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    Sean Drummond

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #9151-B
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Dr. Drummond first became fascinated with sleep research when he volunteered as an undergraduate research assistant in the Sleep Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona under the direction of Richard Bootzin, PhD and Michael Perlis, PhD (then a graduate student). After college, he worked with Sarah Mosko, PhD at UC Irvine Medical Center investigating mother-infant co-sleeping. For graduate school, he attended the SDSU-UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology where he worked with J. Christian Gillin, MD. He completed his Pre-doctoral Internship at the Tucson VA hospital and then returned to UCSD as a Postdoctoral Fellow working with Gregory G. Brown PhD. He joined the faculty in the Department of Psychiatry in October 2002.

      Research Interests

      Dr. Drummond's main program of research seeks to understand the impact of sleep and sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, brain function, as well as overall clinical symptoms and quality of life. He conducts both experimental studies and clinical studies.

      Typically, his experimental studies manipulate sleep deprivation in healthy adults and measure the consequent cognitive and cerebral changes through behavioral and cognitive testing, functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), and EEG. In addition to experimental studies in young healthy normal control subjects, his work also includes healthy older adults and clinical populations such as obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia. He is interested in a number of cognitive performance domains, particularly learning and memory, executive function, attention, and decision making. The overall goals of this line of work are to: 1) better understand the impact of sleep and sleep loss on cognition; 2) predict individual vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss; and 3) design interventions to mitigate against the negative effects when sleep deprivation is unavoidable.

      A second area of research interest is in the interaction between sleep and substance use/abuse. In the past, this has included sleep patterns during recovery from alcohol dependence. More recently, he has examined a) the effects of medicinal cannabis on sleep in patients with HIV-related neuropathy; and b) the effects of abstinence from cannabis on sleep in adolescent cannabis abusers.

      A third major area of research interest examines empirically validated treatments for the insomnia and nightmares, particularly in PTSD patients. One current study examines the added benefit of providing targeted treatment for nightmares and insomnia on top of more standard treatment for the daytime symptoms of PTSD.

      Clinical Focus

      His clinical interests lie largely in sleep disorders, particularly behavioral sleep medicine. Dr. Drummond has an active clinical role in the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System as the Associate Director of the Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Program. This clinic treats insomnia and nightmares in a variety of patient populations, including PTSD, mood disorders, and primary care patients.

      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Treating Insomnia &Nightmares After Trauma: Impact on Symptoms &Quality of Life
      NIH/NINR RC1NR011728Sep 23, 2009 - Jul 31, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Sleep Deprivation and Brain Function in Older Adults
      NIH/NIA R01AG024506Sep 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2009
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIMH F31MH011452Mar 18, 1997
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Straus LD, Drummond S, Risbrough VB, Norman SB. Sleep Disruption, Safety Learning, and Fear Extinction in Humans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017 Sep 24. PMID: 28942597.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Poudel GR, Bhattarai A, Dickinson DL, Drummond S. Neural correlates of decision-making during a Bayesian choice task. Neuroreport. 2017 Mar 01; 28(4):193-199. PMID: 28145993.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Straus LD, Acheson DT, Risbrough VB, Drummond S. Sleep Deprivation Disrupts Recall of Conditioned Fear Extinction. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 Mar; 2(2):123-129. PMID: 28758152.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Chatburn A, Kohler MJ, Payne JD, Drummond S. The effects of sleep restriction and sleep deprivation in producing false memories. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2017 Jan; 137:107-113. PMID: 27915105.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Markwald RR, Bessman SC, Reini SA, Drummond S. Performance of a Portable Sleep Monitoring Device in Individuals with High Versus Low Sleep Efficiency. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 Jan; 12(1):95-103. PMID: 26285110; PMCID: PMC4702185.
      6. Jenkins MM, Colvonen PJ, Norman SB, Afari N, Allard CB, Drummond S. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Insomnia in First-Encounter Veterans with and without Military Sexual Trauma. Sleep. 2015 Oct 01; 38(10):1547-54. PMID: 26085301; PMCID: PMC4576328.
      7. Harris E, Taylor MK, Drummond S, Larson GE, Potterat EG. Assessment of Sleep Disruption and Sleep Quality in Naval Special Warfare Operators. Mil Med. 2015 Jul; 180(7):803-8. PMID: 26126252.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Norman SB, Haller M, Spadoni AD, Drummond S, Risbrough V, Hamblen JL, Trim RS, Blanes EX. Maximizing the utility of a single site randomized controlled psychotherapy trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 May; 42:244-51. PMID: 25933919.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Colvonen PJ, Masino T, Drummond S, Myers US, Angkaw AC, Norman SB. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Apr 15; 11(5):513-8. PMID: 25665698; PMCID: PMC4410924.
      10. Straus LD, Drummond S, Nappi CM, Jenkins MM, Norman SB. Sleep variability in military-related PTSD: a comparison to primary insomnia and healthy controls. J Trauma Stress. 2015 Feb; 28(1):8-16. PMID: 25630526.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Kaup AR, Drummond S, Eyler LT. Brain functional correlates of working memory: reduced load-modulated activation and deactivation in aging without hyperactivation or functional reorganization. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Oct; 20(9):945-50. PMID: 25263349; PMCID: PMC4624295.
      12. Marshall AJ, Acheson DT, Risbrough VB, Straus LD, Drummond S. Fear conditioning, safety learning, and sleep in humans. J Neurosci. 2014 Aug 27; 34(35):11754-60. PMID: 25164670.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Almklov EL, Drummond S, Orff H, Alhassoon OM. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults. Behav Sleep Med. 2015; 13(4):324-45. PMID: 24787041.
        View in: PubMed
      14. McKenna BS, Drummond S, Eyler LT. Associations between circadian activity rhythms and functional brain abnormalities among euthymic bipolar patients: a preliminary study. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug; 164:101-6. PMID: 24856561; PMCID: PMC4079506.
      15. Greve DN, Duntley SP, Larson-Prior L, Krystal AD, Diaz MT, Drummond S, Thein SG, Kushida CA, Yang R, Thomas RJ. Effect of armodafinil on cortical activity and working memory in patients with residual excessive sleepiness associated with CPAP-Treated OSA: a multicenter fMRI study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 Feb 15; 10(2):143-53. PMID: 24532997; PMCID: PMC3899316.
      16. van Enkhuizen J, Acheson D, Risbrough V, Drummond S, Geyer MA, Young JW. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Mar 15; 261:40-8. PMID: 24333377; PMCID: PMC3937379.
      17. Drummond S, Walker M, Almklov E, Campos M, Anderson DE, Straus LD. Neural correlates of working memory performance in primary insomnia. Sleep. 2013 Sep 01; 36(9):1307-16. PMID: 23997363; PMCID: PMC3738039.
      18. Mednick SC, McDevitt EA, Walsh JK, Wamsley E, Paulus M, Kanady JC, Drummond S. The critical role of sleep spindles in hippocampal-dependent memory: a pharmacology study. J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 06; 33(10):4494-504. PMID: 23467365; PMCID: PMC3744388.
      19. McKenna BS, Brown GG, Drummond S, Turner TH, Mano QR. Linking mathematical modeling with human neuroimaging to segregate verbal working memory maintenance processes from stimulus encoding. Neuropsychology. 2013 Mar; 27(2):243-55. PMID: 23527652.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Czisch M, Wehrle R, Harsay HA, Wetter TC, Holsboer F, Sämann PG, Drummond S. On the Need of Objective Vigilance Monitoring: Effects of Sleep Loss on Target Detection and Task-Negative Activity Using Combined EEG/fMRI. Front Neurol. 2012; 3:67. PMID: 22557992; PMCID: PMC3338067.
      21. Drummond S, Anderson DE, Straus LD, Vogel EK, Perez VB. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35653. PMID: 22530064; PMCID: PMC3329471.
      22. Jonelis MB, Drummond S, Salamat JS, McKenna BS, Ancoli-Israel S, Bondi MW. Age-Related Influences of Prior Sleep on Brain Activation during Verbal Encoding. Front Neurol. 2012; 3:49. PMID: 22493590; PMCID: PMC3318226.
      23. Nappi CM, Drummond S, Hall JM. Treating nightmares and insomnia in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of current evidence. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):576-85. PMID: 21396945.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Kanady JC, Drummond S, Mednick SC. Actigraphic assessment of a polysomnographic-recorded nap: a validation study. J Sleep Res. 2011 Mar; 20(1 Pt 2):214-22. PMID: 20626612.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Ayalon L, Ancoli-Israel S, Drummond S. Obstructive sleep apnea and age: a double insult to brain function? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug 01; 182(3):413-9. PMID: 20395556; PMCID: PMC2921601.
      26. Nappi CM, Drummond S, Thorp SR, McQuaid JR. Effectiveness of imagery rehearsal therapy for the treatment of combat-related nightmares in veterans. Behav Ther. 2010 Jun; 41(2):237-44. PMID: 20412888.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Cohen-Zion M, Drummond S, Padula CB, Winward J, Kanady J, Medina KL, Tapert SF. Sleep architecture in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users during acute and extended abstinence. Addict Behav. 2009 Nov; 34(11):976-9. PMID: 19505769; PMCID: PMC2727851.
      28. Orff HJ, Ayalon L, Drummond S. Traumatic brain injury and sleep disturbance: a review of current research. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2009 May-Jun; 24(3):155-65. PMID: 19461363.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Ayalon L, Ancoli-Israel S, Drummond S. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Res. 2009 Jun; 18(2):204-8. PMID: 19302344; PMCID: PMC2770011.
      30. Ayalon L, Ancoli-Israel S, Aka AA, McKenna BS, Drummond S. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and brain activation during a sustained attention task. Sleep. 2009 Mar; 32(3):373-81. PMID: 19294957; PMCID: PMC2647791.
      31. Taylor MK, Markham AE, Reis JP, Padilla GA, Potterat EG, Drummond S, Mujica-Parodi LR. Physical fitness influences stress reactions to extreme military training. Mil Med. 2008 Aug; 173(8):738-42. PMID: 18751589.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Mednick SC, Cai DJ, Kanady J, Drummond S. Comparing the benefits of caffeine, naps and placebo on verbal, motor and perceptual memory. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Nov 03; 193(1):79-86. PMID: 18554731; PMCID: PMC2603066.
      33. Mednick SC, Drummond S, Boynton GM, Awh E, Serences J. Sleep-dependent learning and practice-dependent deterioration in an orientation discrimination task. Behav Neurosci. 2008 Apr; 122(2):267-72. PMID: 18410166; PMCID: PMC2744595.
      34. Taylor MK, Reis JP, Sausen KP, Padilla GA, Markham AE, Potterat EG, Drummond S. Trait anxiety and salivary cortisol during free living and military stress. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Feb; 79(2):129-35. PMID: 18309911.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Mednick SC, Drummond S, Arman AC, Boynton GM. Perceptual deterioration is reflected in the neural response: fMRI study of nappers and non-nappers. Perception. 2008; 37(7):1086-97. PMID: 18773731; PMCID: PMC2716730.
      36. Turner TH, Drummond S, Salamat JS, Brown GG. Effects of 42 hr of total sleep deprivation on component processes of verbal working memory. Neuropsychology. 2007 Nov; 21(6):787-95. PMID: 17983292.
        View in: PubMed
      37. McKenna BS, Dickinson DL, Orff HJ, Drummond S. The effects of one night of sleep deprivation on known-risk and ambiguous-risk decisions. J Sleep Res. 2007 Sep; 16(3):245-52. PMID: 17716272.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Orff HJ, Drummond S, Nowakowski S, Perils ML. Discrepancy between subjective symptomatology and objective neuropsychological performance in insomnia. Sleep. 2007 Sep; 30(9):1205-11. PMID: 17910392; PMCID: PMC1978394.
      39. Grandner MA, Drummond S. Who are the long sleepers? Towards an understanding of the mortality relationship. Sleep Med Rev. 2007 Oct; 11(5):341-60. PMID: 17625932; PMCID: PMC3755488.
      40. Tapert SF, Schweinsburg AD, Drummond S, Paulus MP, Brown SA, Yang TT, Frank LR. Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Oct; 194(2):173-83. PMID: 17558500; PMCID: PMC2269705.
      41. Clark CP, Brown GG, Eyler LT, Drummond S, Braun DR, Tapert SF. Decreased perfusion in young alcohol-dependent women as compared with age-matched controls. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007; 33(1):13-9. PMID: 17366242; PMCID: PMC2289781.
      42. Drummond S, Paulus MP, Tapert SF. Effects of two nights sleep deprivation and two nights recovery sleep on response inhibition. J Sleep Res. 2006 Sep; 15(3):261-5. PMID: 16911028.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Stricker JL, Brown GG, Wetherell LA, Drummond S. The impact of sleep deprivation and task difficulty on networks of fMRI brain response. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006 Sep; 12(5):591-7. PMID: 16961940.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Drummond S. Searching for the brain bases of insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med. 2006 Jul 15; 2(3):323-4. PMID: 17561545.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Ayalon L, Ancoli-Israel S, Klemfuss Z, Shalauta MD, Drummond S. Increased brain activation during verbal learning in obstructive sleep apnea. Neuroimage. 2006 Jul 15; 31(4):1817-25. PMID: 16626972.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Drummond S, Meloy MJ, Yanagi MA, Orff HJ, Brown GG. Compensatory recruitment after sleep deprivation and the relationship with performance. Psychiatry Res. 2005 Dec 30; 140(3):211-23. PMID: 16263248.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Drummond S, Bischoff-Grethe A, Dinges DF, Ayalon L, Mednick SC, Meloy MJ. The neural basis of the psychomotor vigilance task. Sleep. 2005 Sep; 28(9):1059-68. PMID: 16268374.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Drummond S, Smith MT, Orff HJ, Chengazi V, Perlis ML. Functional imaging of the sleeping brain: review of findings and implications for the study of insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2004 Jun; 8(3):227-42. PMID: 15144964.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Drummond S, Brown GG, Salamat JS, Gillin JC. Increasing task difficulty facilitates the cerebral compensatory response to total sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2004 May 01; 27(3):445-51. PMID: 15164897.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Carr W, Drummond S, Nesthus T. Neuroimaging sleep debt with FMRI in short- and long-sleepers. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003 Aug; 74(8):902-3. PMID: 12924770.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Drummond S, Brown GG, Salamat JS. Brain regions involved in simple and complex grammatical transformations. Neuroreport. 2003 Jun 11; 14(8):1117-22. PMID: 12821793.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Drummond S, Brown GG. The effects of total sleep deprivation on cerebral responses to cognitive performance. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Nov; 25(5 Suppl):S68-73. PMID: 11682277.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Drummond S, Gillin JC, Brown GG. Increased cerebral response during a divided attention task following sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2001 Jun; 10(2):85-92. PMID: 11422722.
        View in: PubMed
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