin Neurosurg. 1983; 31:291-303. PMID: 6209049.
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      582. Schmauss C, Doherty C, Yaksh T. The analgetic effects of an intrathecally administered partial opiate agonist, nalbuphine hydrochloride. Eur J Pharmacol. 1982 Dec 17; 86(1):1-7. PMID: 6897635.
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      583. Micevych PE, Yaksh T, Go VL. Opiate-mediated inhibition of the release of cholecystokinin and substance P, but not neurotensin from cat hypothalamic slices. Brain Res. 1982 Nov 04; 250(2):283-9. PMID: 6184121.
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      584. Tung AS, Yaksh T. In vivo evidence for multiple opiate receptors mediating analgesia in the rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1982 Sep 09; 247(1):75-83. PMID: 6127147.
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      585. Taylor JE, Yaksh T, Richelson E. Agonist regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat spinal cord. J Neurochem. 1982 Aug; 39(2):521-4. PMID: 7086433.
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      586. Taylor JE, Yaksh T, Richelson E. Histamine H1 receptors in the brain and spinal cord of the cat. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 15; 243(2):391-4. PMID: 7104749.
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      587. Maderdrut JL, Yaksh T, Petrusz P, Go VL. Origin and distribution of cholecystokinin-containing nerve terminals in the lumbar dorsal horn and nucleus caudalis of the cat. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 15; 243(2):363-8. PMID: 6179576.
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      588. Yaksh T, Abay EO, Go VL. Studies on the location and release of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat and cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 24; 242(2):279-90. PMID: 6896838.
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      589. Yaksh T, Gross KE, Li CH. Studies on the intrathecal effect of beta-endorphin in primate. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 10; 241(2):261-9. PMID: 6286042.
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      590. Yaksh T, Hammond DL. Peripheral and central substrates involved in the rostrad transmission of nociceptive information. Pain. 1982 May; 13(1):1-85. PMID: 6287384.
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      591. Yaksh T, Harty GJ. Effects of thiorphan on the antinociceptive actions of intrathecal [D-Ala2,Met5] enkephalin. Eur J Pharmacol. 1982 Apr 23; 79(3-4):293-300. PMID: 7047177.
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      592. Yaksh T, Howe JR. Opiate receptors and their definition by antagonists. Anesthesiology. 1982 Apr; 56(4):246-9. PMID: 6278990.
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      593. Tung AS, Yaksh T. The antinociceptive effects of epidural opiates in the cat: studies of the pharmacology and the effects of lipophilicity in spinal analgesia. Pain. 1982 Apr; 12(4):343-56. PMID: 7099701.
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      594. Howe JR, Yaksh T. Changes in sensitivity to intrathecal norepinephrine and serotonin after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT) or repeated monoamine administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982 Feb; 220(2):311-21. PMID: 6120226.
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      595. Yaksh T, Schmauss C, Micevych PE, Abay EO, Go VL. Pharmacological studies on the application, disposition, and release of neurotensin in the spinal cord. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 400:228-43. PMID: 6188399.
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      596. Yaksh T. Spinal opiate analgesia: characteristics and principles of action. Pain. 1981 Dec; 11(3):293-346. PMID: 6276842.
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      597. Yaksh T, Elde RP. Factors governing release of methionine enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from mesencephalon and spinal cord of the cat in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 1981 Nov; 46(5):1056-75. PMID: 7299446.
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      598. Yaksh T, Hammond DL, Tyce GM. Functional aspects of bulbospinal monoaminergic projections in modulating processing of somatosensory information. Fed Proc. 1981 Nov; 40(13):2786-94. PMID: 6975220.
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      599. Hammond DL, Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Presence of conjugated 5-hydroxytryptamine in in vivo superfusates of rat spinal cord. J Neurochem. 1981 Oct; 37(4):1068-71. PMID: 6172561.
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      600. LoPachin RM, Rudy TA, Yaksh T. An improved method for chronic catheterization of the rat spinal subarachnoid space. Physiol Behav. 1981 Sep; 27(3):559-61. PMID: 7335798.
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      601. Yaksh T. The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered levonantradol and desacetyllevonantradol in the rat. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Aug-Sep; 21(8-9 Suppl):334S-340S. PMID: 6895380.
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      602. Onofrio BM, Yaksh T, Arnold PG. Continuous low-dose intrathecal morphine administration in the treatment of chronic pain of malignant origin. Mayo Clin Proc. 1981 Aug; 56(8):516-20. PMID: 6894954.
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      603. Yaksh T, Reddy SV. Studies in the primate on the analgetic effects associated with intrathecal actions of opiates, alpha-adrenergic agonists and baclofen. Anesthesiology. 1981 Jun; 54(6):451-67. PMID: 6112935.
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      604. Russell B, Yaksh T. Antagonism by phenoxybenzamine and pentazocine of the antinociceptive effects of morphine in the spinal cord. Neuropharmacology. 1981 Jun; 20(6):575-9. PMID: 6894633.
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      605. Yaksh T, Harty GJ. Simple method for rapid removal of rat spinal cord. Brain Res Bull. 1981 May; 6(5):449-50. PMID: 7248810.
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      606. Tyce GM, Yaksh T. Monoamine release from cat spinal cord by somatic stimuli: an intrinsic modulatory system. J Physiol. 1981 May; 314:513-29. PMID: 7310700; PMCID: PMC1249448.
      607. Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Release of norepinephrine and serotonin in cat spinal cord: direct in vivo evidence for the activation of descending monoamine pathways by somatic stimulation. J Physiol (Paris). 1981; 77(2-3):483-7. PMID: 7288659.
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      608. Hammond DL, Yaksh T. Peripheral and central pathways in pain. Pharmacol Ther. 1981; 14(3):459-75. PMID: 7323138.
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      609. Wilson PR, Yaksh T. Pharmacology of pain and analgesia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1980 Aug; 8(3):248-56. PMID: 6158888.
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      610. Yaksh T, Jessell TM, Gamse R, Mudge AW, Leeman SE. Intrathecal morphine inhibits substance P release from mammalian spinal cord in vivo. Nature. 1980 Jul 10; 286(5769):155-7. PMID: 6157098.
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      611. Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Resting and K+-evoked release of serotonin and norephinephrine in vivo from the rat and cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1980 Jun 16; 192(1):133-46. PMID: 7378777.
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      612. Reddy SV, Maderdrut JL, Yaksh T. Spinal cord pharmacology of adrenergic agonist-mediated antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980 Jun; 213(3):525-33. PMID: 6110767.
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      613. Yaksh T, Elde RP. Release of methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivity from the rat spinal cord in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980 May 16; 63(4):359-62. PMID: 7389818.
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      614. Reddy SV, Yaksh T. Spinal noradrenergic terminal system mediates antinociception. Brain Res. 1980 May 12; 189(2):391-401. PMID: 6245762.
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      615. Reddy SV, Yaksh T. Antinociceptive effects of lanthanum neodymium and europium following intrathecal administration. Neuropharmacology. 1980 Feb; 19(2):181-5. PMID: 6892653.
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      616. Yaksh T, Wilson PR, Kaiko RF, Inturrisi CE. Analgesia produced by a spinal action of morphine and effects upon parturition in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1979 Nov; 51(5):386-92. PMID: 582883.
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      617. Yaksh T, Farb DH, Leeman SE, Jessell TM. Intrathecal capsaicin depletes substance P in the rat spinal cord and produces prolonged thermal analgesia. Science. 1979 Oct 26; 206(4417):481-3. PMID: 228392.
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      618. Yaksh T, Tyce GM. Microinjection of morphine into the periaqueductal gray evokes the release of serotonin from spinal cord. Brain Res. 1979 Jul 27; 171(1):176-81. PMID: 466437.
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      619. Yaksh T, Wilson PR. Spinal serotonin terminal system mediates antinociception. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1979 Mar; 208(3):446-53. PMID: 581884.
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      620. Wall PD, Merrill EG, Yaksh T. Responses of single units in laminae 2 and 3 of cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 1979 Jan 12; 160(2):245-60. PMID: 216459.
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      621. Yaksh T. Direct evidence that spinal serotonin and noradrenaline terminals mediate the spinal antinociceptive effects of morphine in the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1979 Jan 05; 160(1):180-5. PMID: 581478.
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      622. Merrill EG, Wall PD, Yaksh T. Properties of two unmyelinated fibre tracts of the central nervous system: lateral Lissauer tract, and parallel fibres of the cerebellum. J Physiol. 1978 Nov; 284:127-45. PMID: 731475; PMCID: PMC1282812.
      623. Wilson PR, Yaksh T. Baclofen is antinociceptive in the spinal intrathecal space of animals. Eur J Pharmacol. 1978 Oct 15; 51(4):323-30. PMID: 581376.
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      624. Yaksh T, Henry JL. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered human beta-endorphin in the rat and cat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1978 Oct; 56(5):754-9. PMID: 581358.
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      625. Yaksh T. Analgetic actions of intrathecal opiates in cat and primate. Brain Res. 1978 Sep 15; 153(1):205-10. PMID: 98219.
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      626. Wall PD, Yaksh T. Effect of Lissauer tract stimulation on activity in dorsal roots and in ventral roots. Exp Neurol. 1978 Jul; 60(3):570-83. PMID: 680058.
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      627. Yeung JC, Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Effect on the nociceptive threshold and EEG activity in the rat of morphine injected into the medial thalamus and the periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology. 1978 Jul; 17(7):525-32. PMID: 692816.
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      628. Yaksh T, Frederickson RC, Huang SP, Rudy TA. In vivo comparison of the receptor populations acted upon in the spinal cord by morphine and pentapeptides in the production of analgesia. Brain Res. 1978 Jun 16; 148(2):516-20. PMID: 207391.
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      629. Yaksh T. Inhibition by etorphine of the discharge of dorsal horn neurons: effects on the neuronal response to both high- and low-threshold sensory input in the decerebrate spinal cat. Exp Neurol. 1978 May 15; 60(1):23-40. PMID: 658193.
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      630. Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Narcotic analgestics: CNS sites and mechanisms of action as revealed by intracerebral injection techniques. Pain. 1978 Apr; 4(4):299-359. PMID: 25403.
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      631. Yaksh T. Opiate receptors for behavioral analgesia resemble those related to the depression of spinal nociceptive neurons. Science. 1978 Mar 17; 199(4334):1231-3. PMID: 204008.
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      632. Merrill EG, Yaksh T. Properties of cerebellum parallel fibres and the Lissauer tract of the cat [proceedings]. J Physiol. 1978 Feb; 275:71P-72P. PMID: 633171.
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      633. Rudy TA, Westergaard JL, Yaksh T. Hyperthermia produced by simulated intraventricular hemorrhage in the cat. Exp Neurol. 1978 Jan 15; 58(2):296-310. PMID: 618748.
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      634. Yaksh T, Rudy TA. A dose ratio comparison of the interaction between morphine and cyclazocine with naloxone in rhesus monkeys on the shock titration task. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Nov 15; 46(2):83-92. PMID: 412680.
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      635. Rudy TA, Williams JW, Yaksh T. Antagonism by indomethacin of neurogenic hyperthermia produced by unilateral puncture of the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic region. J Physiol. 1977 Nov; 272(3):721-36. PMID: 592211; PMCID: PMC1353651.
      636. Yeung JC, Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Concurrent mapping of brain sites for sensitivity to the direct application of morphine and focal electrical stimulation in the production of antinociception in the rat. Pain. 1977 Oct; 4(1):23-40. PMID: 927879.
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      637. Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Hyperthermic effects of morphine: set point manipulation by a direct spinal action. Br J Pharmacol. 1977 Sep; 61(1):91-6. PMID: 912212; PMCID: PMC1667677.
      638. Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Studies on the direct spinal action of narcotics in the production of analgesia in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977 Aug; 202(2):411-28. PMID: 18600.
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      639. Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Hyperthermic effects of morphine in the rat spinal cord [proceedings]. J Physiol. 1977 Jun; 268(1):10P-11P. PMID: 874880.
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      640. Yaksh T, Kohl RL, Rudy TA. Induction of tolerance and withdrawal in rats receiving morphine in the spinal subarachnoid space. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Apr 07; 42(3):275-84. PMID: 15848.
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      641. Yaksh T, Yamamura HI. Depression by morphine of the resting and evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine from the cat caudate nucleus in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1977 Apr; 16(4):227-33. PMID: 859683.
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      642. Yaksh T, Plant RL, Rudy TA. Studies on the antagonism by raphe lesions of the antinociceptive action of systemic morphine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1977 Feb 21; 41(4):399-408. PMID: 14836.
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      643. Yaksh T, Yeung JC, Rudy TA. Medial thalamic lesions in the rat: effects on the nociceptive threshold and morphine antinociception. Neuropharmacology. 1977 Feb; 16(2):107-14. PMID: 840367.
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      644. Williams JW, Rudy TA, Yaksh T, Viswanathan CT. An extensive exploration of the rat brain for sites mediating prostaglandin-induced hyperthermia. Brain Res. 1977 Jan 21; 120(2):251-62. PMID: 832123.
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      645. Yaksh T, Huang SP, Rudy TA. The direct and specific opiate-like effect of met5-enkephalin and analogues on the spinal cord. Neuroscience. 1977; 2(4):593-6. PMID: 917285.
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      646. Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Chronic catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space. Physiol Behav. 1976 Dec; 17(6):1031-6. PMID: 14677603.
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      647. Yaksh T, Yeung JC, Rudy TA. Systematic examination in the rat of brain sites sensitive to the direct application of morphine: observation of differential effects within the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1976 Sep 10; 114(1):83-103. PMID: 963546.
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      648. Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Analgesia mediated by a direct spinal action of narcotics. Science. 1976 Jun 25; 192(4246):1357-8. PMID: 1273597.
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      649. Yaksh T, Yeung JC, Rudy TA. An inability to antagonize with naloxone the elevated nociceptive thresholds resulting from electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic central gray. Life Sci. 1976 Jun 01; 18(11):1193-8. PMID: 933708.
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      650. Yaksh T, DuChateau JC, Rudy TA. Antagonism by methysergide and cinanserin of the antinociceptive action of morphine administered into the periaqueductal gray. Brain Res. 1976 Mar 12; 104(2):367-72. PMID: 1260435.
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      651. Yaksh T, Filbert MG, Harris LW, Yamamura HI. Acetylcholinesterase turnover in brain, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. J Neurochem. 1975 Dec; 25(6):853-60. PMID: 1206402.
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      652. Yaksh T, Yamamura HI. The release in vivo of [3-H] acetylcholine from cat caudate nucleus and cerebral cortex by atropine, pentylenetetrazol, K-+ -depolarization and electrical stimulation. J Neurochem. 1975 Aug; 25(2):123-30. PMID: 1141909.
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      653. Yeung JC, Yaksh T, Rudy TA. Effects of brain lesions on the antinociceptive properties of morphine in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1975 May-Jun; 2(3):261-8. PMID: 1149330.
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      654. Yaksh T, Yamamura HI. Blockade by morphine of acetylcholine release from the caudate nucleus in the mid-pontine pretrigeminal cat. Brain Res. 1975 Jan 17; 83(3):520-4. PMID: 1111819.
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      655. Pert A, Yaksh T. Localization of the antinociceptive action of morphine in primate brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1975 Jan-Feb; 3(1):133-8. PMID: 1129350.
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      656. Pert A, Yaksh T. Sites of morphine induced analgesia in the primate brain: relation to pain pathways. Brain Res. 1974 Nov 08; 80(1):135-40. PMID: 4424093.
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      657. Myers RD, Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Fever produced by endotoxin injected into the hypothalamus of the monkey and its antagonism by salicylate. J Physiol. 1974 Nov; 243(1):167-93. PMID: 4615138; PMCID: PMC1330695.
      658. Yaksh T, Yamamura HI. Factors affecting performance of the push-pull cannula in brain. J Appl Physiol. 1974 Sep; 37(3):428-34. PMID: 4413416.
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      659. Yaksh T, Yamamura HI, Fedele LA. Appearance in cat cerebrospinal fluid of radiolabelled metabolites following intraventricular injection of (3H)choline. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1974 Jan; 26(1):65-7. PMID: 4150939.
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      660. Myers RD, Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Evocation of a biphasic febrile response in the rhesus monkey by intracerebral injection of bacterial endotoxins. Neuropharmacology. 1973 Dec; 12(12):1195-8. PMID: 4205774.
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      661. Yaksh T, Fedele LA, Yamamura HI. Effects of repeated withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid by cisternal puncture on cisternal protein levels in the unanesthetized cat. Physiol Behav. 1973 Jan; 10(1):149-51. PMID: 4697008.
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      662. Myers RD, Evans JE, Yaksh T. Ethanol preference in the rat: interactions between brain serotonin and ethanol, acetaldehyde, paraldehyde, 5-HTP and 5-HTOL. Neuropharmacology. 1972 Jul; 11(4):539-49. PMID: 4261739.
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      663. Myers RD, Veale WL, Yaksh T. Preference for ethanol in the rhesus monkey following chronic infusion of ethanol into the cerebral ventricles. Physiol Behav. 1972 Mar; 8(3):431-5. PMID: 4624847.
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      664. Yaksh T, Myers RD. Hypothalamic "coding" in the unanesthetized monkey of noradrenergic sites mediating feeding and thermoregulation. Physiol Behav. 1972 Feb; 8(2):251-7. PMID: 4198736.
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      665. Yaksh T, Myers RD. Neurohumoral substances released from hypothalamus of the monkey during hunger and satiety. Am J Physiol. 1972 Feb; 222(2):503-15. PMID: 4400489.
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      666. Myers RD, Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Effect in the rhesus monkey of salicylate on centrally-induced endotoxin fevers. Neuropharmacology. 1971 Nov; 10(6):775-8. PMID: 5001836.
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      667. Myers RD, Yaksh T. Thermoregulation around a new set-point' established in the monkey by altering the ratio of sodium to calcium ions within the hypothalamus. J Physiol. 1971 Nov; 218(3):609-33. PMID: 5002528; PMCID: PMC1331604.
      668. Myers RD, Veale WL, Yaksh T. Changes in body temperature of the unanaesthetized monkey produced by sodium and calcium ions perfused through the cerebral ventricles. J Physiol. 1971 Sep; 217(2):381-92. PMID: 4999638; PMCID: PMC1331783.
      669. Myers RD, Yaksh T, Hall GH, Veale WL. A method for perfusion of cerebral ventricles of the conscious monkey. J Appl Physiol. 1971 Apr; 30(4):589-92. PMID: 4995442.
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      670. Myers RD, Rudy TA, Yaksh T. Fever in the monkey produced by the direct action of pyrogen on the hypothalamus. Experientia. 1971 Feb 15; 27(2):160-1. PMID: 5544727.
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      671. Myers RD, Yaksh T. Control of body temperature in the unanaesthetized monkey by cholinergic and aminergic systems in the hypothalamus. J Physiol. 1969 Jun; 202(2):483-500. PMID: 4977488; PMCID: PMC1351493.
      672. Platt JJ, Yaksh T, James WT. Response to environmental stimulus change in young opossums. Percept Mot Skills. 1968 Feb; 26(1):43-6. PMID: 5642546.
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