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    Stephen Bickler

    TitleClinical Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentSurgery
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0739
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone619-822-0061
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Stephen W. Bickler is a pediatric surgeon who has advanced fellowship training in pediatric surgery, tropical medicine and hygiene. As a pediatric surgeon at UCSD, he provides surgical care for children at Children’s Hospital and Health Center in San Diego. He was named one of San Diego’s Top Doctors in 2005, as selected by the San Diego County Medical Society in partnership with San Diego Magazine. Dr. Bickler has spent many years working as a pediatric surgeon in developing nations around the world. Recently he spent two and a half years in the Gambia in West Africa, where he was Consulting Pediatric Surgeon at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Banjul and the Medical Research Council Laboratories in Fajara. In 1999, he spent several months caring for children in a refugee camp with the International Medical Corps in Macedonia. He served as Attending Surgeon at the Red Cross Children’s Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2004. He has also traveled to India, Pakistan, and Guyana as part of a team of plastic surgeons for Interplast, a nonprofit organization that provides free reconstructive surgery to children in developing countries.

      Dr. Bickler has published extensively and has traveled widely in the United States and around the world to present lectures on pediatric surgery, injury prevention, and methods for improving healthcare for children in developing countries. He works with the World Health Organization and other organizations devoted to bringing medical attention to children in need. His recent publications include an article on the impact of war on children in Africa and an analysis of possible reasons for the absence of Western health problems such as high blood pressure and diabetes in Third World communities where sanitation is poor.

      Dr. Bickler is certified by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Pediatric Surgery. As a UCSD pediatric surgeon, he conducts patient clinics and performs surgeries at Children’s Hospital and Health Center as well as at UCSD’s two medical centers in Hillcrest and La Jolla.


      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      The Universidade Eduardo Mondlane/UCSD Medical Education Partnership
      NIH/FIC R24TW008910Sep 27, 2010 - Aug 31, 2015
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator

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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Goodman LF, St-Louis E, Yousef Y, Cheung M, Ure B, Ozgediz D, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Poenaru D, Oldham K, Farmer D, Lakhoo K. The Global Initiative for Children's Surgery: Optimal Resources for Improving Care. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Aug 14. PMID: 28806850.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Haider A, Scott JW, Gause CD, Meheš M, Hsiung G, Prelvukaj A, Yanocha D, Baumann LM, Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Anderson S, Angate H, Arfaa L, Asbun H, Ashengo T, Asuman K, Ayala R, Bickler S, Billingsley S, Bird P, Botman M, Butler M, Buyske J, Capozzi A, Casey K, Clayton C, Cobey J, Cotton M, Deckelbaum D, Derbew M, deVries C, Dillner J, Downham M, Draisin N, Echinard D, Elneil S, ElSayed A, Estelle A, Finley A, Frenkel E, Frykman PK, Gheorghe F, Gore-Booth J, Henker R, Henry J, Henry O, Hoemeke L, Hoffman D, Ibanga I, Jackson EV, Jani P, Johnson W, Jones A, Kassem Z, Kisembo A, Kocan A, Krishnaswami S, Lane R, Latif A, Levy B, Linos D, Linz P, Listwa LA, Magee D, Makasa E, Marin ML, Martin C, McQueen K, Morgan J, Moser R, Neighbor R, Novick WM, Ogendo S, Omigbodun A, Onajin-Obembe B, Parsan N, Philip BK, Price R, Rasheed S, Ratel M, Reynolds C, Roser SM, Rowles J, Samad L, Sampson J, Sanghvi H, Sellers ML, Sigalet D, Steffes BC, Stieber E, Swaroop M, Tarpley J, Varghese A, Varughese J, Wagner R, Warf B, Wetzig N, Williamson S, Wood J, Zeidan A, Zirkle L, Allen B, Abdullah F. Erratum to: Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance). World J Surg. 2017 Jun 22. PMID: 28642965.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Haider A, Scott JW, Gause CD, Meheš M, Hsiung G, Prelvukaj A, Yanocha D, Baumann LM, Ahmed F, Ahmed N, Anderson S, Angate H, Arfaa L, Asbun H, Ashengo T, Asuman K, Ayala R, Bickler S, Billingsley S, Bird P, Botman M, Butler M, Buyske J, Capozzi A, Casey K, Clayton C, Cobey J, Cotton M, Deckelbaum D, Derbew M, deVries C, Dillner J, Downham M, Draisin N, Echinard D, Elneil S, ElSayed A, Estelle A, Finley A, Frenkel E, Frykman PK, Gheorghe F, Gore-Booth J, Henker R, Henry J, Henry O, Hoemeke L, Hoffman D, Ibanga I, Jackson EV, Jani P, Johnson W, Jones A, Kassem Z, Kisembo A, Kocan A, Krishnaswami S, Lane R, Latif A, Levy B, Linos D, Linz P, Listwa LA, Magee D, Makasa E, Marin ML, Martin C, McQueen K, Morgan J, Moser R, Neighbor R, Novick WM, Ogendo S, Omigbodun A, Onajin-Obembe B, Parsan N, Philip BK, Price R, Rasheed S, Ratel M, Reynolds C, Roser SM, Rowles J, Samad L, Sampson J, Sanghvi H, Sellers ML, Sigalet D, Steffes BC, Stieber E, Swaroop M, Tarpley J, Varghese A, Varughese J, Wagner R, Warf B, Wetzig N, Williamson S, Wood J, Zeidan A, Zirkle L, Allen B, Abdullah F. Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance). World J Surg. 2017 May 15. PMID: 28508237.
        View in: PubMed
      4. McQueen KA, Coonan T, Derbew M, Tangi V, Bickler S, Banguti P, Gruen R, Watters D. The 2015 Bangkok Global Surgery Declaration: A Call to the Global Health Community to Promote Implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution for Surgery and Anaesthesia Care. World J Surg. 2017 Jan; 41(1):7-9. PMID: 27600709.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Halbach J, Bickler S, De Maio A. The Molecular Complexity of Sepsis: Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-a, the Tip of the Iceberg? Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug; 44(8):1617-8. PMID: 27428127.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Bendix PG, Anderson JE, Rose JA, Noormahomed EV, Bickler S. Improving surgical systems in low- and middle-income countries: an inclusive framework for monitoring and evaluation. Int Health. 2015 Nov; 7(6):380-3. PMID: 26553824.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2016 Feb; 25:75-8. PMID: 26597405.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Greenberg SL, Ng-Kamstra JS, Ameh EA, Ozgediz DE, Poenaru D, Bickler S. An investment in knowledge: Research in global pediatric surgery for the 21st century. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb; 25(1):51-60. PMID: 26831138.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Farmer DL, Bickler S. Preface. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2016 Feb; 25(1):1-2. PMID: 26831130.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Uribe-Leitz T, Esquivel MM, Molina G, Lipsitz SR, Verguet S, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Projections for Achieving the Lancet Commission Recommended Surgical Rate of 5000 Operations per 100,000 Population by Region-Specific Surgical Rate Estimates. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2168-72. PMID: 26067635.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Spiegel DA, Misra M, Bendix P, Hagander L, Bickler S, Saleh CO, Ekeke-Monono M, Baah-Odoom D, Caldwell A, Irons B, Amir S, Taylor R, Layne M, Hailu H, Awais SM, Price RR, Crockett S, Islam M. Surgical Care and Health Systems. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2132-9. PMID: 25561195.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Esquivel MM, Molina G, Uribe-Leitz T, Lipsitz SR, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Proposed Minimum Rates of Surgery to Support Desirable Health Outcomes: An Observational Study Based on Three Strategies. World J Surg. 2015 Sep; 39(9):2126-31. PMID: 25968342.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Lizardo RE, Langness S, Davenport KP, Kling K, Fairbanks T, Bickler S, Grabowski J. Ketorolac does not reduce effectiveness of pleurodesis in pediatric patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Dec; 50(12):2035-7. PMID: 26385568.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Hider P, Wilson L, Rose J, Weiser TG, Gruen R, Bickler S. The role of facility-based surgical services in addressing the national burden of disease in New Zealand: An index of surgical incidence based on country-specific disease prevalence. Surgery. 2015 Jul; 158(1):44-54. PMID: 25979439.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Ganbold L, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: Evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Surgery. 2015 Jul; 158(1):3-6. PMID: 25987187.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep; 213(3):338-40. PMID: 25985722.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Shrime MG, Bickler S, Alkire BC, Mock C. Global burden of surgical disease: an estimation from the provider perspective. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S8-9. PMID: 25926322.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Rose J, Weiser TG, Hider P, Wilson L, Gruen RL, Bickler S. Estimated need for surgery worldwide based on prevalence of diseases: a modelling strategy for the WHO Global Health Estimate. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S13-20. PMID: 25926315.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Verguet S, Alkire BC, Bickler S, Lauer JA, Uribe-Leitz T, Molina G, Weiser TG, Yamey G, Shrime MG. Timing and cost of scaling up surgical services in low-income and middle-income countries from 2012 to 2030: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Apr 27; 3 Suppl 2:S28-37. PMID: 25926318.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Alkire BC, Raykar NP, Shrime MG, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Rose JA, Nutt CT, Greenberg SL, Kotagal M, Riesel JN, Esquivel M, Uribe-Leitz T, Molina G, Roy N, Meara JG, Farmer PE. Global access to surgical care: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Jun; 3(6):e316-23. PMID: 25926087.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Hider P, Wilson L, Rose J, Weiser TG, Gruen R, Bickler S. The role of facility-based surgical services in addressing the national burden of disease in New Zealand: an index of surgical incidence based on country-specific disease prevalence. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S25. PMID: 26313072.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Meara JG, Leather AJ, Hagander L, Alkire BC, Alonso N, Ameh EA, Bickler S, Conteh L, Dare AJ, Davies J, Mérisier ED, El-Halabi S, Farmer PE, Gawande A, Gillies R, Greenberg SL, Grimes CE, Gruen RL, Ismail EA, Kamara TB, Lavy C, Lundeg G, Mkandawire NC, Raykar NP, Riesel JN, Rodas E, Rose J, Roy N, Shrime MG, Sullivan R, Verguet S, Watters D, Weiser TG, Wilson IH, Yamey G, Yip W. Global Surgery 2030: evidence and solutions for achieving health, welfare, and economic development. Lancet. 2015 Aug 8; 386(9993):569-624. PMID: 25924834.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Esquivel MM, Molina G, Uribe-Leitz T, Lipsitz SR, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Proposed minimum rates of surgery to support desirable health outcomes: an observational study based on four strategies. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S12. PMID: 26313058.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Uribe-Leitz T, Esquivel MM, Molina G, Lipsitz SR, Verguet S, Rose J, Bickler S, Gawande AA, Haynes AB, Weiser TG. Projections to achieve minimum surgical rate threshold: an observational study. Lancet. 2015 Apr 27; 385 Suppl 2:S14. PMID: 26313060.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. Burden of injuries avertable by a basic surgical package in low- and middle-income regions: a systematic analysis from the global burden of disease 2010 study. World J Surg. 2015 Jan; 39(1):1-9. PMID: 25008243.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Bickler S, Lizardo RE, De Maio A. The transition from a rural to an urban environment alters expression of the human Ebola virus receptor Neiman-Pick C1: implications for the current epidemic in West Africa. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015 Mar; 20(2):203-6. PMID: 25477151.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. Surgically avertable burden of digestive diseases at first-level hospitals in low and middle-income regions. Surgery. 2015 Mar; 157(3):411-9. PMID: 25444219.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Higashi H, Barendregt JJ, Kassebaum NJ, Weiser TG, Bickler S, Vos T. The burden of selected congenital anomalies amenable to surgery in low and middle-income regions: cleft lip and palate, congenital heart anomalies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child. 2015 Mar; 100(3):233-8. PMID: 25260520.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Faierman ML, Anderson JE, Assane A, Bendix P, Vaz F, Rose JA, Funzamo C, Bickler S, Noormahomed EV. Surgical patients travel longer distances than non-surgical patients to receive care at a rural hospital in Mozambique. Int Health. 2015 Jan; 7(1):60-6. PMID: 25135818.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Anderson JE, Rose J, Noorbakhsh A, Talamini MA, Finlayson SR, Bickler S, Chang DC. An efficient risk adjustment model to predict inpatient adverse events after surgery. World J Surg. 2014 Aug; 38(8):1954-60. PMID: 24615608.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Anderson JE, Erickson A, Funzamo C, Bendix P, Assane A, Rose J, Vaz F, Noormahomed EV, Bickler S. Surgical conditions account for the majority of admissions to three primary referral hospitals in rural mozambique. World J Surg. 2014 Apr; 38(4):823-9. PMID: 24346631.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Rose J, Chang DC, Weiser TG, Kassebaum NJ, Bickler S. The role of surgery in global health: analysis of United States inpatient procedure frequency by condition using the global burden of disease 2010 framework. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89693. PMID: 24586967.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Spiegel DA, Abdullah F, Price RR, Gosselin RA, Bickler S. World Health Organization Global Initiative for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care: 2011 and beyond. World J Surg. 2013 Jul; 37(7):1462-9. PMID: 23150072.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Bickler S, McQueen K. Proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of the Alliance for Surgery and Anesthesia Presence (ASAP): building sustainable surgical systems. World J Surg. 2013 Jul; 37(7):1460-1. PMID: 23592056.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Bickler S, De Maio A. Dysfunction of the innate immune system during sepsis: a call for research. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1):364-5. PMID: 23269155.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Ramirez M, Chang DC, Bickler S. Pediatric injury outcomes in racial/ethnic minorities in California: diversity may reduce disparity. JAMA Surg. 2013 Jan; 148(1):76-80. PMID: 22986983.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Anderson JE, Bickler S, Chang DC, Talamini MA. Examining a common disease with unknown etiology: trends in epidemiology and surgical management of appendicitis in California, 1995-2009. World J Surg. 2012 Dec; 36(12):2787-94. PMID: 22948195.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Anderson JE, Lassiter R, Bickler S, Talamini MA, Chang DC. Brief tool to measure risk-adjusted surgical outcomes in resource-limited hospitals. Arch Surg. 2012 Sep; 147(9):798-803. PMID: 22987164.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Drummond R, Cauvi DM, Hawisher D, Song D, Niño DF, Coimbra R, Bickler S, De Maio A. Deletion of scavenger receptor A gene in mice resulted in protection from septic shock and modulation of TLR4 signaling in isolated peritoneal macrophages. Innate Immun. 2013 Feb; 19(1):30-41. PMID: 22751446.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Cauvi DM, Song D, Vazquez DE, Hawisher D, Bermudez JA, Williams MR, Bickler S, Coimbra R, De Maio A. Period of irreversible therapeutic intervention during sepsis correlates with phase of innate immune dysfunction. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jun 8; 287(24):19804-15. PMID: 22518839.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Castle S, Suliman A, Shayan K, Kling K, Bickler S, Losasso B. Total colonic aganglionosis with skip lesions: report of a rare case and management. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Mar; 47(3):581-4. PMID: 22424357.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Lazar DA, Cohen SA, Evora DK, Losasso BE, Bickler S. Cecal bascule in a child: an unusual cause of postoperative bowel obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Mar; 47(3):609-11. PMID: 22424364.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Chang DC, Anderson JE, Kobayashi L, Coimbra R, Bickler S. Projected lifetime risks and hospital care expenditure for traumatic injury. J Surg Res. 2012 Aug; 176(2):567-70. PMID: 22261584.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Bickler S, Ring J, De Maio A. Sulfur amino acid metabolism limits the growth of children living in environments of poor sanitation. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Sep; 77(3):380-2. PMID: 21658846.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Iddriss A, Shivute N, Bickler S, Cole-Ceesay R, Jargo B, Abdullah F, Cherian M. Emergency, anaesthetic and essential surgical capacity in the Gambia. Bull World Health Organ. 2011 Aug 1; 89(8):565-72. PMID: 21836755.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Grabowski J, Vazquez DE, Costantini T, Cauvi DM, Charles W, Bickler S, Talamini MA, Vega VL, Coimbra R, De Maio A. Tumor necrosis factor expression is ameliorated after exposure to an acidic environment. J Surg Res. 2012 Mar; 173(1):127-34. PMID: 20888586.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Osen HB, Chang DC, Bickler S. Risk-adjusted outcomes database as a tool to promote horizontal integration of surgical systems in low- and middle-income countries. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Aug; 211(2):296-7. PMID: 20670876.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Bickler S, Ozgediz D, Gosselin R, Weiser T, Spiegel D, Hsia R, Dunbar P, McQueen K, Jamison D. Key concepts for estimating the burden of surgical conditions and the unmet need for surgical care. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):374-80. PMID: 19862570.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Bickler S, Spiegel D. Improving surgical care in low- and middle-income countries: a pivotal role for the World Health Organization. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):386-90. PMID: 19876687.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Mock C, Cherian M, Juillard C, Donkor P, Bickler S, Jamison D, McQueen K. Developing priorities for addressing surgical conditions globally: furthering the link between surgery and public health policy. World J Surg. 2010 Mar; 34(3):381-5. PMID: 19876689.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Ozgediz D, Hsia R, Weiser T, Gosselin R, Spiegel D, Bickler S, Dunbar P, McQueen K. Population health metrics for surgery: effective coverage of surgical services in low-income and middle-income countries. World J Surg. 2009 Jan; 33(1):1-5. PMID: 18958518.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Azzie G, Bickler S, Farmer D, Beasley S. Partnerships for developing pediatric surgical care in low-income countries. J Pediatr Surg. 2008 Dec; 43(12):2273-4. PMID: 19040951.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Bickler S, Spiegel DA. Global surgery--defining a research agenda. Lancet. 2008 Jul 12; 372(9633):90-2. PMID: 18582930.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Bickler S, DeMaio A. Western diseases: current concepts and implications for pediatric surgery research and practice. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008 Mar; 24(3):251-5. PMID: 18087704.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Bickler S. Tropical enteropathy protects against Western diseases in environments of poor sanitation. Med Hypotheses. 2006; 67(1):146-50. PMID: 16545527.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Bickler S. Pediatric surgery in the developing world. J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Dec; 40(12):1969-70. PMID: 16338330.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Shen C, Sanno-Duanda B, Bickler S. Pediatric trauma at a government referral hospital in The Gambia. West Afr J Med. 2003 Dec; 22(4):287-90. PMID: 15008289.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Bickler S, Telfer ML, Sanno-Duanda B. Need for paediatric surgery care in an urban area of The Gambia. Trop Doct. 2003 Apr; 33(2):91-4. PMID: 12680542.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Bickler S, Rode H. Surgical services for children in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2002; 80(10):829-35. PMID: 12471405.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Bickler S. Non-communicable diseases: is their emergence in industrialized societies related to changes in neuroendocrine function? Med Hypotheses. 2000 May; 54(5):825-8. PMID: 10859694.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Bickler S, Sanno-Duanda B. Epidemiology of paediatric surgical admissions to a government referral hospital in the Gambia. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(11):1330-6. PMID: 11143193.
        View in: PubMed
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