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    Robert Heaton

    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0603
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Dr. Heaton received his B.S. in International Affairs from the U.S. Air Force Academy and his Ph.D in Clinical Psychology from the University of Washington. He was an Assistant and then Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from 1973 to 1987, before joining our faculty. In 1987 he became the UCSD Director of the SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, which recently has been ranked the #1 Clinical Psychology program in the U.S. by The Chronicle of Higher Education. Since 2005 he has been the Vice Chair for Academic Affairs for the Department.

      Research Interests

      Dr. Heaton’s research focuses on three areas: effects of HIV and comorbid conditions (methamphetamine use disorders, Hepatitis C co-infection) on the brain and behavior; psychometric issues in neuropsychology (cross cultural neuropsychology, demographic influences on test performance, developing demographically corrected test norms for accurate detection and characterization of CNS disorders, longitudinal measurement of treatment outcome and disease progression); and schizophrenia (detection of prodromal phase, effects of cognitive impairment on everyday functioning, and measuring outcomes of treatments aimed at such effects.

      Clinical Focus

      Clinical Information

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      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Age related determinants of HAND: A 12 year follow-up of CHARTER participants
      NIH/NIMH R01MH107345Sep 24, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Training in Research on Addictions in Interdisciplinary NeuroAIDS (TRAIN)
      NIH/NIDA T32DA031098Jul 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC)
      NIH/NIDA P50DA026306Dec 1, 2008 - May 31, 2019
      Role: Co-Investigator
      Neurobehavioral Effects of HIV &Host Genetics in China
      NIH/NIMH R01MH073433May 13, 2005 - Apr 30, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center
      NIH/NIMH P30MH062512Apr 24, 2001 - Feb 28, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIDA P01DA012065Jul 1, 1999 - Apr 30, 2011
      Role: Co-Investigator
      NIH/NIMH R01MH057226May 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      NIH/NIMH P30MH049671Sep 30, 1992 - Aug 31, 2002
      Role: Co-Investigator
      NIH/NIMH P50MH045294Jun 1, 1989 - Nov 30, 2000
      Role: Co-Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Marquine MJ, Heaton A, Johnson N, Rivera-Mindt M, Cherner M, Bloss C, Hulgan T, Umlauf A, Moore DJ, Fazeli P, Morgello S, Franklin D, Letendre S, Ellis R, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Simpson D, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Heaton R. Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Among HIV-Infected Latinos in the United States. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2017 Sep 06; 1-13. PMID: 28874213.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Yuen T, Brouillette MJ, Fellows LK, Ellis RJ, Letendre S, Heaton R, Mayo N. Personalized Risk Index for Neurocognitive Decline Among People With Well-Controlled HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 01; 76(1):48-54. PMID: 28797021.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Twamley EW, Thomas KR, Burton CZ, Vella L, Jeste DV, Heaton R, McGurk SR. Compensatory cognitive training for people with severe mental illnesses in supported employment: A randomized controlled trial. Schizophr Res. 2017 Aug 17. PMID: 28823720.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Kamat R, McCutchan A, Kumarasamy N, Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Selvamuthu P, Meyer R, Letendre S, Heaton R, Bharti AR. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV-positive adults in southern India. J Neurovirol. 2017 Jul 05. PMID: 28681344.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Yu C, Seaton M, Letendre S, Heaton R, Al-Harthi L. Plasma dickkopf-related protein 1, an antagonist of the Wnt pathway, is associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. AIDS. 2017 Jun 19; 31(10):1379-1385. PMID: 28358733.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Kabuba N, Anitha Menon J, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Hestad KA. Use of Western Neuropsychological Test Battery in Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in Zambia. AIDS Behav. 2017 Jun; 21(6):1717-1727. PMID: 27278547.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Patt VM, Brown GG, Thomas ML, Roesch SC, Taylor MJ, Heaton R. Factor Analysis of an Expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Structure of Neurocognition. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2017 May 13; 1-23. PMID: 28505273.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Mehta SR, Pérez-Santiago J, Hulgan T, Day TR, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Gittleman H, Letendre S, Ellis R, Heaton R, Patton S, Suben JD, Franklin D, Rosario D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Marra CM, Gelman BB, McArthur J, McCutchan A, Morgello S, Simpson D, Connor J, Grant I, Kallianpur A. Cerebrospinal fluid cell-free mitochondrial DNA is associated with HIV replication, iron transport, and mild HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Mar 31; 14(1):72. PMID: 28359324.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Minassian A, Henry BL, Iudicello JE, Morgan EE, Letendre SL, Heaton R, Perry W. Everyday functional ability in HIV and methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 01; 175:60-66. PMID: 28399475.
        View in: PubMed
      10. de Almeida SM, Kamat R, Cherner M, Umlauf A, Ribeiro CE, de Pereira AP, Franklin D, Heaton R, Ellis RJ. Improving Detection of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 03 01; 74(3):332-338. PMID: 27828876.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Kanmogne GD, Qiu F, Ntone FE, Fonsah JY, Njamnshi DM, Kuate CT, Doh RF, Kengne AM, Tagny CT, Nchindap E, Kenmogne L, Mbanya D, Cherner M, Heaton R, Njamnshi AK. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171956. PMID: 28231258.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Flores I, Casaletto KB, Marquine MJ, Umlauf A, Moore DJ, Mungas D, Gershon RC, Beaumont JL, Heaton R. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds. Clin Neuropsychol. 2017 May; 31(4):783-797. PMID: 28080261.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Moore RC, Kaufmann CN, Rooney AS, Moore DJ, Eyler LT, Granholm E, Woods SP, Swendsen J, Heaton R, Scott JC, Depp CA. Feasibility and Acceptability of Ecological Momentary Assessment of Daily Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Aug; 25(8):829-840. PMID: 28065496.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Wagner GA, Chaillon A, Liu S, Franklin DR, Caballero G, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Vaida F, Heaton R, Letendre SL, Grant I, Richman DD, Smith DM. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is associated with HIV-1 dual infection. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13; 30(17):2591-2597. PMID: 27536983.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Bharti AR, McCutchan A, Deutsch R, Smith DM, Ellis RJ, Cherner M, Woods SP, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Latent Toxoplasma Infection and Higher Toxoplasma gondii Immunoglobulin G Levels Are Associated With Worse Neurocognitive Functioning in HIV-Infected Adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 15; 63(12):1655-1660. PMID: 27794019.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Anderson AM, Muñoz-Moreno JA, McClernon DR, Ellis RJ, Cookson D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, McCutchan JA, Morgello S, Sacktor N, Simpson DM, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Prevalence and Correlates of Persistent HIV-1 RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid During Antiretroviral Therapy. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 01; 215(1):105-113. PMID: 27789723.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Bischoff-Grethe A, Connolly CG, Jordan SJ, Brown GG, Paulus MP, Tapert SF, Heaton R, Woods SP, Grant I. Altered reward expectancy in individuals with recent methamphetamine dependence. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Jan; 31(1):17-30. PMID: 27649775.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Obermeit LC, Beltran J, Casaletto KB, Franklin DR, Letendre S, Ellis R, Fennema-Notestine C, Vaida F, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford D, Gelman B, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson D, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Heaton R. Evaluating the accuracy of self-report for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND): defining "symptomatic" versus "asymptomatic" HAND. J Neurovirol. 2017 Feb; 23(1):67-78. PMID: 27557777.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Kabuba N, Menon JA, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Hestad KA. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia - a perspective based on differences between the genders. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016; 12:2021-8. PMID: 27570456; PMCID: PMC4986908.
      20. Edén A, Marcotte TD, Heaton R, Nilsson S, Zetterberg H, Fuchs D, Franklin D, Price RW, Grant I, Letendre SL, Gisslén M. Increased Intrathecal Immune Activation in Virally Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Patients with Neurocognitive Impairment. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157160. PMID: 27295036; PMCID: PMC4905676.
      21. Marquine MJ, Montoya JL, Umlauf A, Fazeli PL, Gouaux B, Heaton R, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Grant I, Moore DJ. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and Neurocognitive Change: A Longitudinal Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 01; 63(5):694-702. PMID: 27199461; PMCID: PMC4981756 [Available on 09/01/17].
      22. Brouillette MJ, Yuen T, Fellows LK, Cysique LA, Heaton R, Mayo NE. Identifying Neurocognitive Decline at 36 Months among HIV-Positive Participants in the CHARTER Cohort Using Group-Based Trajectory Analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155766. PMID: 27191850.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Bharti AR, Woods SP, Ellis RJ, Cherner M, Rosario D, Potter M, Heaton R, Everall IP, Masliah E, Grant I, Letendre SL. Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with HIV disease, methamphetamine use, and neurocognitive functioning. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2016; 8:93-9. PMID: 27199571; PMCID: PMC4857802.
      24. Casaletto KB, Umlauf A, Marquine M, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Gershon R, Slotkin J, Akshoomoff N, Heaton R. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2016 Mar; 22(3):364-74. PMID: 26817924.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Casaletto KB, Moore DJ, Woods SP, Umlauf A, Scott JC, Heaton R. Abbreviated Goal Management Training Shows Preliminary Evidence as a Neurorehabilitation Tool for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders among Substance Users. Clin Neuropsychol. 2016; 30(1):107-30. PMID: 26753986; PMCID: PMC4801659.
      26. Casaletto KB, Kwan S, Montoya JL, Obermeit LC, Gouaux B, Poquette A, Heaton R, Atkinson JH, Moore DJ. Predictors of psychotropic medication adherence among HIV+ individuals living with bipolar disorder. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2016; 51(1):69-83. PMID: 26681237.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Fazeli PL, Moore DJ, Franklin DR, Umlauf A, Heaton R, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor NC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Grant I, Letendre SL. Lower CSF Aß is Associated with HAND in HIV-Infected Adults with a Family History of Dementia. Curr HIV Res. 2016; 14(4):324-30. PMID: 26673902; PMCID: PMC4916008 [Available on 01/01/17].
      28. Kallianpur AR, Wang Q, Jia P, Hulgan T, Zhao Z, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Heaton R, Franklin DR, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Grant I. Anemia and Red Blood Cell Indices Predict HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era. J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 01; 213(7):1065-73. PMID: 26690344; PMCID: PMC4779306 [Available on 04/01/17].
      29. Grant I, Heaton R. Ralph M. Reitan: A Founding Father of Neuropsychology. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2015 Dec; 30(8):760-1. PMID: 26590078; PMCID: PMC4675827 [Available on 12/01/16].
      30. Shi C, Kang L, Yao S, Ma Y, Li T, Liang Y, Cheng Z, Xu Y, Shi J, Xu X, Zhang C, Franklin DR, Heaton R, Jin H, Yu X. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): Co-norming and standardization in China. Schizophr Res. 2015 Dec; 169(1-3):109-115. PMID: 26441005; PMCID: PMC4916953 [Available on 12/01/16].
      31. Ma Q, Vaida F, Wong J, Sanders CA, Kao YT, Croteau D, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Heaton R, Grant I, Letendre SL. Long-term efavirenz use is associated with worse neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients. J Neurovirol. 2016 Apr; 22(2):170-8. PMID: 26407716; PMCID: PMC4783211 [Available on 04/01/17].
      32. Day TR, Smith DM, Heaton R, Franklin D, Tilghman MW, Letendre S, Jin H, Wu Z, Shi C, Yu X, Pérez-Santiago J. Subtype associations with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in China. J Neurovirol. 2016 Apr; 22(2):246-50. PMID: 26306690; PMCID: PMC4769127 [Available on 04/01/17].
      33. Hestad KA, Menon JA, Serpell R, Kalungwana L, Mwaba SO, Kabuba N, Franklin DR, Umlauf A, Letendre S, Heaton R. Do neuropsychological test norms from African Americans in the United States generalize to a Zambian population? Psychol Assess. 2016 Jan; 28(1):18-38. PMID: 26146950; PMCID: PMC4703578 [Available on 01/01/17].
      34. Hulgan T, Samuels DC, Bush W, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Heaton R, Franklin DR, Straub P, Murdock DG, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra CM, McArthur JC, McCutchan JA, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Grant I, Kallianpur AR. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Neurocognitive Impairment During HIV Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 01; 61(9):1476-84. PMID: 26129753; PMCID: PMC4599391 [Available on 11/01/16].
      35. Casaletto KB, Umlauf A, Beaumont J, Gershon R, Slotkin J, Akshoomoff N, Heaton R. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015 May; 21(5):378-91. PMID: 26030001; PMCID: PMC4490030.
      36. Ipser JC, Brown GG, Bischoff-Grethe A, Connolly CG, Ellis RJ, Heaton R, Grant I. HIV infection is associated with attenuated frontostriatal intrinsic connectivity: a preliminary study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015 Mar; 21(3):203-13. PMID: 25824201; PMCID: PMC4400233.
      37. Ghate M, Mehendale S, Meyer R, Umlauf A, Deutsch R, Kamat R, Thakar M, Risbud A, Kulkarni S, Sakamoto M, Alexander T, Franklin D, Letendre S, Heaton R, Grant I, Marcotte TD. The effects of antiretroviral treatment initiation on cognition in HIV-infected individuals with advanced disease in Pune, India. J Neurovirol. 2015 Aug; 21(4):391-8. PMID: 25750072; PMCID: PMC4512904.
      38. Sattler FR, He J, Letendre S, Wilson C, Sanders C, Heaton R, Ellis R, Franklin D, Aldrovandi G, Marra CM, Clifford D, Morgello S, Grant I, McCutchan JA. Abdominal obesity contributes to neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients with increased inflammation and immune activation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Mar 01; 68(3):281-8. PMID: 25469522; PMCID: PMC4551458.
      39. Kesby JP, Heaton R, Young JW, Umlauf A, Woods SP, Letendre SL, Markou A, Grant I, Semenova S. Methamphetamine Exposure Combined with HIV-1 Disease or gp120 Expression: Comparison of Learning and Executive Functions in Humans and Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jul; 40(8):1899-909. PMID: 25652249; PMCID: PMC4839513.
      40. Kamat R, Cattie JE, Marcotte TD, Woods SP, Franklin DR, Corkran SH, Ellis RJ, Grant I, Heaton R. Incident major depressive episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection. J Affect Disord. 2015 Apr 01; 175:475-80. PMID: 25679203; PMCID: PMC4386921.
      41. Clifford DB, Vaida F, Kao YT, Franklin DR, Letendre SL, Collier AC, Marra CM, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Grant I, Heaton R. Absence of neurocognitive effect of hepatitis C infection in HIV-coinfected people. Neurology. 2015 Jan 20; 84(3):241-50. PMID: 25503616; PMCID: PMC4335996.
      42. Hobkirk AL, Starosta AJ, De Leo JA, Marra CM, Heaton R, Earleywine M. Psychometric validation of the BDI-II among HIV-positive CHARTER study participants. Psychol Assess. 2015 Jun; 27(2):457-66. PMID: 25419643; PMCID: PMC4442079.
      43. Heaton R, Franklin DR, Deutsch R, Letendre S, Ellis RJ, Casaletto K, Marquine MJ, Woods SP, Vaida F, Atkinson JH, Marcotte TD, McCutchan JA, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, Sacktor N, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Abramson I, Gamst AC, Fennema-Notestine C, Smith DM, Grant I. Neurocognitive change in the era of HIV combination antiretroviral therapy: the longitudinal CHARTER study. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 01; 60(3):473-80. PMID: 25362201; PMCID: PMC4303775.
      44. Cattie JE, Letendre SL, Woods SP, Barakat F, Perry W, Cherner M, Umlauf A, Franklin D, Heaton R, Hassanein T, Grant I. Persistent neurocognitive decline in a clinic sample of hepatitis C virus-infected persons receiving interferon and ribavirin treatment. J Neurovirol. 2014 Dec; 20(6):561-70. PMID: 25326107; PMCID: PMC4367960.
      45. Casaletto KB, Cattie J, Franklin DR, Moore DJ, Woods SP, Grant I, Heaton R. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest "holds" in HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2014; 36(9):992-1001. PMID: 25283135; PMCID: PMC4241141.
      46. Kamat R, Brown GG, Bolden K, Fennema-Notestein C, Archibald S, Marcotte TD, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Woods SP, Grant I, Heaton R. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2014; 36(8):854-66. PMID: 25275424; PMCID: PMC4303236.
      47. Mungas D, Heaton R, Tulsky D, Zelazo PD, Slotkin J, Blitz D, Lai JS, Gershon R. Factor structure, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Health Battery (NIHTB-CHB) in adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):579-87. PMID: 24960474; PMCID: PMC4103956.
      48. Weintraub S, Dikmen SS, Heaton R, Tulsky DS, Zelazo PD, Slotkin J, Carlozzi NE, Bauer PJ, Wallner-Allen K, Fox N, Havlik R, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Manly JJ, Moy C, Conway K, Edwards E, Nowinski CJ, Gershon R. The cognition battery of the NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function: validation in an adult sample. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):567-78. PMID: 24959840; PMCID: PMC4103959.
      49. Dikmen SS, Bauer PJ, Weintraub S, Mungas D, Slotkin J, Beaumont JL, Gershon R, Temkin NR, Heaton R. Measuring episodic memory across the lifespan: NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):611-9. PMID: 24960230; PMCID: PMC4254833.
      50. Heaton R, Akshoomoff N, Tulsky D, Mungas D, Weintraub S, Dikmen S, Beaumont J, Casaletto KB, Conway K, Slotkin J, Gershon R. Reliability and validity of composite scores from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery in adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Jul; 20(6):588-98. PMID: 24960398; PMCID: PMC4103963.
      51. Grant I, Franklin DR, Deutsch R, Woods SP, Vaida F, Ellis RJ, Letendre SL, Marcotte TD, Atkinson JH, Collier AC, Marra CM, Clifford DB, Gelman BB, McArthur JC, Morgello S, Simpson DM, McCutchan JA, Abramson I, Gamst A, Fennema-Notestine C, Smith DM, Heaton R. Asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment increases risk for symptomatic decline. Neurology. 2014 Jun 10; 82(23):2055-62. PMID: 24814848; PMCID: PMC4118496.
      52. Cysique LA, Heaton R, Kamminga J, Lane T, Gates TM, Moore DM, Hubner E, Carr A, Brew BJ. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in Australia: a case of a high-functioning and optimally treated cohort and implications for international neuroHIV research. J Neurovirol. 2014 Jun; 20(3):258-68. PMID: 24696363; PMCID: PMC4268870.
      53. Suarez PA, Gollan TH, Heaton R, Grant I, Cherner M. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2014 Mar; 20(3):342-8. PMID: 24622502; PMCID: PMC4296729.
      54. Fazeli PL, Woods SP, Heaton R, Umlauf A, Gouaux B, Rosario D, Moore RC, Grant I, Moore DJ. An active lifestyle is associated with better neurocognitive functioning in adults living with HIV infection. J Neurovirol. 2014 Jun; 20(3):233-42. PMID: 24554483; PMCID: PMC4040153.
      55. Gupta S, Iudicello JE, Shi C, Letendre S, Knight A, Li J, Riggs PK, Franklin DR, Duarte N, Jin H, Hampton Atkinson J, Yu X, Wu Z, Grant I, Heaton R. Absence of neurocognitive impairment in a large Chinese sample of HCV-infected injection drug users receiving methadone treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Apr 01; 137:29-35. PMID: 24508003; PMCID: PMC3961522.
      56. Ellis RJ, Letendre S, Vaida F, Haubrich R, Heaton R, Sacktor N, Clifford DB, Best BM, May S, Umlauf A, Cherner M, Sanders C, Ballard C, Simpson DM, Jay C, McCutchan JA. Randomized trial of central nervous system-targeted antiretrovirals for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; 58(7):1015-22. PMID: 24352352; PMCID: PMC3952601.
      57. de Almeida SM, Ribeiro CE, de Pereira AP, Badiee J, Cherner M, Smith D, Maich I, Raboni SM, Rotta I, Barbosa FJ, Heaton R, Umlauf A, Ellis RJ. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 clade C- versus B-infected individuals in Southern Brazil. J Neurovirol. 2013 Dec; 19(6):550-6. PMID: 24277437; PMCID: PMC3923762.
      58. Marquine MJ, Iudicello JE, Morgan EE, Brown GG, Letendre SL, Ellis RJ, Deutsch R, Woods SP, Grant I, Heaton R. "Frontal systems" behaviors in comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection and methamphetamine dependency. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Jan 30; 215(1):208-16. PMID: 24290100; PMCID: PMC3967865.
      59. Morris SR, Woods SP, Deutsch R, Little SJ, Wagner G, Morgan EE, Heaton R, Letendre SL, Grant I, Smith DM. Dual-mixed HIV-1 coreceptor tropism and HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits. J Neurovirol. 2013 Oct; 19(5):488-94. PMID: 24078557; PMCID: PMC3921071.
      60. Akshoomoff N, Beaumont JL, Bauer PJ, Dikmen SS, Gershon RC, Mungas D, Slotkin J, Tulsky D, Weintraub S, Zelazo PD, Heaton R. VIII. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): composite scores of crystallized, fluid, and overall cognition. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2013 Aug; 78(4):119-32. PMID: 23952206; PMCID: PMC4103789.
      61. Fennema-Notestine C, Ellis RJ, Archibald SL, Jernigan TL, Letendre SL, Notestine RJ, Taylor MJ, Theilmann RJ, Julaton MD, Croteau DJ, Wolfson T, Heaton R, Gamst AC, Franklin DR, Clifford DB, Collier AC, Gelman BB, Marra C, McArthur JC, McCutchan JA, Morgello S, Simpson DM, Grant I. Increases in brain white matter abnormalities and subcortical gray matter are linked to CD4 recovery in HIV infection. J Neurovirol. 2013 Aug; 19(4):393-401. PMID: 23838849; PMCID: PMC3776609.
      62. Gongvatana A, Harezlak J, Buchthal S, Daar E, Schifitto G, Campbell T, Taylor M, Singer E, Algers J, Zhong J, Brown M, McMahon D, So YT, Mi D, Heaton R, Robertson K, Yiannoutsos C, Cohen RA, Navia B. Progressive cerebral injury in the setting of chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol. 2013 Jun; 19(3):209-18. PMID: 23613008; PMCID: PMC3740160.
      63. Harvey PD, Stone L, Lowenstein D, Czaja SJ, Heaton R, Twamley EW, Patterson TL. The convergence between self-reports and observer ratings of financial skills and direct assessment of financial capabilities in patients with schizophrenia: more detail is not always better. Schizophr Res. 2013 Jun; 147(1):86-90. PMID: 23537475; PMCID: PMC3650121.
      64. Burton CZ, Vella L, Harvey PD, Patterson TL, Heaton R, Twamley EW. Factor structure of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2013 May; 146(1-3):244-8. PMID: 23507359; PMCID: PMC3740948.
      65. Weintraub S, Dikmen SS, Heaton R, Tulsky DS, Zelazo PD, Bauer PJ, Carlozzi NE, Slotkin J, Blitz D, Wallner-Allen K, Fox NA, Beaumont JL, Mungas D, Nowinski CJ, Richler J, Deocampo JA, Anderson JE, Manly JJ, Borosh B, Havlik R, Conway K, Edwards E, Freund L, King JW, Moy C, Witt E, Gershon RC. Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology. 2013 Mar 12; 80(11 Suppl 3):S54-64. PMID: 23479546; PMCID: PMC3662346.
      66. Jin H, Atkinson JH, Duarte NA, Yu X, Shi C, Riggs PK, Li J, Gupta S, Wolfson T, Knight AF, Franklin D, Letendre S, Wu Z, Grant I, Heaton R. Risks and predictors of current suicidality in HIV-infected heroin users in treatment in Yunnan, China: a controlled study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 01; 62(3):311-6. PMID: 23196829; PMCID: PMC3975910.
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