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    Sheila Crowe

    TitleProfessor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-2757
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Fellowship1988 McMaster University
      Residency1986McMaster University
      Internship1983McMaster University
      MD1982McMaster University
      BSc1979University of Toronto (Trinity College)

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      1/2 SDSU/UCSD Cancer Center Comprehensive Partnership
      NIH/NCI U54CA132379Dec 1, 2007 - Aug 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      2/2 SDSU/UCSD Cancer Center Comprehensive Partnership
      NIH/NCI U54CA132384Dec 1, 2007 - Aug 31, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      GI Response to Injury: Canada 2004
      NIH/NIDDK R13DK070501Sep 25, 2004 - Aug 31, 2005
      Role: Principal Investigator
      GASTROINTESTINAL RESPONSE TO INJURY: CANADA 2001
      NIH/NIDDK R13DK061930Sep 30, 2001 - Sep 29, 2002
      Role: Principal Investigator
      OXIDATIVE INJURY TO GASTRIC EPITHELIAL CELLS BY H. PYLORI
      NIH/NIDDK R01DK061769Sep 21, 2001 - Jul 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Research Training in Digestive Diseases
      NIH/NIDDK T32DK007769Jul 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2015
      Role: Principal Investigator
      GASTROENTEROLOGY TRAINING GRANT
      NIH/NIDDK T32DK007202Jul 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Lok A, Burke CA, Crowe S, Woods KL. Society Leadership and Diversity: Hail to the Women! Am J Gastroenterol. 2017 Sep; 112(9):1353-1355. PMID: 28809385.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lok A, Burke CA, Crowe S, Woods KL. Society Leadership and Diversity: Hail to the Women! Hepatology. 2017 Sep; 66(3):686-690. PMID: 28810060.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Lok A, Burke CA, Crowe S, Woods KL. Society Leadership and Diversity: Hail to the Women! Gastroenterology. 2017 Sep; 153(3):618-620. PMID: 28821326.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Lok A, Burke CA, Crowe S, Woods KL. Society Leadership and Diversity: Hail to the Women! Gastrointest Endosc. 2017 Aug 02. PMID: 28821325.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Das L, Kokate SB, Dixit P, Rath S, Rout N, Singh SP, Crowe S, Bhattacharyya A. Membrane-bound ß-catenin degradation is enhanced by ETS2-mediated Siah1 induction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells. Oncogenesis. 2017 May 08; 6(5):e327. PMID: 28481365.
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      6. Butcher LD, den Hartog G, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Oxidative Stress Resulting From Helicobacter pylori Infection Contributes to Gastric Carcinogenesis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 May; 3(3):316-322. PMID: 28462373.
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      7. Rath S, Das L, Kokate SB, Ghosh N, Dixit P, Rout N, Singh SP, Chattopadhyay S, Ashktorab H, Smoot DT, Swamy MM, Kundu TK, Crowe S, Bhattacharyya A. Inhibition of histone/lysine acetyltransferase activity kills CoCl2-treated and hypoxia-exposed gastric cancer cells and reduces their invasiveness. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017 Jan; 82:28-40. PMID: 27890795.
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      8. Pace LA, Crowe S. Duodenal Bulb Biopsies Remain Relevant in the Diagnosis of Adult Celiac Disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Nov; 14(11):1589-1592. PMID: 27565522.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Leffler D, Kupfer SS, Lebwohl B, Bugin K, Griebel D, Lathrop JT, Lee JJ, Mulberg AE, Papadopoulos E, Tomaino J, Crowe S. Development of Celiac Disease Therapeutics: Report of the Third Gastroenterology Regulatory Endpoints and Advancement of Therapeutics Workshop. Gastroenterology. 2016 Sep; 151(3):407-11. PMID: 27456385.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Thung I, Crowe S, Valasek MA. Letter: global emergence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance - unanswered questions. Authors' reply. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jun; 43(11):1249-50. PMID: 27137739.
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      11. Pace LA, Crowe S. Complex Relationships Between Food, Diet, and the Microbiome. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2016 06; 45(2):253-65. PMID: 27261897.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Ludvigsson JF, Agreus L, Ciacci C, Crowe S, Geller MG, Green PH, Hill I, Hungin AP, Koletzko S, Koltai T, Lundin KE, Mearin ML, Murray JA, Reilly N, Walker MM, Sanders DS, Shamir R, Troncone R, Husby S. Transition from childhood to adulthood in coeliac disease: the Prague consensus report. Gut. 2016 Aug; 65(8):1242-51. PMID: 27196596; PMCID: PMC4975833.
      13. Das L, Kokate SB, Rath S, Rout N, Singh SP, Crowe S, Mukhopadhyay AK, Bhattacharyya A. ETS2 and Twist1 promote invasiveness of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells by inducing Siah2. Biochem J. 2016 Jun 01; 473(11):1629-40. PMID: 27048589; PMCID: PMC4888467.
      14. den Hartog G, Chattopadhyay R, Ablack A, Hall EH, Butcher LD, Bhattacharyya A, Eckmann L, Harris PR, Das S, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005382. PMID: 26761793; PMCID: PMC4711900.
      15. Thung I, Aramin H, Vavinskaya V, Gupta S, Park JY, Crowe S, Valasek MA. Review article: the global emergence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Feb; 43(4):514-33. PMID: 26694080.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Fox S, Ryan KA, Berger AH, Petro K, Das S, Crowe S, Ernst PB. The role of C1q in recognition of apoptotic epithelial cells and inflammatory cytokine production by phagocytes during Helicobacter pylori infection. J Inflamm (Lond). 2015; 12:51. PMID: 26357509; PMCID: PMC4563842.
      17. Hunt RH, Camilleri M, Crowe S, El-Omar EM, Fox JG, Kuipers EJ, Malfertheiner P, McColl KE, Pritchard DM, Rugge M, Sonnenberg A, Sugano K, Tack J. The stomach in health and disease. Gut. 2015 Oct; 64(10):1650-68. PMID: 26342014; PMCID: PMC4835810.
      18. Lebwohl B, Murray JA, Verdú EF, Crowe S, Dennis M, Fasano A, Green PH, Guandalini S, Khosla C. Gluten Introduction, Breastfeeding, and Celiac Disease: Back to the Drawing Board. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan; 111(1):12-4. PMID: 26259710; PMCID: PMC4720595.
      19. Boland BS, Widjaja CE, Banno A, Zhang B, Kim SH, Stoven S, Peterson MR, Jones MC, Su HI, Crowe S, Bui JD, Ho SB, Okugawa Y, Goel A, Marietta EV, Khosroheidari M, Jepsen K, Aramburu J, López-Rodríguez C, Sandborn WJ, Murray JA, Harismendy O, Chang JT. Immunodeficiency and autoimmune enterocolopathy linked to NFAT5 haploinsufficiency. J Immunol. 2015 Mar 15; 194(6):2551-60. PMID: 25667416; PMCID: PMC4355235.
      20. Rath S, Das L, Kokate SB, Pratheek BM, Chattopadhyay S, Goswami C, Chattopadhyay R, Crowe S, Bhattacharyya A. Regulation of Noxa-mediated apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2015 Mar; 29(3):796-806. PMID: 25404713; PMCID: PMC4422360.
      21. Leung J, Crowe S. Food allergy and food intolerance. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2015; 111:76-81. PMID: 25418393.
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      22. Crowe S. Management of celiac disease: beyond the gluten-free diet. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun; 146(7):1594-6. PMID: 24786557.
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      23. Bhattacharyya A, Chattopadhyay R, Mitra S, Crowe S. Oxidative stress: an essential factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal mucosal diseases. Physiol Rev. 2014 Apr; 94(2):329-54. PMID: 24692350; PMCID: PMC4044300.
      24. Das S, Sarkar A, Ryan KA, Fox S, Berger AH, Juncadella IJ, Bimczok D, Smythies LE, Harris PR, Ravichandran KS, Crowe S, Smith PD, Ernst PB. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 is expressed by gastric phagocytes during infection with Helicobacter pylori and mediates the recognition and engulfment of human apoptotic gastric epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2014 May; 28(5):2214-24. PMID: 24509909; PMCID: PMC3986834.
      25. Nagoya H, Futagami S, Shimpuku M, Tatsuguchi A, Wakabayashi T, Yamawaki H, Kodaka Y, Kawagoe T, Watarai Y, Makino H, Miyashita M, Tsuchiya S, Crowe S, Sakamoto C. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 is associated with angiogenesis and VEGF production via upregulation of COX-2 expression in esophageal cancer tissues. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Feb; 306(3):G183-90. PMID: 24284961.
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      26. Boettcher E, Crowe S. Dietary proteins and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 May; 108(5):728-36. PMID: 23567359.
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      27. Crowe S. Personal perspectives on mentoring. Gastroenterology. 2013 Mar; 144(3):488-91. PMID: 23347674.
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      28. Bhandari A, Crowe S. Helicobacter pylori in gastric malignancies. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2012 Dec; 14(6):489-96. PMID: 23054813.
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      29. Gohil VB, Patrie JT, Shami VM, Sauer BG, Argo CK, Crowe S, Wang AY. Colonic diverticulosis is associated with an increased adenoma detection rate in patients undergoing first-time screening colonoscopy. J Interv Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr; 2(2):70-75. PMID: 23687589.
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      30. Hall EH, Crowe S. Environmental and lifestyle influences on disorders of the large and small intestine: implications for treatment. Dig Dis. 2011; 29(2):249-54. PMID: 21734392.
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      31. Hammerle CW, Crowe S. When to reconsider the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011 Jun; 40(2):291-307, vii. PMID: 21601781.
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      32. Crowe S. In the clinic. Celiac disease. Ann Intern Med. 2011 May 03; 154(9):ITC5-1-ITC5-15; quiz ITC5-16. PMID: 21536935.
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      33. Soutto M, Belkhiri A, Piazuelo MB, Schneider BG, Peng D, Jiang A, Washington MK, Kokoye Y, Crowe S, Zaika A, Correa P, Peek RM, El-Rifai W. Loss of TFF1 is associated with activation of NF-?B-mediated inflammation and gastric neoplasia in mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2011 May; 121(5):1753-67. PMID: 21490402; PMCID: PMC3083788.
      34. Bhattacharyya A, Chattopadhyay R, Hall EH, Mebrahtu ST, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-mediated Mcl1 regulation in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Nov; 299(5):G1177-86. PMID: 20829524; PMCID: PMC2993173.
      35. Degaetani MA, Crowe S. A 41-year-old woman with abdominal complaints: is it food allergy or food intolerance? How to tell the difference. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Sep; 8(9):755-9; quiz; e97. PMID: 20363367.
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      36. Ding SZ, Fischer W, Kaparakis-Liaskos M, Liechti G, Merrell DS, Grant PA, Ferrero RL, Crowe S, Haas R, Hatakeyama M, Goldberg JB. Helicobacter pylori-induced histone modification, associated gene expression in gastric epithelial cells, and its implication in pathogenesis. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 01; 5(4):e9875. PMID: 20368982; PMCID: PMC2848570.
      37. Bhattacharyya A, Chattopadhyay R, Burnette BR, Cross JV, Mitra S, Ernst PB, Bhakat KK, Crowe S. Acetylation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 regulates Helicobacter pylori-mediated gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jun; 136(7):2258-69. PMID: 19505426; PMCID: PMC2694750.
      38. O'Hara AM, Bhattacharyya A, Bai J, Mifflin RC, Ernst PB, Mitra S, Crowe S. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells: role of reactive oxygen species and AP endonuclease-1/redox factor (Ref)-1. Cytokine. 2009 Jun; 46(3):359-69. PMID: 19376732; PMCID: PMC2846768.
      39. Alam MS, Kurtz CC, Wilson JM, Burnette BR, Wiznerowicz EB, Ross WG, Rieger JM, Figler RA, Linden J, Crowe S, Ernst PB. A2A adenosine receptor (AR) activation inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production by human CD4+ helper T cells and regulates Helicobacter-induced gastritis and bacterial persistence. Mucosal Immunol. 2009 May; 2(3):232-42. PMID: 19262506; PMCID: PMC3036970.
      40. Alam MS, Kurtz CC, Rowlett RM, Reuter BK, Wiznerowicz E, Das S, Linden J, Crowe S, Ernst PB. CD73 is expressed by human regulatory T helper cells and suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production and Helicobacter felis-induced gastritis in mice. J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 15; 199(4):494-504. PMID: 19281303; PMCID: PMC3047419.
      41. Futagami S, Kawagoe T, Horie A, Shindo T, Hamamoto T, Suzuki K, Kusunoki M, Miyake K, Gudis K, Tsukui T, Crowe S, Sakamoto C. Celecoxib inhibits apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 expression and prevents gastric cancer in Helicobacter pylori-infected mongolian gerbils. Digestion. 2008; 78(2-3):93-102. PMID: 18987470.
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      42. Futagami S, Hiratsuka T, Shindo T, Horie A, Hamamoto T, Suzuki K, Kusunoki M, Miyake K, Gudis K, Crowe S, Tsukui T, Sakamoto C. Expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE-1) in H. pylori-associated gastritis, gastric adenoma, and gastric cancer. Helicobacter. 2008 Jun; 13(3):209-18. PMID: 18466396.
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      43. Mikesh LM, Crowe S, Bullock GC, Taylor NE, Bruns DE. Celiac disease refractory to a gluten-free diet? Clin Chem. 2008 Feb; 54(2):441-4; discussion 444-5. PMID: 18223137.
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      44. Minohara Y, Boyd DK, Hawkins HK, Ernst PB, Patel J, Crowe S. The effect of the cag pathogenicity island on binding of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells and the subsequent induction of apoptosis. Helicobacter. 2007 Dec; 12(6):583-90. PMID: 18001397; PMCID: PMC3036973.
      45. Makola D, Peura DA, Crowe S. Helicobacter pylori infection and related gastrointestinal diseases. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul; 41(6):548-58. PMID: 17577110.
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      46. Ding SZ, Minohara Y, Fan XJ, Wang J, Reyes VE, Patel J, Dirden-Kramer B, Boldogh I, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Helicobacter pylori infection induces oxidative stress and programmed cell death in human gastric epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4030-9. PMID: 17562777; PMCID: PMC1952011.
      47. Catassi C, Kryszak D, Louis-Jacques O, Duerksen DR, Hill I, Crowe S, Brown AR, Procaccini NJ, Wonderly BA, Hartley P, Moreci J, Bennett N, Horvath K, Burk M, Fasano A. Detection of Celiac disease in primary care: a multicenter case-finding study in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul; 102(7):1454-60. PMID: 17355413.
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      48. Dimberg EL, Crowe S, Trugman JM, Swerdlow RH, Lopes MB, Bourne TD, Burns TM. Fatal encephalitis in a patient with refractory celiac disease presenting with myorhythmia and carpal spasm. Mov Disord. 2007 Feb 15; 22(3):407-11. PMID: 17230474.
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      49. O'Hara AM, Bhattacharyya A, Mifflin RC, Smith MF, Ryan KA, Scott KG, Naganuma M, Casola A, Izumi T, Mitra S, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Interleukin-8 induction by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells is dependent on apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 01; 177(11):7990-9. PMID: 17114472.
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      50. Ernst PB, Peura DA, Crowe S. The translation of Helicobacter pylori basic research to patient care. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jan; 130(1):188-206; quiz 212-3. PMID: 16401482.
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      51. Johnson AH, Frierson HF, Zaika A, Powell SM, Roche J, Crowe S, Moskaluk CA, El-Rifai W. Expression of tight-junction protein claudin-7 is an early event in gastric tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol. 2005 Aug; 167(2):577-84. PMID: 16049341; PMCID: PMC1603560.
      52. Barrera CA, Beswick EJ, Sierra JC, Bland D, Espejo R, Mifflin R, Adegboyega P, Crowe S, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. Polarized expression of CD74 by gastric epithelial cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005 Dec; 53(12):1481-9. PMID: 15923369; PMCID: PMC3957538.
      53. Bischoff S, Crowe S. Gastrointestinal food allergy: new insights into pathophysiology and clinical perspectives. Gastroenterology. 2005 Apr; 128(4):1089-113. PMID: 15825090.
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      54. Crowe S. Helicobacter infection, chronic inflammation, and the development of malignancy. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan; 21(1):32-8. PMID: 15687882.
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      55. Ding SZ, O'Hara AM, Denning TL, Dirden-Kramer B, Mifflin RC, Reyes VE, Ryan KA, Elliott SN, Izumi T, Boldogh I, Mitra S, Ernst PB, Crowe S. Helicobacter pylori and H2O2 increase AP endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2004 Sep; 127(3):845-58. PMID: 15362040.
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      56. Bischoff S, Crowe S. Food allergy and the gastrointestinal tract. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar; 20(2):156-61. PMID: 15703638.
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      57. Smith MF, Mitchell A, Li G, Ding S, Fitzmaurice AM, Ryan K, Crowe S, Goldberg JB. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR5, but not TLR4, are required for Helicobacter pylori-induced NF-kappa B activation and chemokine expression by epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 29; 278(35):32552-60. PMID: 12807870.
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      58. Denning TL, Takaishi H, Crowe S, Boldogh I, Jevnikar A, Ernst PB. Oxidative stress induces the expression of Fas and Fas ligand and apoptosis in murine intestinal epithelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Dec 15; 33(12):1641-50. PMID: 12488132.
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      59. Casola A, Garofalo RP, Crawford SE, Estes MK, Mercurio F, Crowe S, Brasier AR. Interleukin-8 gene regulation in intestinal epithelial cells infected with rotavirus: role of viral-induced IkappaB kinase activation. Virology. 2002 Jun 20; 298(1):8-19. PMID: 12093168.
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      60. Crowe S. Gastrointestinal food allergies: do they exist? Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2001 Aug; 3(4):351-7. PMID: 11470005.
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      61. Ernst PB, Takaishi H, Crowe S. Helicobacter pylori infection as a model for gastrointestinal immunity and chronic inflammatory diseases. Dig Dis. 2001; 19(2):104-11. PMID: 11549818.
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      62. Ribardo DA, Crowe S, Kuhl KR, Peterson JW, Chopra AK. Prostaglandin levels in stimulated macrophages are controlled by phospholipase A2-activating protein and by activation of phospholipase C and D. J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 23; 276(8):5467-75. PMID: 11094054.
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      63. Go MF, Crowe S. Virulence and pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2000 Sep; 29(3):649-70. PMID: 11030079.
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      64. Fan X, Gunasena H, Cheng Z, Espejo R, Crowe S, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. Helicobacter pylori urease binds to class II MHC on gastric epithelial cells and induces their apoptosis. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 15; 165(4):1918-24. PMID: 10925273.
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      65. Soler-Rodriguez AM, Zhang H, Lichenstein HS, Qureshi N, Niesel DW, Crowe S, Peterson JW, Klimpel GR. Neutrophil activation by bacterial lipoprotein versus lipopolysaccharide: differential requirements for serum and CD14. J Immunol. 2000 Mar 01; 164(5):2674-83. PMID: 10679108.
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      66. Powell DW, Mifflin RC, Valentich JD, Crowe S, Saada JI, West AB. Myofibroblasts. II. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Am J Physiol. 1999 Aug; 277(2 Pt 1):C183-201. PMID: 10444394.
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      67. Powell DW, Mifflin RC, Valentich JD, Crowe S, Saada JI, West AB. Myofibroblasts. I. Paracrine cells important in health and disease. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jul; 277(1 Pt 1):C1-9. PMID: 10409103.
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      68. Ernst PB, Song F, Klimpel GR, Haeberle H, Bamford KB, Crowe S, Ye G, Reyes VE. Regulation of the mucosal immune response. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Apr; 60(4 Suppl):2-9. PMID: 10344671.
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      69. Luthra GK, DiNuzzo AR, Gourley WK, Crowe S. Comparison of biopsy and serological methods of diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and the potential role of antibiotics. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Aug; 93(8):1291-6. PMID: 9707053.
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      70. Olszewska-Pazdrak B, Casola A, Saito T, Alam R, Crowe S, Mei F, Ogra PL, Garofalo RP. Cell-specific expression of RANTES, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha by lower airway epithelial cells and eosinophils infected with respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):4756-64. PMID: 9573240; PMCID: PMC110009.
      71. Fan X, Crowe S, Behar S, Gunasena H, Ye G, Haeberle H, Van Houten N, Gourley WK, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. The effect of class II major histocompatibility complex expression on adherence of Helicobacter pylori and induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells: a mechanism for T helper cell type 1-mediated damage. J Exp Med. 1998 May 18; 187(10):1659-69. PMID: 9584144; PMCID: PMC2212295.
      72. Casola A, Estes MK, Crawford SE, Ogra PL, Ernst PB, Garofalo RP, Crowe S. Rotavirus infection of cultured intestinal epithelial cells induces secretion of CXC and CC chemokines. Gastroenterology. 1998 May; 114(5):947-55. PMID: 9558283.
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      73. Bamford KB, Fan X, Crowe S, Leary JF, Gourley WK, Luthra GK, Brooks EG, Graham DY, Reyes VE, Ernst PB. Lymphocytes in the human gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori have a T helper cell 1 phenotype. Gastroenterology. 1998 Mar; 114(3):482-92. PMID: 9496938.
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      74. Ernst PB, Crowe S, Reyes VE. How does Helicobacter pylori cause mucosal damage? The inflammatory response. Gastroenterology. 1997 Dec; 113(6 Suppl):S35-42; discussion S50. PMID: 9394758.
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      75. Crowe S, Luthra GK, Perdue MH. Mast cell mediated ion transport in intestine from patients with and without inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1997 Dec; 41(6):785-92. PMID: 9462211; PMCID: PMC1891616.
      76. Haeberle HA, Kubin M, Bamford KB, Garofalo R, Graham DY, El-Zaatari F, Karttunen R, Crowe S, Reyes VE, Ernst PB. Differential stimulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 by live and killed Helicobacter pylori in vitro and association of IL-12 production with gamma interferon-producing T cells in the human gastric mucosa. Infect Immun. 1997 Oct; 65(10):4229-35. PMID: 9317031; PMCID: PMC175607.
      77. Ye G, Barrera C, Fan X, Gourley WK, Crowe S, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. Expression of B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecules by human gastric epithelial cells: potential role in CD4+ T cell activation during Helicobacter pylori infection. J Clin Invest. 1997 Apr 01; 99(7):1628-36. PMID: 9120006; PMCID: PMC507982.
      78. Crowe S, Alvarez L, Dytoc M, Hunt RH, Muller M, Sherman P, Patel J, Jin Y, Ernst PB. Expression of interleukin 8 and CD54 by human gastric epithelium after Helicobacter pylori infection in vitro. Gastroenterology. 1995 Jan; 108(1):65-74. PMID: 7806065.
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      79. Ernst PB, Jin Y, Reyes VE, Crowe S. The role of the local immune response in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer formation. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1994; 205:22-8. PMID: 7863238.
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      80. Crowe S, Perdue MH. Anti-immunoglobulin E-stimulated ion transport in human large and small intestine. Gastroenterology. 1993 Sep; 105(3):764-72. PMID: 8359647.
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      81. Crowe S, Perdue MH. Gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity: basic mechanisms of pathophysiology. Gastroenterology. 1992 Sep; 103(3):1075-95. PMID: 1499910.
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      82. Crowe S, Sestini P, Perdue MH. Allergic reactions of rat jejunal mucosa. Ion transport responses to luminal antigen and inflammatory mediators. Gastroenterology. 1990 Jul; 99(1):74-82. PMID: 2344944.
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