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    Paul Insel

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0636
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-2295
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      M.D.University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Interests
      Signal Transduction, Adenylyl Cyclases, G Proteins, Nucleotides, Catecholamines

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites
      Collapse NIH Awarded Grants

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Busija AR, Patel HH, Insel PA. Hugh Davson Distinguished Lectureship Article Caveolins and cavins in the trafficking, maturation, and degradation of caveolae: implications for cell physiology. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017 Jan 25; ajpcell.00355.2016. PMID: 28122734.
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      2. Insel PA, Amara SG, Blaschke TF, Meyer UA. Introduction to the Theme "New Methods and Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Pharmacology and Toxicology". Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Oct 12. PMID: 27732830.
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      3. Sunahara RK, Insel PA. The Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein Signaling Then and Now: A Tribute to Alfred G. Gilman. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 May; 89(5):585-92. PMID: 26984025.
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      4. Klepac K, Kilic A, Gnad T, Brown LM, Herrmann B, Wilderman A, Balkow A, Glöde A, Simon K, Lidell ME, Betz MJ, Enerbäck S, Wess J, Freichel M, Blüher M, König G, Kostenis E, Insel PA, Pfeifer A. The Gq signalling pathway inhibits brown and beige adipose tissue. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10895. PMID: 26955961.
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      5. Jung G, Fajardo G, Ribeiro AJ, Kooiker KB, Coronado M, Zhao M, Hu DQ, Reddy S, Kodo K, Sriram K, Insel PA, Wu JC, Pruitt BL, Bernstein D. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation. FASEB J. 2016 Apr; 30(4):1464-79. PMID: 26675706.
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      6. Insel PA, Amara SG, Blaschke TF, Meyer UA. Introduction to the Theme "Cancer Pharmacology". Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Jan 6; 56:19-22. PMID: 26551200.
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      7. Keshwani MM, Kanter JR, Ma Y, Wilderman A, Darshi M, Insel PA, Taylor SS. Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis using S49 lymphoma cells as a model system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Oct 13; 112(41):12681-6. PMID: 26417071.
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      8. Wilderman A, Guo Y, Divakaruni AS, Perkins G, Zhang L, Murphy AN, Taylor SS, Insel PA. Proteomic and Metabolic Analyses of S49 Lymphoma Cells Reveal Novel Regulation of Mitochondria by cAMP and Protein Kinase A. J Biol Chem. 2015 Sep 4; 290(36):22274-86. PMID: 26203188.
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      9. Curtis MJ, Bond RA, Spina D, Ahluwalia A, Alexander SP, Giembycz MA, Gilchrist A, Hoyer D, Insel PA, Izzo AA, Lawrence AJ, MacEwan DJ, Moon LD, Wonnacott S, Weston AH, McGrath JC. Experimental design and analysis and their reporting: new guidance for publication in BJP. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul; 172(14):3461-71. PMID: 26114403.
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      10. Brown JH, Catterall WA, Conn PJ, Cull-Candy SG, Dingledine R, Harden TK, Insel PA, Milligan G, Traynelis SF. The First 50 Years of Molecular Pharmacology. Mol Pharmacol. 2015 Jul; 88(1):139-40. PMID: 25943115.
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      11. Walker CS, Eftekhari S, Bower RL, Wilderman A, Insel PA, Edvinsson L, Waldvogel HJ, Jamaluddin MA, Russo AF, Hay DL. A second trigeminal CGRP receptor: function and expression of the AMY1 receptor. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Jun; 2(6):595-608. PMID: 26125036.
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      12. Overland AC, Insel PA. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Directly Regulate MMP14/Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloprotease: A NOVEL MECHANISM FOR GPCR-EGFR TRANSACTIVATION. J Biol Chem. 2015 Apr 17; 290(16):9941-7. PMID: 25759388.
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      13. Insel PA, Wilderman A, Zambon AC, Snead AN, Murray F, Aroonsakool N, McDonald DS, Zhou S, McCann T, Zhang L, Sriram K, Chinn AM, Michkov AV, Lynch RM, Overland AC, Corriden R. G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Expression in Native Cells: "Novel" endoGPCRs as Physiologic Regulators and Therapeutic Targets. Mol Pharmacol. 2015 Jul; 88(1):181-7. PMID: 25737495.
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      14. Lee J, Kim TH, Murray F, Li X, Choi SS, Broide DH, Corr M, Lee J, Webster NJ, Insel PA, Raz E. Cyclic AMP concentrations in dendritic cells induce and regulate Th2 immunity and allergic asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 3; 112(5):1529-34. PMID: 25605931.
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      15. Insel PA, Amara SG, Blaschke TF. Introduction to the theme "precision medicine and prediction in pharmacology". Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Jan 6; 55:11-4. PMID: 25562643.
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      16. Brown LM, Rogers KE, Aroonsakool N, McCammon JA, Insel PA. Allosteric Inhibition of Epac: COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION TO IDENTIFY ALLOSTERIC SITES AND INHIBITORS. J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 17; 289(42):29148-57. PMID: 25183009.
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      17. Fridolfsson HN, Roth DM, Insel PA, Patel HH. Regulation of intracellular signaling and function by caveolin. FASEB J. 2014 Sep; 28(9):3823-31. PMID: 24858278.
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      18. Brown LM, Rogers KE, McCammon JA, Insel PA. Identification and Validation of Modulators of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac) Activity: STRUCTURE-FUNCTION IMPLICATIONS FOR Epac ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 21; 289(12):8217-30. PMID: 24497631.
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      19. Lu D, Insel PA. Cellular Mechanisms of Tissue Fibrosis. 6. Purinergic signaling and response in fibroblasts and tissue fibrosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 May; 306(9):C779-88. PMID: 24352335.
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      20. Lu D, Aroonsakool N, Yokoyama U, Patel HH, Insel PA. Increase in Cellular Cyclic AMP Concentrations Reverses the Profibrogenic Phenotype of Cardiac Myofibroblasts: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Cardiac Fibrosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Dec; 84(6):787-93. PMID: 24085841.
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      21. Head BP, Patel HH, Insel PA. Interaction of membrane/lipid rafts with the cytoskeleton: Impact on signaling and function: Membrane/lipid rafts, mediators of cytoskeletal arrangement and cell signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Feb; 1838(2):532-45. PMID: 23899502.
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      22. Goldberg C, Insel PA. Preparing MD-PhD students for clinical rotations: navigating the interface between PhD and MD training. Acad Med. 2013 Jun; 88(6):745-7. PMID: 23708597.
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      23. Lu D, Insel PA. Hydrolysis of extracellular ATP by ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ENTPD) establishes the set point for fibrotic activity of cardiac fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 28; 288(26):19040-9. PMID: 23677997.
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      24. Murray F, Insel PA. Targeting cAMP in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a pathway-dependent approach for the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013 Aug; 17(8):937-49. PMID: 23647244.
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      25. Guo Y, Wilderman A, Zhang L, Taylor SS, Insel PA. Quantitative proteomics analysis of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Biochemistry. 2012 Nov 20; 51(46):9323-32. PMID: 23110364.
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      26. Burnstock G, Insel PA, Di Virgilio F. Special issue on cell and molecular biology of purinergic signalling: an introduction. Purinergic Signal. 2012 Sep; 8(3):341. PMID: 22476941.
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      27. Snead AN, Insel PA. Defining the cellular repertoire of GPCRs identifies a profibrotic role for the most highly expressed receptor, protease-activated receptor 1, in cardiac fibroblasts. FASEB J. 2012 Nov; 26(11):4540-7. PMID: 22859370.
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      28. Fridolfsson HN, Kawaraguchi Y, Ali SS, Panneerselvam M, Niesman IR, Finley JC, Kellerhals SE, Migita MY, Okada H, Moreno AL, Jennings M, Kidd MW, Bonds JA, Balijepalli RC, Ross RS, Patel PM, Miyanohara A, Chen Q, Lesnefsky EJ, Head BP, Roth DM, Insel PA, Patel HH. Mitochondria-localized caveolin in adaptation to cellular stress and injury. FASEB J. 2012 Nov; 26(11):4637-49. PMID: 22859372.
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      29. Michel MC, Insel PA. Can you blame cold feet on Epac (and Rap1A)? Focus on "cyclic AMP-Rap1A signaling activates RhoA to induce a(2C)-adrenoceptor translocation to the cell surface of microvascular smooth muscle cells". Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012 Sep 1; 303(5):C488-9. PMID: 22814395.
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      30. Insel PA, Murray F, Yokoyama U, Romano S, Yun H, Brown L, Snead A, Lu D, Aroonsakool N. cAMP and Epac in the regulation of tissue fibrosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 May; 166(2):447-56. PMID: 22233238.
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      31. Corriden R, Insel PA. New insights regarding the regulation of chemotaxis by nucleotides, adenosine, and their receptors. Purinergic Signal. 2012 Sep; 8(3):587-98. PMID: 22528684.
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      32. Keshwani MM, Klammt C, von Daake S, Ma Y, Kornev AP, Choe S, Insel PA, Taylor SS. Cotranslational cis-phosphorylation of the COOH-terminal tail is a key priming step in the maturation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 15; 109(20):E1221-9. PMID: 22493239.
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      33. Lu D, Soleymani S, Madakshire R, Insel PA. ATP released from cardiac fibroblasts via connexin hemichannels activates profibrotic P2Y2 receptors. FASEB J. 2012 Jun; 26(6):2580-91. PMID: 22415310.
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      34. Insel PA, Snead A, Murray F, Zhang L, Yokouchi H, Katakia T, Kwon O, Dimucci D, Wilderman A. GPCR expression in tissues and cells: are the optimal receptors being used as drug targets? Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar; 165(6):1613-6. PMID: 21488863.
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      35. Li X, Murray F, Koide N, Goldstone J, Dann SM, Chen J, Bertin S, Fu G, Weinstein LS, Chen M, Corr M, Eckmann L, Insel PA, Raz E. Divergent requirement for Gas and cAMP in the differentiation and inflammatory profile of distinct mouse Th subsets. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar 1; 122(3):963-73. PMID: 22326954.
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      36. Rana BK, Bourne PE, Insel PA. Receptor databases and computational websites for ligand binding. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 897:1-13. PMID: 22674158.
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      37. Insel PA. ß(2)-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and signaling: Do variants influence the "memory" of receptor activation? Sci Signal. 2011 Aug 9; 4(185):pe37. PMID: 21868355.
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      38. Zambon AC, Wilderman A, Ho A, Insel PA. Increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM, a mechanism for cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-induced apoptosis of immature T cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 23; 286(38):33260-7. PMID: 21808067.
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      39. Peiró AM, Tang CM, Murray F, Zhang L, Brown LM, Chou D, Rassenti L, Kipps TJ, Kipps TA, Insel PA. Genetic variation in phosphodiesterase (PDE) 7B in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: overview of genetic variants of cyclic nucleotide PDEs in human disease. J Hum Genet. 2011 Sep; 56(9):676-81. PMID: 21796143.
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      40. Head BP, Hu Y, Finley JC, Saldana MD, Bonds JA, Miyanohara A, Niesman IR, Ali SS, Murray F, Insel PA, Roth DM, Patel HH, Patel PM. Neuron-targeted caveolin-1 protein enhances signaling and promotes arborization of primary neurons. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 23; 286(38):33310-21. PMID: 21799010.
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      41. Horikawa YT, Panneerselvam M, Kawaraguchi Y, Tsutsumi YM, Ali SS, Balijepalli RC, Murray F, Head BP, Niesman IR, Rieg T, Vallon V, Insel PA, Patel HH, Roth DM. Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and increases natriuretic peptide expression and signaling. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 May 31; 57(22):2273-83. PMID: 21616289.
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      42. Insel PA, Zhang L, Murray F, Yokouchi H, Zambon AC. Cyclic AMP is both a pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic second messenger. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012 Feb; 204(2):277-87. PMID: 21385327.
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      43. Rieg T, Gerasimova M, Boyer JL, Insel PA, Vallon V. P2Y2 receptor activation decreases blood pressure and increases renal Na? excretion. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Aug; 301(2):R510-8. PMID: 21613580.
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      44. Zhang L, Yun H, Murray F, Lu R, Wang L, Hook V, Insel PA. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha induces apoptosis of murine T-lymphoma cells and cardiac fibroblasts and is regulated by cAMP/PKA. Cell Signal. 2011 Oct; 23(10):1611-6. PMID: 21620962.
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      45. Fuhs SR, Insel PA. Caveolin-3 undergoes SUMOylation by the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy: sumoylation affects G-protein-coupled receptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 29; 286(17):14830-41. PMID: 21362625.
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      46. Vacic V, McCarthy S, Malhotra D, Murray F, Chou HH, Peoples A, Makarov V, Yoon S, Bhandari A, Corominas R, Iakoucheva LM, Krastoshevsky O, Krause V, Larach-Walters V, Welsh DK, Craig D, Kelsoe JR, Gershon ES, Leal SM, Dell Aquila M, Morris DW, Gill M, Corvin A, Insel PA, McClellan J, King MC, Karayiorgou M, Levy DL, DeLisi LE, Sebat J. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia. Nature. 2011 Mar 24; 471(7339):499-503. PMID: 21346763.
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      47. Zhang L, Murray F, Rassenti LZ, Pu M, Kelly C, Kanter JR, Greaves A, Messer K, Kipps TJ, Insel PA. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 7B mRNA: an unfavorable characteristic in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Cancer. 2011 Sep 1; 129(5):1162-9. PMID: 21120911.
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      48. Rieg T, Tang T, Murray F, Schroth J, Insel PA, Fenton RA, Hammond HK, Vallon V. Adenylate cyclase 6 determines cAMP formation and aquaporin-2 phosphorylation and trafficking in inner medulla. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Dec; 21(12):2059-68. PMID: 20864687.
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      49. Stockand JD, Mironova E, Bugaj V, Rieg T, Insel PA, Vallon V, Peti-Peterdi J, Pochynyuk O. Purinergic inhibition of ENaC produces aldosterone escape. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Nov; 21(11):1903-11. PMID: 20813869.
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      50. Patel HH, Hamuro LL, Chun BJ, Kawaraguchi Y, Quick A, Rebolledo B, Pennypacker J, Thurston J, Rodriguez-Pinto N, Self C, Olson G, Insel PA, Giles WR, Taylor SS, Roth DM. Disruption of protein kinase A localization using a trans-activator of transcription (TAT)-conjugated A-kinase-anchoring peptide reduces cardiac function. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3; 285(36):27632-40. PMID: 20581396.
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      51. Braun OO, Lu D, Aroonsakool N, Insel PA. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) induces profibrotic responses in cardiac fibroblasts by activation of P2Y2 receptors. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Sep; 49(3):362-9. PMID: 20471392.
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      52. Choi LJ, Jenikova G, Hanson E, Spehlmann ME, Boehling NS, Kirstein SL, Bundey RA, Smith JR, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Coordinate down-regulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms and the stimulatory G protein (G(s)) in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 23; 285(17):12504-11. PMID: 20157112.
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      53. Pochynyuk O, Rieg T, Bugaj V, Schroth J, Fridman A, Boss GR, Insel PA, Stockand JD, Vallon V. Dietary Na+ inhibits the open probability of the epithelial sodium channel in the kidney by enhancing apical P2Y2-receptor tone. FASEB J. 2010 Jun; 24(6):2056-65. PMID: 20097874.
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      54. Corriden R, Insel PA. Basal release of ATP: an autocrine-paracrine mechanism for cell regulation. Sci Signal. 2010; 3(104):re1. PMID: 20068232.
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      55. Fung MM, Rana BK, Tang CM, Shiina T, Nievergelt CM, Rao F, Salem RM, Waalen J, Ziegler MG, Insel PA, O'Connor DT. Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) genetic polymorphism: pleiotropic effects on heritable renal traits. Kidney Int. 2009 Nov; 76(10):1070-80. PMID: 19675531.
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      56. Patel HH, Insel PA. Lipid rafts and caveolae and their role in compartmentation of redox signaling. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Jun; 11(6):1357-72. PMID: 19061440.
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      57. Yip L, Woehrle T, Corriden R, Hirsh M, Chen Y, Inoue Y, Ferrari V, Insel PA, Junger WG. Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors. FASEB J. 2009 Jun; 23(6):1685-93. PMID: 19211924.
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      58. Insel PA, Patel HH. Membrane rafts and caveolae in cardiovascular signaling. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009 Jan; 18(1):50-6. PMID: 19077689.
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      59. Dong X, Smoll EJ, Ko KH, Lee J, Chow JY, Kim HD, Insel PA, Dong H. P2Y receptors mediate Ca2+ signaling in duodenocytes and contribute to duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Feb; 296(2):G424-32. PMID: 19074643.
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      60. Zhang L, Murray F, Zahno A, Kanter JR, Chou D, Suda R, Fenlon M, Rassenti L, Cottam H, Kipps TJ, Insel PA. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase profiling reveals increased expression of phosphodiesterase 7B in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 9; 105(49):19532-7. PMID: 19033455.
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      61. Pochynyuk O, Bugaj V, Rieg T, Insel PA, Mironova E, Vallon V, Stockand JD. Paracrine regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel in the mammalian collecting duct by purinergic P2Y2 receptor tone. J Biol Chem. 2008 Dec 26; 283(52):36599-607. PMID: 18981175.
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      62. Tsutsumi YM, Horikawa YT, Jennings MM, Kidd MW, Niesman IR, Yokoyama U, Head BP, Hagiwara Y, Ishikawa Y, Miyanohara A, Patel PM, Insel PA, Patel HH, Roth DM. Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 induces endogenous cardiac protection by mimicking ischemic preconditioning. Circulation. 2008 Nov 4; 118(19):1979-88. PMID: 18936328.
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      63. Corriden R, Chen Y, Inoue Y, Beldi G, Robson SC, Insel PA, Junger WG. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (E-NTPDase1/CD39) regulates neutrophil chemotaxis by hydrolyzing released ATP to adenosine. J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 17; 283(42):28480-6. PMID: 18713747.
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      64. Schach C, Firth AL, Xu M, Remillard CV, Patel HH, Insel PA, Yuan JX. Regulation of pulmonary vasoconstriction by agonists and caveolae. Exp Lung Res. 2008 May; 34(4):195-208. PMID: 18432456.
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      65. Yokoyama U, Patel HH, Lai NC, Aroonsakool N, Roth DM, Insel PA. The cyclic AMP effector Epac integrates pro- and anti-fibrotic signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 29; 105(17):6386-91. PMID: 18434542.
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      66. Rieg T, Pothula K, Schroth J, Satriano J, Osswald H, Schnermann J, Insel PA, Bundey RA, Vallon V. Vasopressin regulation of inner medullary collecting ducts and compensatory changes in mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008 Mar; 294(3):F638-44. PMID: 18199602.
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      67. Patel HH, Murray F, Insel PA. Caveolae as organizers of pharmacologically relevant signal transduction molecules. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008; 48:359-91. PMID: 17914930.
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      68. Zhang L, Zambon AC, Vranizan K, Pothula K, Conklin BR, Insel PA. Gene expression signatures of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-promoted, mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Comparative analysis of wild-type and cAMP-deathless S49 lymphoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 15; 283(7):4304-13. PMID: 18048352.
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      69. Horikawa YT, Patel HH, Tsutsumi YM, Jennings MM, Kidd MW, Hagiwara Y, Ishikawa Y, Insel PA, Roth DM. Caveolin-3 expression and caveolae are required for isoflurane-induced cardiac protection from hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008 Jan; 44(1):123-30. PMID: 18054955.
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      70. Head BP, Patel HH, Tsutsumi YM, Hu Y, Mejia T, Mora RC, Insel PA, Roth DM, Drummond JC, Patel PM. Caveolin-1 expression is essential for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Src and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and protection of primary neurons from ischemic cell death. FASEB J. 2008 Mar; 22(3):828-40. PMID: 17905724.
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      71. Swaney JS, Patel HH, Yokoyama U, Lai NC, Spellman M, Insel PA, Roth DM. Adenylyl cyclase activity and function are decreased in rat cardiac fibroblasts after myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Nov; 293(5):H3216-20. PMID: 17873016.
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      72. Insel PA. British Pharmacology Society 2nd Focused meeting on Cell Signalling: GPCRs have sunny days in springtime Leicester. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 Sep; 11(9):1251-3. PMID: 17845149.
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      73. Corriden R, Insel PA, Junger WG. A novel method using fluorescence microscopy for real-time assessment of ATP release from individual cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Oct; 293(4):C1420-5. PMID: 17699635.
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      74. Rieg T, Bundey RA, Chen Y, Deschenes G, Junger W, Insel PA, Vallon V. Mice lacking P2Y2 receptors have salt-resistant hypertension and facilitated renal Na+ and water reabsorption. FASEB J. 2007 Nov; 21(13):3717-26. PMID: 17575258.
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      75. Steagall WK, Barrow BJ, Glasgow CG, Mendoza JW, Ehrmantraut M, Lin JP, Insel PA, Moss J. Beta-2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jun; 17(6):425-30. PMID: 17502834.
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      76. Patel HH, Zhang S, Murray F, Suda RY, Head BP, Yokoyama U, Swaney JS, Niesman IR, Schermuly RT, Pullamsetti SS, Thistlethwaite PA, Miyanohara A, Farquhar MG, Yuan JX, Insel PA. Increased smooth muscle cell expression of caveolin-1 and caveolae contribute to the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. FASEB J. 2007 Sep; 21(11):2970-9. PMID: 17470567.
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      77. Yip L, Cheung CW, Corriden R, Chen Y, Insel PA, Junger WG. Hypertonic stress regulates T-cell function by the opposing actions of extracellular adenosine triphosphate and adenosine. Shock. 2007 Mar; 27(3):242-50. PMID: 17304104.
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      78. Patel HH, Tsutsumi YM, Head BP, Niesman IR, Jennings M, Horikawa Y, Huang D, Moreno AL, Patel PM, Insel PA, Roth DM. Mechanisms of cardiac protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury: a role for caveolae and caveolin-1. FASEB J. 2007 May; 21(7):1565-74. PMID: 17272740.
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      79. Arthur DB, Taupenot L, Insel PA. Nerve growth factor-stimulated neuronal differentiation induces changes in P2 receptor expression and nucleotide-stimulated catecholamine release. J Neurochem. 2007 Mar; 100(5):1257-64. PMID: 17241236.
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      80. Zhang S, Patel HH, Murray F, Remillard CV, Schach C, Thistlethwaite PA, Insel PA, Yuan JX. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from normal subjects and IPAH patients show divergent cAMP-mediated effects on TRPC expression and capacitative Ca2+ entry. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 May; 292(5):L1202-10. PMID: 17189322.
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      81. Insel PA, Patel HH. Do studies in caveolin-knockouts teach us about physiology and pharmacology or instead, the ways mice compensate for 'lost proteins'? Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Feb; 150(3):251-4. PMID: 17179949.
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      82. Chen Y, Corriden R, Inoue Y, Yip L, Hashiguchi N, Zinkernagel A, Nizet V, Insel PA, Junger WG. ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2 and A3 receptors. Science. 2006 Dec 15; 314(5806):1792-5. PMID: 17170310.
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      83. Rana BK, Insel PA, Payne SH, Abel K, Beutler E, Ziegler MG, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT. Population-based sample reveals gene-gender interactions in blood pressure in White Americans. Hypertension. 2007 Jan; 49(1):96-106. PMID: 17159089.
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      84. Head BP, Insel PA. Do caveolins regulate cells by actions outside of caveolae? Trends Cell Biol. 2007 Feb; 17(2):51-7. PMID: 17150359.
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      85. Insel PA, Tang CM, Hahntow I, Michel MC. Impact of GPCRs in clinical medicine: monogenic diseases, genetic variants and drug targets. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr; 1768(4):994-1005. PMID: 17081496.
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      86. Murray F, Patel HH, Suda RY, Zhang S, Thistlethwaite PA, Yuan JX, Insel PA. Expression and activity of cAMP phosphodiesterase isoforms in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from patients with pulmonary hypertension: role for PDE1. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):L294-303. PMID: 16980375.
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      87. Akimova OA, Grygorczyk A, Bundey RA, Bourcier N, Gekle M, Insel PA, Orlov SN. Transient activation and delayed inhibition of Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport in ATP-treated C11-MDCK cells involve distinct P2Y receptor subtypes and signaling mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 20; 281(42):31317-25. PMID: 16916802.
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      88. Bundey RA, Insel PA. Adenylyl cyclase 6 overexpression decreases the permeability of endothelial monolayers via preferential enhancement of prostacyclin receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov; 70(5):1700-7. PMID: 16885208.
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      89. Hoekstra HE, Hirschmann RJ, Bundey RA, Insel PA, Crossland JP. A single amino acid mutation contributes to adaptive beach mouse color pattern. Science. 2006 Jul 7; 313(5783):101-4. PMID: 16825572.
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      90. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 and TrkA receptors interact with Src family kinase for neuronal differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 1; 347(3):678-82. PMID: 16842754.
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      91. Head BP, Patel HH, Roth DM, Murray F, Swaney JS, Niesman IR, Farquhar MG, Insel PA. Microtubules and actin microfilaments regulate lipid raft/caveolae localization of adenylyl cyclase signaling components. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 8; 281(36):26391-9. PMID: 16818493.
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      92. Swaney JS, Patel HH, Yokoyama U, Head BP, Roth DM, Insel PA. Focal adhesions in (myo)fibroblasts scaffold adenylyl cyclase with phosphorylated caveolin. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 23; 281(25):17173-9. PMID: 16618703.
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      93. Arthur DB, Georgi S, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. Inhibition of apoptosis by P2Y2 receptor activation: novel pathways for neuronal survival. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 5; 26(14):3798-804. PMID: 16597733.
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      94. Büscher R, Hoerning A, Patel HH, Zhang S, Arthur DB, Grasemann H, Ratjen F, Insel PA. P2Y2 receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes in cystic fibrosis and their impact on Ca2+ influx. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Mar; 16(3):199-205. PMID: 16495779.
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      95. Patel HH, Head BP, Petersen HN, Niesman IR, Huang D, Gross GJ, Insel PA, Roth DM. Protection of adult rat cardiac myocytes from ischemic cell death: role of caveolar microdomains and delta-opioid receptors. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Jul; 291(1):H344-50. PMID: 16501018.
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      96. Riddle EL, Rana BK, Murthy KK, Rao F, Eskin E, O'Connor DT, Insel PA. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the regulator of G protein signaling-2 gene in normotensives and hypertensives. Hypertension. 2006 Mar; 47(3):415-20. PMID: 16432041.
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      97. Ostrom RS, Insel PA. Methods for the study of signaling molecules in membrane lipid rafts and caveolae. Methods Mol Biol. 2006; 332:181-91. PMID: 16878693.
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      98. Murray F, Insel PA, Yuan JX. Role of O(2)-sensitive K(+) and Ca(2+) channels in the regulation of the pulmonary circulation: potential role of caveolae and implications for high altitude pulmonary edema. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2006 Apr 28; 151(2-3):192-208. PMID: 16364695.
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      99. Arthur DB, Akassoglou K, Insel PA. P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19138-43. PMID: 16365320.
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      100. Tang CM, Insel PA. Genetic variation in G-protein-coupled receptors--consequences for G-protein-coupled receptors as drug targets. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2005 Dec; 9(6):1247-65. PMID: 16300474.
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      101. Insel PA, Head BP, Patel HH, Roth DM, Bundey RA, Swaney JS. Compartmentation of G-protein-coupled receptors and their signalling components in lipid rafts and caveolae. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Nov; 33(Pt 5):1131-4. PMID: 16246064.
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      102. Akimova AO, Bourcier N, Taurin S, Bundey RA, Grygorczyk K, Gekle M, Insel PA, Dulin NO, Orlov SN. Cl- secretion in ATP-treated renal epithelial C7-MDCK cells is mediated by activation of P 2Y1 receptors, phospholipase A2 and protein kinase A. J Physiol. 2005 Nov 1; 568(Pt 3):789-801. PMID: 16109726.
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      103. Head BP, Patel HH, Roth DM, Lai NC, Niesman IR, Farquhar MG, Insel PA. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling components localize in both sarcolemmal and intracellular caveolin-3-associated microdomains in adult cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 2; 280(35):31036-44. PMID: 15961389.
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      104. Zambon AC, Zhang L, Minovitsky S, Kanter JR, Prabhakar S, Salomonis N, Vranizan K, Dubchak I, Conklin BR, Insel PA. Gene expression patterns define key transcriptional events in cell-cycle regulation by cAMP and protein kinase A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14; 102(24):8561-6. PMID: 15939874.
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      105. Insel PA, Head BP, Ostrom RS, Patel HH, Swaney JS, Tang CM, Roth DM. Caveolae and lipid rafts: G protein-coupled receptor signaling microdomains in cardiac myocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun; 1047:166-72. PMID: 16093494.
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      106. Etzel JP, Rana BK, Wen G, Parmer RJ, Schork NJ, O'Connor DT, Insel PA. Genetic variation at the human alpha2B-adrenergic receptor locus: role in blood pressure variation and yohimbine response. Hypertension. 2005 Jun; 45(6):1207-13. PMID: 15920038.
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      107. King D, Etzel JP, Chopra S, Smith J, Cadman PE, Rao F, Funk SD, Rana BK, Schork NJ, Insel PA, O'Connor DT. Human response to alpha2-adrenergic agonist stimulation studied in an isolated vascular bed in vivo: Biphasic influence of dose, age, gender, and receptor genotype. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May; 77(5):388-403. PMID: 15900285.
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      108. Tang CM, Hoerning A, Büscher R, O'Connor DT, Ratjen F, Grasemann H, Insel PA. Human adenosine 2B receptor: SNP discovery and evaluation of expression in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 May; 15(5):321-7. PMID: 15864133.
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      109. Riddle EL, Schwartzman RA, Bond M, Insel PA. Multi-tasking RGS proteins in the heart: the next therapeutic target? Circ Res. 2005 Mar 4; 96(4):401-11. PMID: 15746448.
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      110. Rana BK, Insel PA. Receptor databases and computational websites for ligand binding. Methods Mol Biol. 2005; 306:1-15. PMID: 15867461.
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      111. Swaney JS, Roth DM, Olson ER, Naugle JE, Meszaros JG, Insel PA. Inhibition of cardiac myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis by activation and overexpression of adenylyl cyclase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 11; 102(2):437-42. PMID: 15625103.
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      112. Siecke NW, Insel PA. Clarifying the effects of adrenergic receptor polymorphisms by measuring synaptic parameters. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Nov 16; 44(10):2016-8. PMID: 15542285.
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      113. Ostrom RS, Insel PA. The evolving role of lipid rafts and caveolae in G protein-coupled receptor signaling: implications for molecular pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep; 143(2):235-45. PMID: 15289291.
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      114. Bundey RA, Insel PA. Discrete intracellular signaling domains of soluble adenylyl cyclase: camps of cAMP? Sci STKE. 2004 May 4; 2004(231):pe19. PMID: 15126677.
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      115. Chen Y, Shukla A, Namiki S, Insel PA, Junger WG. A putative osmoreceptor system that controls neutrophil function through the release of ATP, its conversion to adenosine, and activation of A2 adenosine and P2 receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Jul; 76(1):245-53. PMID: 15107462.
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      116. Nishihara H, Hwang M, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Eckmann L, Insel PA. Cyclic AMP promotes cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-dependent induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and suppresses apoptosis of colon cancer cells through ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18; 279(25):26176-83. PMID: 15078890.
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      117. Tang CM, Insel PA. GPCR expression in the heart; "new" receptors in myocytes and fibroblasts. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2004 Apr; 14(3):94-9. PMID: 15121156.
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      118. Ostrom RS, Bundey RA, Insel PA. Nitric oxide inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 6 activity is dependent upon lipid rafts and caveolin signaling complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 7; 279(19):19846-53. PMID: 15007069.
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      119. Zhang L, Insel PA. The pro-apoptotic protein Bim is a convergence point for cAMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-promoted apoptosis of lymphoid cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14; 279(20):20858-65. PMID: 14996839.
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      120. Kirstein SL, Insel PA. Autonomic nervous system pharmacogenomics: a progress report. Pharmacol Rev. 2004 Mar; 56(1):31-52. PMID: 15001662.
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      121. Liu X, Ostrom RS, Insel PA. cAMP-elevating agents and adenylyl cyclase overexpression promote an antifibrotic phenotype in pulmonary fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 May; 286(5):C1089-99. PMID: 15075208.
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      122. Koopmans RP, Insel PA, Michel MC. Pharmacogenetics of hypertension treatment: a structured review. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Dec; 13(12):705-13. PMID: 14646689.
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      123. Bundey RA, Insel PA. Quantification of adenylyl cyclase messenger RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Anal Biochem. 2003 Aug 15; 319(2):318-22. PMID: 12871728.
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      124. Brindikova TA, Bourcier N, Torres B, Pchejetski D, Gekle M, Maximov GV, Montminy V, Insel PA, Orlov SN, Isenring P. Purinergic-induced signaling in C11-MDCK cells inhibits the secretory Na-K-Cl cotransporter. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):C1445-53. PMID: 12917108.
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      125. Insel PA, Kirstein SL. Naturally occurring variants in catecholamine receptor genes. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2003 Aug; 23(4):228-30. PMID: 15132132.
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      126. Nishihara H, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Inhibition of apoptosis in normal and transformed intestinal epithelial cells by cAMP through induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22; 100(15):8921-6. PMID: 12837940.
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      127. Insel PA, Ostrom RS. Forskolin as a tool for examining adenylyl cyclase expression, regulation, and G protein signaling. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2003 Jun; 23(3):305-14. PMID: 12825829.
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      128. Ostrom RS, Naugle JE, Hase M, Gregorian C, Swaney JS, Insel PA, Brunton LL, Meszaros JG. Angiotensin II enhances adenylyl cyclase signaling via Ca2+/calmodulin. Gq-Gs cross-talk regulates collagen production in cardiac fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 4; 278(27):24461-8. PMID: 12711600.
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      129. Insel PA. Location, location, location. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr; 14(3):100-2. PMID: 12670730.
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      130. Patel HH, Fryer RM, Gross ER, Bundey RA, Hsu AK, Isbell M, Eusebi LO, Jensen RV, Gullans SR, Insel PA, Nithipatikom K, Gross GJ. 12-lipoxygenase in opioid-induced delayed cardioprotection: gene array, mass spectrometric, and pharmacological analyses. Circ Res. 2003 Apr 4; 92(6):676-82. PMID: 12623876.
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      131. Bruck H, Leineweber K, Büscher R, Ulrich A, Radke J, Insel PA, Brodde OE. The Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism slows the onset of desensitization of cardiac functional responses in vivo. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Feb; 13(2):59-66. PMID: 12563174.
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      132. Michel MC, Insel PA. Receptor gene polymorphisms: lessons on functional relevance from the beta 1-adrenoceptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan; 138(2):279-82. PMID: 12540516.
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      133. Loomis WH, Namiki S, Ostrom RS, Insel PA, Junger WG. Hypertonic stress increases T cell interleukin-2 expression through a mechanism that involves ATP release, P2 receptor, and p38 MAPK activation. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 14; 278(7):4590-6. PMID: 12464620.
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      134. Ostrom RS, Liu X, Head BP, Gregorian C, Seasholtz TM, Insel PA. Localization of adenylyl cyclase isoforms and G protein-coupled receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells: expression in caveolin-rich and noncaveolin domains. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Nov; 62(5):983-92. PMID: 12391260.
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      135. Rana BK, Insel PA. G-protein-coupled receptor websites. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002 Nov; 23(11):535-6. PMID: 12413809.
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      136. Büscher R, Eilmes KJ, Grasemann H, Torres B, Knauer N, Sroka K, Insel PA, Ratjen F. beta2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis lung disease. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Jul; 12(5):347-53. PMID: 12142724.
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      137. Michel MC, Jasper JR, Insel P. Adrenoceptors: a convergence of thinking. Mol Interv. 2002 Jul; 2(4):198-200. PMID: 14993387.
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      138. Torres B, Zambon AC, Insel PA. P2Y11 receptors activate adenylyl cyclase and contribute to nucleotide-promoted cAMP formation in MDCK-D(1) cells. A mechanism for nucleotide-mediated autocrine-paracrine regulation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 8; 277(10):7761-5. PMID: 11788591.
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      139. Insel PA, Ostrom RS, Zambon AC, Hughes RJ, Balboa MA, Shehnaz D, Gregorian C, Torres B, Firestein BL, Xing M, Post SR. P2Y receptors of MDCK cells: epithelial cell regulation by extracellular nucleotides. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001 Apr; 28(4):351-4. PMID: 11339212.
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