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    Stephen Spector

    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0672
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MAMD05/1975Medicine
      University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1977Pediatric Residency
      University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/1978Fellow, Neonatogy and Pediatric Infectious Diseases
      University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA06/1979NIH Fellow, Pediatric Infectious Diseases
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Tufts University School of Medicine1972NIH Research Fellow in Immunology
      UCSD1978  - 1979NIH Fellow in Infectious Diseases
      NIAID1995  - 2006Chair, Executive Committe Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
      2000  - presBest Doctors in America
      Soth Africa Embassy2006Honored by South African Embassy to U.S. for contributions to halting HIV/AIDS epidemic
      NIAID2006Honored by PACTG for exceptional contributions and leadership
      American Association of Physicians 2009Elected to American Association of Physicians
      UCSD.Rady Children's Hospital2010Recipient of Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego Research Award
      Children's Hospital of Philadelphia2010Gertrude and Herman Silver Award in Recognition of work on behalf of children, adolescents and famil

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Spector, a world leader in HIV research for more than 25 years, is Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, the Chief of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Director of the UCSD Mother-Child-Adolescent HIV Program. His research has used molecular and Immunologic approaches to study host-virus interactions of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) with a particular emphasis developing novel approaches for the detection, treatment and eradication of persistent viruses. Current CMV related research is examining the role of CMV in endothelial cell inflammation and the development of cardiovascular diseases. The laboratory has been involved with HIV/AIDS research since the beginning of the epidemic. Current research examines HIV pathogenesis with a particular emphasis on host-virus interactions, and the associations of host genetic variants on HIV diseases progression and HIV-related diseases including CNS impairment in children and adults. The laboratory’s interest in the identification of host factors that affect HIV pathogenesis led us to the novel finding that during permissive infection, HIV down-regulates autophagy to promote its own replication, and the induction of autophagy (using mTOR inhibitors as well as vitamin D3) inhibits HIV replication. The laboratory has also identified specific host genetic variants that are associated with mother-to-child transmission, HIV disease progression, and antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and adverse effects. This research has led to our examining the association of host factors that control HIV replication with the goal of identifying novel strategies to eradicate HIV from those infected.

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Nanopeptide Targeting of HIV-CNS Reservoirs without Reactivation
      NIH/NINDS R01NS104015May 1, 2017 - Feb 28, 2022
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Role of CMV in Heart Disease of HIV-Infected Women and Perinatally Infected Youth
      NIH/NHLBI R56HL125028Sep 12, 2014 - Aug 31, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Modulating Autophagy to Eradicate HIV-1 from CNS Reservoirs
      NIH/NINDS R01NS084912May 1, 2013 - Apr 30, 2018
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Host Genetic Factors Associated with CNS Disease of HIV-Infected Children
      NIH/NINDS R01NS077874Aug 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Vitamin D Inhibition of HIV and M. Tuberculosis Coinfection in Macrophages
      NIH/NIAID R21AI084573Jul 21, 2009 - Jun 30, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIAID UM1AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      University of California, San Diego Clinical Trial Unit
      NIH/NIAID U01AI069536Jan 1, 2007 - Nov 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      San Diego EXPORT Comprehensive NCMHD Research Center
      NIH P60MD000220Sep 30, 2002 - Apr 30, 2013
      Role: Co-Investigator
      San Diego Export: An University Community Partnership E*
      NIH P60MD000263Sep 30, 2002 - Aug 31, 2008
      Role: Co-Investigator
      NIH/NICHD U01HD040464Apr 16, 2001 - Feb 28, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Pediatric ACTG Coordinating and Operations Center
      NIH/NIAID U01AI041089Mar 1, 1997 - Feb 28, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIAID R01AI039004Sep 30, 1995 - Feb 28, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Center for AIDS Research
      NIH/NIAID P30AI036214Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 2023
      Role: Co-Investigator
      NIH/NIAID R01AI028270Apr 1, 1989 - Aug 31, 1996
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group
      NIH/NIAID U01AI027563Sep 30, 1988 - Feb 28, 2007
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIAID U01AI027670Jun 30, 1986 - Dec 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      General Clinical Research Center
      NIH/NCRR M01RR000827Mar 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2010
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Featured Publications

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Jacobson DL, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Patel K, Chen JS, Van Dyke RB, Mirza A, Schuster GU, Hazra R, Ellis A, Brummel SS, Geffner ME, Silio M, Spector S, DiMeglio LA. Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 01; 76(1):33-42. PMID: 28797019.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Bolton Moore C, Capparelli EV, Samson P, Bwakura-Dangarembizi M, Jean-Philippe P, Worrell C, Heckman B, Purdue L, Spector S, Benns A, Borkowsky W, Loftis A, Hawkins E, Wallis C, Chadwick EG. CYP2B6 genotype-directed dosing is required for optimal efavirenz exposure in children 3-36 months with HIV infection. AIDS. 2017 May 15; 31(8):1129-1136. PMID: 28323755.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Garg A, Trout R, Spector S. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit Cytomegalovirus Inflammation through Interleukin-27 and B7-H4. Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 24; 7:44485. PMID: 28338007.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Spector S, Rappaport J. HIV cure strategists: ignore the central nervous system at your patients' peril. AIDS. 2017 Jan 02; 31(1):167-168. PMID: 27898594.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Purswani MU, Patel K, Winkler CA, Spector S, Hazra R, Seage GR, Mofenson L, Karalius B, Scott GB, Van Dyke RB, Kopp JB. Brief Report: APOL1 Renal Risk Variants Are Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease in Children and Youth With Perinatal HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Sep 01; 73(1):63-8. PMID: 27035887; PMCID: PMC4981510 [Available on 09/01/17].
      6. Spector S, Brummel SS, Nievergelt CM, Maihofer AX, Singh KK, Purswani MU, Williams PL, Hazra R, Van Dyke R, Seage GR. Genetically determined ancestry is more informative than self-reported race in HIV-infected and -exposed children. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Sep; 95(36):e4733. PMID: 27603370; PMCID: PMC5023893.
      7. Rawat P, Spector S. Development and characterization of a human microglia cell model of HIV-1 infection. J Neurovirol. 2017 Feb; 23(1):33-46. PMID: 27538994.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Brummel SS, Singh KK, Maihofer AX, Farhad M, Qin M, Fenton T, Nievergelt CM, Spector S. Associations of Genetically Determined Continental Ancestry With CD4+ Count and Plasma HIV-1 RNA Beyond Self-Reported Race and Ethnicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Apr 15; 71(5):544-50. PMID: 26536313; PMCID: PMC4788562 [Available on 04/15/17].
      9. Singh KK, Qin M, Brummel SS, Angelidou K, Trout RN, Fenton T, Spector S. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Alleles Alter HIV Disease in Children. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151364. PMID: 26983081; PMCID: PMC4794224.
      10. Gupta A, Montepiedra G, Gupte A, Zeldow B, Jubulis J, Detrick B, Violari A, Madhi S, Bobat R, Cotton M, Mitchell C, Spector S. Low Vitamin-D Levels Combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J Host Variants Is Associated with Tuberculosis and Death in HIV-Infected and -Exposed Infants. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148649. PMID: 26872154; PMCID: PMC4752266.
      11. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, Adachi H, Adams CM, Adams PD, Adeli K, Adhihetty PJ, Adler SG, Agam G, Agarwal R, Aghi MK, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguilar PV, Aguirre-Ghiso J, Airoldi EM, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akporiaye ET, Al-Rubeai M, Albaiceta GM, Albanese C, Albani D, Albert ML, Aldudo J, Algül H, Alirezaei M, Alloza I, Almasan A, Almonte-Beceril M, Alnemri ES, Alonso C, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Alvarez S, Alvarez-Erviti L, Alves S, Amadoro G, Amano A, Amantini C, Ambrosio S, Amelio I, Amer AO, Amessou M, Amon A, An Z, Anania FA, Andersen SU, Andley UP, Andreadi CK, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anel A, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Antonioli M, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Aquila S, Aquilano K, Araki K, Arama E, Aranda A, Araya J, Arcaro A, Arias E, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong JL, Arnould T, Arsov I, Asanuma K, Askanas V, Asselin E, Atarashi R, Atherton SS, Atkin JD, Attardi LD, Auberger P, Auburger G, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Avantaggiati ML, Avrahami L, Awale S, Azad N, Bachetti T, Backer JM, Bae DH, Bae JS, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek SH, Baghdiguian S, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Balaji KN, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Balzan R, Banerjee R, Bánhegyi G, Bao H, Barbeau B, Barrachina MD, Barreiro E, Bartel B, Bartolomé A, Bassham DC, Bassi MT, Bast RC, Basu A, Batista MT, Batoko H, Battino M, Bauckman K, Baumgarner BL, Bayer KU, Beale R, Beaulieu JF, Beck GR, Becker C, Beckham JD, Bédard PA, Bednarski PJ, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Behrens GM, Behrns KE, Bejarano E, Belaid A, Belleudi F, Bénard G, Berchem G, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Berkhout B, Berliocchi L, Bernard A, Bernard M, Bernassola F, Bertolotti A, Bess AS, Besteiro S, Bettuzzi S, Bhalla S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhutia SK, Biagosch C, Bianchi MW, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Billes V, Bincoletto C, Bingol B, Bird SW, Bitoun M, Bjedov I, Blackstone C, Blanc L, Blanco GA, Blomhoff HK, Boada-Romero E, Böckler S, Boes M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boise LH, Bolino A, Boman A, Bonaldo P, Bordi M, Bosch J, Botana LM, Botti J, Bou G, Bouché M, Bouchecareilh M, Boucher MJ, Boulton ME, Bouret SG, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady N, Braga VM, Brancolini C, Braus GH, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Brennan LA, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bringer MA, Brini M, Brito GC, Brodin B, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brown K, Broxmeyer HE, Bruhat A, Brum PC, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Bryson-Richardson RJ, Buch S, Buchan AM, Budak H, Bulavin DV, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Bumbasirevic V, Burelle Y, Burke RE, Burmeister M, Bütikofer P, Caberlotto L, Cadwell K, Cahova M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calatayud S, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campbell GR, Campbell M, Campello S, Candau R, Caniggia I, Cantoni L, Cao L, Caplan AB, Caraglia M, Cardinali C, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carleton LA, Carlin CR, Carloni S, Carlsson SR, Carmona-Gutierrez D, Carneiro LA, Carnevali O, Carra S, Carrier A, Carroll B, Casas C, Casas J, Cassinelli G, Castets P, Castro-Obregon S, Cavallini G, Ceccherini I, Cecconi F, Cederbaum AI, Ceña V, Cenci S, Cerella C, Cervia D, Cetrullo S, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chagin AS, Chai CY, Chakrabarti G, Chamilos G, Chan EY, Chan MT, Chandra D, Chandra P, Chang CP, Chang RC, Chang TY, Chatham JC, Chatterjee S, Chauhan S, Che Y, Cheetham ME, Cheluvappa R, Chen CJ, Chen G, Chen GC, Chen G, Chen H, Chen JW, Chen JK, Chen M, Chen M, Chen P, Chen Q, Chen Q, Chen SD, Chen S, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen WJ, Chen WQ, Chen W, Chen X, Chen YH, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen YQ, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng H, Cheong H, Cherry S, Chesney J, Cheung CH, Chevet E, Chi HC, Chi SG, Chiacchiera F, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiariello M, Chieppa M, Chin LS, Chiong M, Chiu GN, Cho DH, Cho SG, Cho WC, Cho YY, Cho YS, Choi AM, Choi EJ, Choi EK, Choi J, Choi ME, Choi SI, Chou TF, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chow KC, Chowdhury K, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chun T, Chung H, Chung T, Chung YL, Chwae YJ, Cianfanelli V, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016; 12(1):1-222. PMID: 26799652; PMCID: PMC4835977 [Available on 01/21/17].
      12. Purswani MU, Karalius B, Yao TJ, Schmid DS, Burchett SK, Siberry GK, Patel K, Van Dyke RB, Yogev R, Lurie RH, Yogev R, Sanders MA, Malee K, Hunter S, Shearer W, Paul M, Cooper N, Harris L, Purswani M, Baig M, Cintron A, Puga A, Navarro S, Garvie P, Blood J, Burchett S, Karthas N, Kammerer B, Wiznia A, Burey M, Nozyce M, Dieudonne A, Bettica L, Adubato S, Chen J, Bulkley MG, Ivey L, Grant M, Knapp K, Allison K, Wilkins M, Acevedo-Flores M, Rios H, Olivera V, Silio M, Jones M, Sirois P, Spector S, Norris K, Nichols S, McFarland E, Katai A, Dunn J, Paul S, Scott G, Bryan P, Willen E. Prevalence and Persistence of Varicella Antibodies in Previously Immunized Children and Youth With Perinatal HIV-1 Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 01; 62(1):106-114. PMID: 26385992.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Campbell GR, Rawat P, Bruckman RS, Spector S. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1005018. PMID: 26115100; PMCID: PMC4482621.
      14. Curtis DJ, Muresan P, Nachman S, Fenton T, Richardson KM, Dominguez T, Flynn PM, Spector S, Cunningham CK, Bloom A, Weinberg A. Characterization of functional antibody and memory B-cell responses to pH1N1 monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118567. PMID: 25785995; PMCID: PMC4364897.
      15. Nachman S, Alvero C, Acosta EP, Teppler H, Homony B, Graham B, Fenton T, Xu X, Rizk ML, Spector S, Frenkel LM, Worrell C, Handelsman E, Wiznia A. Pharmacokinetics and 48-Week Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir for Oral Suspension in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1-Infected Children 4 Weeks to 2 Years of Age. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015 Dec; 4(4):e76-83. PMID: 26582887.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Moodley A, Spector S. Single high-dose vitamin D at birth corrects vitamin D deficiency in infants in Mexico. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 May; 66(3):336-41. PMID: 25582182.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Marsit CJ, Brummel SS, Kacanek D, Seage GR, Spector S, Armstrong DA, Lester BM, Rich K. Infant peripheral blood repetitive element hypomethylation associated with antiretroviral therapy in utero. Epigenetics. 2015; 10(8):708-16. PMID: 26067216; PMCID: PMC4622750.
      18. Campbell GR, Bruckman RS, Chu YL, Spector S. Autophagy induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibits HIV type 1. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 20; 290(8):5028-40. PMID: 25540204; PMCID: PMC4335239.
      19. Clarke DF, Acosta EP, Rizk ML, Bryson YJ, Spector S, Mofenson LM, Handelsman E, Teppler H, Welebob C, Persaud D, Cababasay MP, Wang J, Mirochnick M. Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in neonates following maternal dosing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Nov 01; 67(3):310-5. PMID: 25162819; PMCID: PMC4197108.
      20. Garg A, Rawat P, Spector S. Interleukin 23 produced by myeloid dendritic cells contributes to T-cell dysfunction in HIV type 1 infection by inducing SOCS1 expression. J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 01; 211(5):755-68. PMID: 25234720; PMCID: PMC4402373.
      21. Qin M, Brummel S, Singh KK, Fenton T, Spector S. Associations of host genetic variants on CD4? lymphocyte count and plasma HIV-1 RNA in antiretroviral naïve children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Sep; 33(9):946-52. PMID: 24797997; PMCID: PMC4216611.
      22. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Spector S. In-Country Migration and Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition among Pregnant Women in Tijuana, Mexico. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2016 May; 15(3):228-31. PMID: 24935694.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Berry SA, Gebo KA, Rutstein RM, Althoff KN, Korthuis PT, Gaur AH, Spector S, Warford R, Yehia BR, Agwu AL. Trends in hospitalizations among children and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 May; 33(5):488-94. PMID: 24378943; PMCID: PMC4215549.
      24. Essajee SM, Arpadi SM, Dziuban EJ, Gonzalez-Montero R, Heidari S, Jamieson DG, Kellerman SE, Koumans E, Ojoo A, Rivadeneira E, Spector S, Walkowiak H. Pediatric treatment 2.0: ensuring a holistic response to caring for HIV-exposed and infected children. AIDS. 2013 Nov; 27 Suppl 2:S215-24. PMID: 24361631.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Moodley A, Qin M, Singh KK, Spector S. Vitamin D-related host genetic variants alter HIV disease progression in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Nov; 32(11):1230-6. PMID: 23736144; PMCID: PMC3811908.
      26. Nachman S, Zheng N, Acosta EP, Teppler H, Homony B, Graham B, Fenton T, Xu X, Wenning L, Spector S, Frenkel LM, Alvero C, Worrell C, Handelsman E, Wiznia A. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and 48-week efficacy of oral raltegravir in HIV-1-infected children aged 2 through 18 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Feb; 58(3):413-22. PMID: 24145879; PMCID: PMC3890333.
      27. Garg A, Spector S. HIV type 1 gp120-induced expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells is dependent on interleukin 6 and suppresses immunity. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 01; 209(3):441-51. PMID: 23999600; PMCID: PMC3883171.
      28. Pass RF, Nachman S, Flynn PM, Muresan P, Fenton T, Cunningham CK, Borkowsky W, McAuley JB, Spector S, Petzold E, Levy W, Siberry GK, Handelsman E, Utech LJ, Weinberg A. Immunogenicity of Licensed Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines in HIV-Infected Children and Youth. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013 Dec; 2(4):352-60. PMID: 24363932; PMCID: PMC3869470.
      29. Campbell GR, Spector S. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 through autophagy. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Jun; 16(3):349-54. PMID: 23747172; PMCID: PMC3742638.
      30. Campbell GR, Pallack ZT, Spector S. Vitamin D attenuates nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor induced human skeletal muscle mitochondria DNA depletion. AIDS. 2013 Jun 01; 27(9):1397-401. PMID: 23435299; PMCID: PMC3762245.
      31. Yehia BR, Agwu AL, Schranz A, Korthuis PT, Gaur AH, Rutstein R, Sharp V, Spector S, Berry SA, Gebo KA. Conformity of pediatric/adolescent HIV clinics to the patient-centered medical home care model. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013 May; 27(5):272-9. PMID: 23651104; PMCID: PMC3651683.
      32. Spector S, Qin M, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Singh KK, Warshaw MG, Williams PL, Jean-Philippe P, Fenton T, Siberry GK. Genetic variants in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and FC? receptor II are associated with antibody response to quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected youth. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Jun; 20(6):900-6. PMID: 23595505; PMCID: PMC3675972.
      33. Singh KK, Wang Y, Gray KP, Farhad M, Brummel S, Fenton T, Trout R, Spector S. Genetic variants in the host restriction factor APOBEC3G are associated with HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system impairment in children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Feb 01; 62(2):197-203. PMID: 23138837; PMCID: PMC3658306.
      34. Weinberg A, Muresan P, Fenton T, Richardson K, Dominguez T, Bloom A, Petzold E, Anthony P, Cunningham CK, Spector S, Nachman S, Siberry GK, Handelsman E, Flynn PM. High proportions of regulatory B and T cells are associated with decreased cellular responses to pH1N1 influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth (IMPAACT P1088). Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 May; 9(5):957-68. PMID: 23370281; PMCID: PMC3899162.
      35. Shoji-Kawata S, Sumpter R, Leveno M, Campbell GR, Zou Z, Kinch L, Wilkins AD, Sun Q, Pallauf K, MacDuff D, Huerta C, Virgin HW, Helms JB, Eerland R, Tooze SA, Xavier R, Lenschow DJ, Yamamoto A, King D, Lichtarge O, Grishin NV, Spector S, Kaloyanova DV, Levine B. Identification of a candidate therapeutic autophagy-inducing peptide. Nature. 2013 Feb 14; 494(7436):201-6. PMID: 23364696; PMCID: PMC3788641.
      36. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Spector S. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):429-34. PMID: 23050550.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Campbell GR, Spector S. Toll-like receptor 8 ligands activate a vitamin D mediated autophagic response that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(11):e1003017. PMID: 23166493; PMCID: PMC3499571.
      38. Campbell GR, Spector S. Autophagy induction by vitamin D inhibits both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Autophagy. 2012 Oct; 8(10):1523-5. PMID: 22892387; PMCID: PMC3679232.
      39. Nikanjam M, Kabamba D, Cressey TR, Burger D, Aweeka FT, Acosta EP, Spector S, Capparelli EV. Nevirapine exposure with WHO pediatric weight band dosing: enhanced therapeutic concentrations predicted based on extensive international pharmacokinetic experience. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Oct; 56(10):5374-80. PMID: 22869579; PMCID: PMC3457371.
      40. Schrier RD, Gupta S, Riggs P, Cysique LA, Letendre S, Jin H, Spector S, Singh KK, Wolfson T, Wu Z, Hong KX, Yu X, Shi C, Heaton RK. The influence of HLA on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in Anhui, China. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e32303. PMID: 22693541; PMCID: PMC3365058.
      41. Lujan-Zilbermann J, Warshaw MG, Williams PL, Spector S, Decker MD, Abzug MJ, Heckman B, Manzella A, Kabat B, Jean-Philippe P, Nachman S, Siberry GK. Immunogenicity and safety of 1 vs 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in youth infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Pediatr. 2012 Oct; 161(4):676-81.e2. PMID: 22622049; PMCID: PMC3434315.
      42. Flynn PM, Nachman S, Muresan P, Fenton T, Spector S, Cunningham CK, Pass R, Yogev R, Burchett S, Heckman B, Bloom A, Utech LJ, Anthony P, Petzold E, Levy W, Siberry GK, Ebiasah R, Miller J, Handelsman E, Weinberg A. Safety and immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination in perinatally HIV-1-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. J Infect Dis. 2012 Aug 01; 206(3):421-30. PMID: 22615311; PMCID: PMC3490699.
      43. Campbell GR, Spector S. Vitamin D inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages through the induction of autophagy. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(5):e1002689. PMID: 22589721; PMCID: PMC3349755.
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      109. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector S. Prevalence of chemokine and chemokine receptor polymorphisms in seroprevalent children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Mar 01; 35(3):309-13. PMID: 15076247.
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      110. Brundage RC, Yong FH, Fenton T, Spector S, Starr SE, Fletcher CV. Intrapatient variability of efavirenz concentrations as a predictor of virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Mar; 48(3):979-84. PMID: 14982792; PMCID: PMC353062.
      111. Moutaftsi M, Brennan P, Spector S, Tabi Z. Impaired lymphoid chemokine-mediated migration due to a block on the chemokine receptor switch in human cytomegalovirus-infected dendritic cells. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(6):3046-54. PMID: 14990723; PMCID: PMC353728.
      112. Singh KK, Hughes MD, Chen J, Spector S. Lack of protective effects of interleukin-4 -589-C/T polymorphism against HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system impairment, in children. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):587-92. PMID: 14767810.
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      113. Wu H, Lathey J, Ruan P, Douglas SD, Spector S, Lindsey J, Hughes MD, Rudy BJ, Flynn PM. Relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA dynamics to baseline factors and virological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy in adolescents (aged 12-22 years) infected through high-risk behavior. J Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15; 189(4):593-601. PMID: 14767811.
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      114. Soh CH, Oleske JM, Brady MT, Spector S, Borkowsky W, Burchett SK, Foca MD, Handelsman E, Jiménez E, Dankner WM, Hughes MD. Long-term effects of protease-inhibitor-based combination therapy on CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Lancet. 2003 Dec 20; 362(9401):2045-51. PMID: 14697803.
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      115. Singh KK, Barroga CF, Hughes MD, Chen J, Raskino C, McKinney RE, Spector S. Genetic influence of CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 variants on human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-related disease progression and neurological impairment, in children with symptomatic HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15; 188(10):1461-72. PMID: 14624371.
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      116. Caliendo AM, Yen-Lieberman B, Baptista J, Andersen J, Crumpacker C, Schuurman R, Spector S, Bremer J, Lurain NS. Comparison of molecular tests for detection and quantification of cell-associated cytomegalovirus DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 41(8):3509-13. PMID: 12904347; PMCID: PMC179805.
      117. Viani RM, Calderon JR, Van Pratt C, Lopez G, Spector S. HIV prevalence during pregnancy in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. AIDS. 2003 May 02; 17(7):1113-4. PMID: 12700474.
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      118. Capparelli EV, Englund JA, Connor JD, Spector S, McKinney RE, Palumbo P, Baker CJ. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zidovudine in HIV-infected infants and children. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb; 43(2):133-40. PMID: 12616665.
        View in: PubMed
      119. Williams MA, Trout R, Spector S. HIV-1 gp120 modulates the immunological function and expression of accessory and co-stimulatory molecules of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Hematother Stem Cell Res. 2002 Oct; 11(5):829-47. PMID: 12427289.
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      120. Chmait R, Franklin P, Spector S, Hull AD. Protease inhibitors and decreased birth weight in HIV-infected pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. J Perinatol. 2002 Jul-Aug; 22(5):370-3. PMID: 12082471.
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      121. Starr SE, Fletcher CV, Spector S, Brundage RC, Yong FH, Douglas SD, Flynn PM, Kline MW. Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jul; 21(7):659-63. PMID: 12237599.
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      122. Demeter LM, Bosch RJ, Coombs RW, Fiscus S, Bremer J, Johnson VA, Erice A, Jackson JB, Spector S, Squires KM, Fischl MA, Hughes MD, Hammer SM. Detection of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultures from patients with levels of HIV-1 RNA in plasma suppressed to less than 500 or 50 copies per milliliter. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jun; 40(6):2089-94. PMID: 12037070; PMCID: PMC130703.
      123. Ellis RJ, Moore DJ, Childers ME, Letendre S, McCutchan JA, Wolfson T, Spector S, Hsia K, Heaton RK, Grant I. Progression to neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus infection predicted by elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of human immunodeficiency virus RNA. Arch Neurol. 2002 Jun; 59(6):923-8. PMID: 12056927.
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      124. Saitoh A, Hsia K, Fenton T, Powell CA, Christopherson C, Fletcher CV, Starr SE, Spector S. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 DNA in peripheral blood despite prolonged suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA in children. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 15; 185(10):1409-16. PMID: 11992275.
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      125. Spector S. Mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1: the placenta fights back. J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb; 107(3):267-9. PMID: 11160148; PMCID: PMC199204.
      126. Spector S. Factors impacting on drug choices. Issues for developing countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Nov; 918:346-50. PMID: 11131721.
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      127. Spector S, Hsia K, Yong FH, Cabral S, Fenton T, Fletcher CV, McNamara J, Mofenson LM, Starr SE. Patterns of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in infected children. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1769-73. PMID: 11069252.
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      128. Spector S, Hsia K, Crager M, Pilcher M, Cabral S, Stempien MJ. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load is an independent predictor of CMV disease and survival in advanced AIDS. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):7027-30. PMID: 10400803; PMCID: PMC112790.
      129. Spector S, Wong R, Hsia K, Pilcher M, Stempien MJ. Plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts CMV disease and survival in AIDS patients. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 15; 101(2):497-502. PMID: 9435323; PMCID: PMC508590.
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