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    Michael Karin

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentPharmacology
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0723
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-0872
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Ph.D.University of California, Los Angeles

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Dr. Karin was born in Tel Aviv, Israel and received the Bachelor of Science degree in 1975 from Tel Aviv University, with a major in Biology. In 1975 he arrived in the US and in 1979 received a Ph.D. degree in Molecular Biology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Karin followed his graduate studies with postdoctoral fellowships at the Fox Chase Institute for Cancer Research, working in the laboratory of Dr. Beatrice Mintz, and the laboratory of Dr. John Baxter at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Karin joined the faculty at the University of California, San Diego in 1986, where currently he is a Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology.

      Dr. Karin has received numerous awards including the Oppenheimer Award for Excellence in Research from the Endocrine Society in 1990, an American Cancer Society Research Professorship in 1999, the C.E.R.I.E.S. Research Award for Physiology or Biology of the Skin in 2000, the Harvey Prize in Human Health in 2011, the Brupbacher Prize in Cancer Research in 2013 and the William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Basic and Tumor Immunology in 2013. Dr. Karin was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2005, as a Foreign Associate of EMBO in 2007, and to the Institute of Medicine in 2011. Dr. Karin also serves on several advisory boards and was cofounder of Signal Pharmaceuticals (currently Celgene).

      Dr. Karin has spent his entire academic career investigating stress and inflammation signaling covering the entire gamut of research approaches from basic biochemistry through molecular cell biology to animal pathophysiology. After discovering how environmental stress caused by either infection, inflammation or exposure to toxic substances leads to activation of AP-1, NF-?B and other transcription factors, his lab began to examine the role of the key signaling pathways controlling these transcription factors in the pathogenesis of cancer, degenerative and metabolic diseases. The Karin group has identified some of the fundamental mechanisms through which inflammation and obesity promote tumor development and progression and contribute to type II diabetes. They had established the mechanisms through which members of the IL-6 cytokine family contribute to the development of colorectal and liver cancer through activation of STAT3 and other transcription factors. They had also established the complex and cell type specific mechanisms through which NF-?B activation via I?B kinases (IKK) controls development and progression of colon, liver and prostate cancers. They were amongst the first to demonstrate that not only innate immune cells, such as macrophages, but also adaptive immune cells, including T regulatory cells and B lymphocytes, also contribute to tumorigenesis and its progression. Through this work, Dr. Karin has contributed to the founding of the Inflammation and Cancer field.

      Collapse Interests
      Protein Kinases, Oncogenes, Transcription Factors, Signal Transduction, Gene Expression

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      Collapse Websites
      Collapse NIH Awarded Grants

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Taniguchi K, Yamachika S, He F, Karin M. p62/SQSTM1-Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde that prevents oxidative stress but promotes liver cancer. FEBS Lett. 2016 Aug; 590(15):2375-97. PMID: 27404485.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Zhong Z, Sanchez-Lopez E, Karin M. Autophagy, Inflammation, and Immunity: A Troika Governing Cancer and Its Treatment. Cell. 2016 Jul 14; 166(2):288-98. PMID: 27419869.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Umemura A, He F, Taniguchi K, Nakagawa H, Yamachika S, Font-Burgada J, Zhong Z, Subramaniam S, Raghunandan S, Duran A, Linares JF, Reina-Campos M, Umemura S, Valasek MA, Seki E, Yamaguchi K, Koike K, Itoh Y, Diaz-Meco MT, Moscat J, Karin M. p62, Upregulated during Preneoplasia, Induces Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis by Maintaining Survival of Stressed HCC-Initiating Cells. Cancer Cell. 2016 Jun 13; 29(6):935-48. PMID: 27211490.
        View in: PubMed
      4. de Jong PR, Taniguchi K, Harris AR, Bertin S, Takahashi N, Duong J, Campos AD, Powis G, Corr M, Karin M, Raz E. ERK5 signalling rescues intestinal epithelial turnover and tumour cell proliferation upon ERK1/2 abrogation. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:11551. PMID: 27187615.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Shalapour S, Karin M. Fatty Acid-Induced T Cell Loss Greases Liver Carcinogenesis. Cell Metab. 2016 May 10; 23(5):759-61. PMID: 27166937.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Karin M, Dhar D. Liver carcinogenesis: from naughty chemicals to soothing fat and the surprising role of NRF2. Carcinogenesis. 2016 Jun; 37(6):541-6. PMID: 27207669.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Zhong Z, Umemura A, Sanchez-Lopez E, Liang S, Shalapour S, Wong J, He F, Boassa D, Perkins G, Ali SR, McGeough MD, Ellisman MH, Seki E, Gustafsson AB, Hoffman HM, Diaz-Meco MT, Moscat J, Karin M. NF-?B Restricts Inflammasome Activation via Elimination of Damaged Mitochondria. Cell. 2016 Feb 25; 164(5):896-910. PMID: 26919428.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Karin M, Clevers H. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration. Nature. 2016 Jan 21; 529(7586):307-15. PMID: 26791721.
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      9. Font-Burgada J, Sun B, Karin M. Obesity and Cancer: The Oil that Feeds the Flame. Cell Metab. 2016 Jan 12; 23(1):48-62. PMID: 26771116.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Yin AH, Peng CF, Zhao X, Caughey BA, Yang JX, Liu J, Huang WW, Liu C, Luo DH, Liu HL, Chen YY, Wu J, Hou R, Zhang M, Ai M, Zheng L, Xue RQ, Mai MQ, Guo FF, Qi YM, Wang DM, Krawczyk M, Zhang D, Wang YN, Huang QF, Karin M, Zhang K. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 24; 112(47):14670-5. PMID: 26554006.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Antonucci L, Fagman JB, Kim JY, Todoric J, Gukovsky I, Mackey M, Ellisman MH, Karin M. Basal autophagy maintains pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and protein synthesis and prevents ER stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 10; 112(45):E6166-74. PMID: 26512112.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Wang K, Karin M. The IL-23 to IL-17 cascade inflammation-related cancers. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 33(4 Suppl 92):87-90. PMID: 26457610.
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      13. Font-Burgada J, Shalapour S, Ramaswamy S, Hsueh B, Rossell D, Umemura A, Taniguchi K, Nakagawa H, Valasek MA, Ye L, Kopp JL, Sander M, Carter H, Deisseroth K, Verma IM, Karin M. Hybrid Periportal Hepatocytes Regenerate the Injured Liver without Giving Rise to Cancer. Cell. 2015 Aug 13; 162(4):766-79. PMID: 26276631.
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      14. Strasner A, Karin M. Immune Infiltration and Prostate Cancer. Front Oncol. 2015; 5:128. PMID: 26217583.
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      15. Wu X, Karin M. Emerging roles of Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation in immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2015 Jul; 266(1):161-74. PMID: 26085214.
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      16. Moroishi T, Park HW, Qin B, Chen Q, Meng Z, Plouffe SW, Taniguchi K, Yu FX, Karin M, Pan D, Guan KL. A YAP/TAZ-induced feedback mechanism regulates Hippo pathway homeostasis. Genes Dev. 2015 Jun 15; 29(12):1271-84. PMID: 26109050.
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      17. Wang K, Karin M. Tumor-Elicited Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2015; 128:173-96. PMID: 26216633.
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      18. Shalapour S, Font-Burgada J, Di Caro G, Zhong Z, Sanchez-Lopez E, Dhar D, Willimsky G, Ammirante M, Strasner A, Hansel DE, Jamieson C, Kane CJ, Klatte T, Birner P, Kenner L, Karin M. Immunosuppressive plasma cells impede T-cell-dependent immunogenic chemotherapy. Nature. 2015 May 7; 521(7550):94-8. PMID: 25924065.
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      19. Taniguchi K, Wu LW, Grivennikov SI, de Jong PR, Lian I, Yu FX, Wang K, Ho SB, Boland BS, Chang JT, Sandborn WJ, Hardiman G, Raz E, Maehara Y, Yoshimura A, Zucman-Rossi J, Guan KL, Karin M. A gp130-Src-YAP module links inflammation to epithelial regeneration. Nature. 2015 Mar 5; 519(7541):57-62. PMID: 25731159.
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      20. Shaked H, Guma M, Karin M. Analysis of NF-?B Activation in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1280:593-606. PMID: 25736774.
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      21. Wang K, Kim MK, Di Caro G, Wong J, Shalapour S, Wan J, Zhang W, Zhong Z, Sanchez-Lopez E, Wu LW, Taniguchi K, Feng Y, Fearon E, Grivennikov SI, Karin M. Interleukin-17 receptor a signaling in transformed enterocytes promotes early colorectal tumorigenesis. Immunity. 2014 Dec 18; 41(6):1052-63. PMID: 25526314.
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      22. Yueh MF, Taniguchi K, Chen S, Evans RM, Hammock BD, Karin M, Tukey RH. The commonly used antimicrobial additive triclosan is a liver tumor promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 2; 111(48):17200-5. PMID: 25404284.
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      23. Karin M. Whipping NF-?B to Submission via GADD45 and MKK7. Cancer Cell. 2014 Oct 13; 26(4):447-9. PMID: 25314072.
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      24. Ammirante M, Shalapour S, Kang Y, Jamieson CA, Karin M. Tissue injury and hypoxia promote malignant progression of prostate cancer by inducing CXCL13 expression in tumor myofibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 14; 111(41):14776-81. PMID: 25267627.
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      25. Umemura A, Park EJ, Taniguchi K, Lee JH, Shalapour S, Valasek MA, Aghajan M, Nakagawa H, Seki E, Hall MN, Karin M. Liver Damage, Inflammation, and Enhanced Tumorigenesis after Persistent mTORC1 Inhibition. Cell Metab. 2014 Jul 1; 20(1):133-44. PMID: 24910242.
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      26. Taniguchi K, Karin M. IL-6 and related cytokines as the critical lynchpins between inflammation and cancer. Semin Immunol. 2014 Feb; 26(1):54-74. PMID: 24552665.
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      27. Dhar D, Seki E, Karin M. NCOA5, IL-6, Type 2 Diabetes, and HCC: The Deadly Quartet. Cell Metab. 2014 Jan 7; 19(1):6-7. PMID: 24411937.
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      28. Nakagawa H, Hikiba Y, Hirata Y, Font-Burgada J, Sakamoto K, Hayakawa Y, Taniguchi K, Umemura A, Kinoshita H, Sakitani K, Nishikawa Y, Hirano K, Ikenoue T, Ijichi H, Dhar D, Shibata W, Akanuma M, Koike K, Karin M, Maeda S. Loss of liver E-cadherin induces sclerosing cholangitis and promotes carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 21; 111(3):1090-5. PMID: 24395807.
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      29. Chen S, Yueh MF, Bigo C, Barbier O, Wang K, Karin M, Nguyen N, Tukey RH. Intestinal glucuronidation protects against chemotherapy-induced toxicity by irinotecan (CPT-11). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 19; 110(47):19143-8. PMID: 24191041.
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      30. He G, Dhar D, Nakagawa H, Font-Burgada J, Ogata H, Jiang Y, Shalapour S, Seki E, Yost SE, Jepsen K, Frazer KA, Harismendy O, Hatziapostolou M, Iliopoulos D, Suetsugu A, Hoffman RM, Tateishi R, Koike K, Karin M. Identification of liver cancer progenitors whose malignant progression depends on autocrine IL-6 signaling. Cell. 2013 Oct 10; 155(2):384-96. PMID: 24120137.
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      31. Sun B, Karin M. Inflammation and liver tumorigenesis. Front Med. 2013 Jun; 7(2):242-54. PMID: 23681888.
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      32. Zhang W, Tan W, Wu X, Poustovoitov M, Strasner A, Li W, Borcherding N, Ghassemian M, Karin M. A NIK-IKKa module expands ErbB2-induced tumor-initiating cells by stimulating nuclear export of p27/Kip1. Cancer Cell. 2013 May 13; 23(5):647-59. PMID: 23602409.
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      33. Li N, Wu X, Holzer RG, Lee JH, Todoric J, Park EJ, Ogata H, Gukovskaya AS, Gukovsky I, Pizzo DP, VandenBerg S, Tarin D, Atay C, Arkan MC, Deerinck TJ, Moscat J, Diaz-Meco M, Dawson D, Erkan M, Kleeff J, Karin M. Loss of acinar cell IKKa triggers spontaneous pancreatitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013 May 1; 123(5):2231-43. PMID: 23563314.
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      34. Simonin Y, Vegna S, Akkari L, Grégoire D, Antoine E, Piette J, Floc'h N, Lassus P, Yu GY, Rosenberg AR, Karin M, Durantel D, Hibner U. Lymphotoxin signaling is initiated by the viral polymerase in HCV-linked tumorigenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Mar; 9(3):e1003234. PMID: 23555249.
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      35. Du H, Sun X, Guma M, Luo J, Ouyang H, Zhang X, Zeng J, Quach J, Nguyen DH, Shaw PX, Karin M, Zhang K. JNK inhibition reduces apoptosis and neovascularization in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 5; 110(6):2377-82. PMID: 23341606.
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      36. Wang K, Grivennikov SI, Karin M. Implications of anti-cytokine therapy in colorectal cancer and autoimmune diseases. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Apr; 72 Suppl 2:ii100-3. PMID: 23253923.
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      37. Grivennikov SI, Wang K, Mucida D, Stewart CA, Schnabl B, Jauch D, Taniguchi K, Yu GY, Osterreicher CH, Hung KE, Datz C, Feng Y, Fearon ER, Oukka M, Tessarollo L, Coppola V, Yarovinsky F, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Trinchieri G, Karin M. Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth. Nature. 2012 Nov 8; 491(7423):254-8. PMID: 23034650.
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      38. Yu GY, He G, Li CY, Tang M, Grivennikov S, Tsai WT, Wu MS, Hsu CW, Tsai Y, Wang LH, Karin M. Hepatic expression of HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase triggers innate immune signaling and cytokine production. Mol Cell. 2012 Oct 26; 48(2):313-21. PMID: 22959272.
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      39. Shaked H, Hofseth LJ, Chumanevich A, Chumanevich AA, Wang J, Wang Y, Taniguchi K, Guma M, Shenouda S, Clevers H, Harris CC, Karin M. Chronic epithelial NF-?B activation accelerates APC loss and intestinal tumor initiation through iNOS up-regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28; 109(35):14007-12. PMID: 22893683.
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      40. Gaba A, Grivennikov SI, Do MV, Stumpo DJ, Blackshear PJ, Karin M. Cutting edge: IL-10-mediated tristetraprolin induction is part of a feedback loop that controls macrophage STAT3 activation and cytokine production. J Immunol. 2012 Sep 1; 189(5):2089-93. PMID: 22865915.
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      41. Seki E, Brenner DA, Karin M. A liver full of JNK: signaling in regulation of cell function and disease pathogenesis, and clinical approaches. Gastroenterology. 2012 Aug; 143(2):307-20. PMID: 22705006.
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      42. Font-Burgada J, Seki E, Karin M. CYLD and HCC: when being too sensitive to your dirty neighbors results in self-destruction. Cancer Cell. 2012 Jun 12; 21(6):711-2. PMID: 22698394.
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      43. Aghajan M, Li N, Karin M. Obesity, autophagy and the pathogenesis of liver and pancreatic cancers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Mar; 27 Suppl 2:10-4. PMID: 22320909.
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      44. DiDonato JA, Mercurio F, Karin M. NF-?B and the link between inflammation and cancer. Immunol Rev. 2012 Mar; 246(1):379-400. PMID: 22435567.
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      45. Liu M, Lee DF, Chen CT, Yen CJ, Li LY, Lee HJ, Chang CJ, Chang WC, Hsu JM, Kuo HP, Xia W, Wei Y, Chiu PC, Chou CK, Du Y, Dhar D, Karin M, Chen CH, Hung MC. IKKa activation of NOTCH links tumorigenesis via FOXA2 suppression. Mol Cell. 2012 Jan 27; 45(2):171-84. PMID: 22196886.
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      46. Hatziapostolou M, Polytarchou C, Aggelidou E, Drakaki A, Poultsides GA, Jaeger SA, Ogata H, Karin M, Struhl K, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras M, Iliopoulos D. An HNF4a-miRNA inflammatory feedback circuit regulates hepatocellular oncogenesis. Cell. 2011 Dec 9; 147(6):1233-47. PMID: 22153071.
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      47. Kuraishy A, Karin M, Grivennikov SI. Tumor promotion via injury- and death-induced inflammation. Immunity. 2011 Oct 28; 35(4):467-77. PMID: 22035839.
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      48. Holzer RG, Park EJ, Li N, Tran H, Chen M, Choi C, Solinas G, Karin M. Saturated fatty acids induce c-Src clustering within membrane subdomains, leading to JNK activation. Cell. 2011 Sep 30; 147(1):173-84. PMID: 21962514.
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      49. Stebbins JL, De SK, Pavlickova P, Chen V, Machleidt T, Chen LH, Kuntzen C, Kitada S, Karin M, Pellecchia M. Design and characterization of a potent and selective dual ATP- and substrate-competitive subnanomolar bidentate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. J Med Chem. 2011 Sep 22; 54(18):6206-14. PMID: 21815634.
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      50. Guma M, Stepniak D, Shaked H, Spehlmann ME, Shenouda S, Cheroutre H, Vicente-Suarez I, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. Constitutive intestinal NF-?B does not trigger destructive inflammation unless accompanied by MAPK activation. J Exp Med. 2011 Aug 29; 208(9):1889-900. PMID: 21825016.
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      51. Ben-Neriah Y, Karin M. Inflammation meets cancer, with NF-?B as the matchmaker. Nat Immunol. 2011 Aug; 12(8):715-23. PMID: 21772280.
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      52. Ali SR, Timmer AM, Bilgrami S, Park EJ, Eckmann L, Nizet V, Karin M. Anthrax toxin induces macrophage death by p38 MAPK inhibition but leads to inflammasome activation via ATP leakage. Immunity. 2011 Jul 22; 35(1):34-44. PMID: 21683629.
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      53. Guma M, Ronacher LM, Firestein GS, Karin M, Corr M. JNK-1 deficiency limits macrophage-mediated antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jun; 63(6):1603-12. PMID: 21305529.
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      54. Li N, Grivennikov SI, Karin M. The unholy trinity: inflammation, cytokines, and STAT3 shape the cancer microenvironment. Cancer Cell. 2011 Apr 12; 19(4):429-31. PMID: 21481782.
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      55. Grivennikov SI, Karin M. Inflammatory cytokines in cancer: tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 6 take the stage. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Mar; 70 Suppl 1:i104-8. PMID: 21339211.
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      56. Tan W, Zhang W, Strasner A, Grivennikov S, Cheng JQ, Hoffman RM, Karin M. Tumour-infiltrating regulatory T cells stimulate mammary cancer metastasis through RANKL-RANK signalling. Nature. 2011 Feb 24; 470(7335):548-53. PMID: 21326202.
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      57. Kim S, Karin M. Role of TLR2-dependent inflammation in metastatic progression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Jan; 1217:191-206. PMID: 21276007.
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      58. He G, Karin M. NF-?B and STAT3 - key players in liver inflammation and cancer. Cell Res. 2011 Jan; 21(1):159-68. PMID: 21187858.
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      59. Österreicher CH, Penz-Österreicher M, Grivennikov SI, Guma M, Koltsova EK, Datz C, Sasik R, Hardiman G, Karin M, Brenner DA. Fibroblast-specific protein 1 identifies an inflammatory subpopulation of macrophages in the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 4; 108(1):308-13. PMID: 21173249.
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      60. Guma M, Kashiwakura J, Crain B, Kawakami Y, Beutler B, Firestein GS, Kawakami T, Karin M, Corr M. JNK1 controls mast cell degranulation and IL-1{beta} production in inflammatory arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22122-7. PMID: 21135226.
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      61. Zhang W, Kater AP, Widhopf GF, Chuang HY, Enzler T, James DF, Poustovoitov M, Tseng PH, Janz S, Hoh C, Herschman H, Karin M, Kipps TJ. B-cell activating factor and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) influence progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Nov 2; 107(44):18956-60. PMID: 20956327.
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      62. Napolitano G, Karin M. Sphingolipids: the oil on the TRAFire that promotes inflammation. Sci Signal. 2010; 3(141):pe34. PMID: 20876871.
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      63. Terzic J, Grivennikov S, Karin E, Karin M. Inflammation and colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun; 138(6):2101-2114.e5. PMID: 20420949.
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      64. Lee JH, Bodmer R, Bier E, Karin M. Sestrins at the crossroad between stress and aging. Aging (Albany NY). 2010 Jun; 2(6):369-74. PMID: 20606249.
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      65. Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell. 2010 Mar 19; 140(6):883-99. PMID: 20303878.
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      66. He G, Yu GY, Temkin V, Ogata H, Kuntzen C, Sakurai T, Sieghart W, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Leffert HL, Karin M. Hepatocyte IKKbeta/NF-kappaB inhibits tumor promotion and progression by preventing oxidative stress-driven STAT3 activation. Cancer Cell. 2010 Mar 16; 17(3):286-97. PMID: 20227042.
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      67. Ammirante M, Luo JL, Grivennikov S, Nedospasov S, Karin M. B-cell-derived lymphotoxin promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nature. 2010 Mar 11; 464(7286):302-5. PMID: 20220849.
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      68. Lee JH, Budanov AV, Park EJ, Birse R, Kim TE, Perkins GA, Ocorr K, Ellisman MH, Bodmer R, Bier E, Karin M. Sestrin as a feedback inhibitor of TOR that prevents age-related pathologies. Science. 2010 Mar 5; 327(5970):1223-8. PMID: 20203043.
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      69. Park EJ, Lee JH, Yu GY, He G, Ali SR, Holzer RG, Osterreicher CH, Takahashi H, Karin M. Dietary and genetic obesity promote liver inflammation and tumorigenesis by enhancing IL-6 and TNF expression. Cell. 2010 Jan 22; 140(2):197-208. PMID: 20141834.
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      70. Takahashi H, Ogata H, Nishigaki R, Broide DH, Karin M. Tobacco smoke promotes lung tumorigenesis by triggering IKKbeta- and JNK1-dependent inflammation. Cancer Cell. 2010 Jan 19; 17(1):89-97. PMID: 20129250.
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      71. Grivennikov SI, Karin M. Inflammation and oncogenesis: a vicious connection. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2010 Feb; 20(1):65-71. PMID: 20036794.
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      72. Grivennikov SI, Karin M. Dangerous liaisons: STAT3 and NF-kappaB collaboration and crosstalk in cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2010 Feb; 21(1):11-9. PMID: 20018552.
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      73. Maeda S, Hikiba Y, Sakamoto K, Nakagawa H, Hirata Y, Hayakawa Y, Yanai A, Ogura K, Karin M, Omata M. Ikappa B kinasebeta/nuclear factor-kappaB activation controls the development of liver metastasis by way of interleukin-6 expression. Hepatology. 2009 Dec; 50(6):1851-60. PMID: 19821485.
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      74. Tseng PH, Matsuzawa A, Zhang W, Mino T, Vignali DA, Karin M. Different modes of ubiquitination of the adaptor TRAF3 selectively activate the expression of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Nat Immunol. 2010 Jan; 11(1):70-5. PMID: 19898473.
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      75. Karin M. NF-kappaB as a critical link between inflammation and cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Nov; 1(5):a000141. PMID: 20066113.
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      76. Haybaeck J, Zeller N, Wolf MJ, Weber A, Wagner U, Kurrer MO, Bremer J, Iezzi G, Graf R, Clavien PA, Thimme R, Blum H, Nedospasov SA, Zatloukal K, Ramzan M, Ciesek S, Pietschmann T, Marche PN, Karin M, Kopf M, Browning JL, Aguzzi A, Heikenwalder M. A lymphotoxin-driven pathway to hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2009 Oct 6; 16(4):295-308. PMID: 19800575.
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      77. Enzler T, Kater AP, Zhang W, Widhopf GF, Chuang HY, Lee J, Avery E, Croce CM, Karin M, Kipps TJ. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia of Emu-TCL1 transgenic mice undergoes rapid cell turnover that can be offset by extrinsic CD257 to accelerate disease progression. Blood. 2009 Nov 12; 114(20):4469-76. PMID: 19755673.
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      78. Hruz P, Zinkernagel AS, Jenikova G, Botwin GJ, Hugot JP, Karin M, Nizet V, Eckmann L. NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through alpha-toxin-dependent innate immune activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 4; 106(31):12873-8. PMID: 19541630.
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      79. Guma M, Rius J, Duong-Polk KX, Haddad GG, Lindsey JD, Karin M. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of JNK ameliorates hypoxia-induced retinopathy through interference with VEGF expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26; 106(21):8760-5. PMID: 19433784.
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      80. Karin M, Gallagher E. TNFR signaling: ubiquitin-conjugated TRAFfic signals control stop-and-go for MAPK signaling complexes. Immunol Rev. 2009 Mar; 228(1):225-40. PMID: 19290931.
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      81. Grivennikov S, Karin E, Terzic J, Mucida D, Yu GY, Vallabhapurapu S, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Karin M. IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer. Cancer Cell. 2009 Feb 3; 15(2):103-13. PMID: 19185845.
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      82. Koch KS, Maeda S, He G, Karin M, Leffert HL. Targeted deletion of hepatocyte Ikkbeta confers growth advantages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Mar 6; 380(2):349-54. PMID: 19171122.
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      83. Vallabhapurapu S, Karin M. Regulation and function of NF-kappaB transcription factors in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009; 27:693-733. PMID: 19302050.
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      84. Baud V, Karin M. Is NF-kappaB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009 Jan; 8(1):33-40. PMID: 19116625.
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      85. Kim S, Takahashi H, Lin WW, Descargues P, Grivennikov S, Kim Y, Luo JL, Karin M. Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis. Nature. 2009 Jan 1; 457(7225):102-6. PMID: 19122641.
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      86. Vallabhapurapu S, Matsuzawa A, Zhang W, Tseng PH, Keats JJ, Wang H, Vignali DA, Bergsagel PL, Karin M. Nonredundant and complementary functions of TRAF2 and TRAF3 in a ubiquitination cascade that activates NIK-dependent alternative NF-kappaB signaling. Nat Immunol. 2008 Dec; 9(12):1364-70. PMID: 18997792.
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      87. Zhang X, Zhang G, Zhang H, Karin M, Bai H, Cai D. Hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB and ER stress link overnutrition to energy imbalance and obesity. Cell. 2008 Oct 3; 135(1):61-73. PMID: 18854155.
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      88. Descargues P, Sil AK, Karin M. IKKalpha, a critical regulator of epidermal differentiation and a suppressor of skin cancer. EMBO J. 2008 Oct 22; 27(20):2639-47. PMID: 18818691.
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      89. Eckmann L, Nebelsiek T, Fingerle AA, Dann SM, Mages J, Lang R, Robine S, Kagnoff MF, Schmid RM, Karin M, Arkan MC, Greten FR. Opposing functions of IKKbeta during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 30; 105(39):15058-63. PMID: 18815378.
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      90. Sakurai T, He G, Matsuzawa A, Yu GY, Maeda S, Hardiman G, Karin M. Hepatocyte necrosis induced by oxidative stress and IL-1 alpha release mediate carcinogen-induced compensatory proliferation and liver tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2008 Aug 12; 14(2):156-65. PMID: 18691550.
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      91. Budanov AV, Karin M. p53 target genes sestrin1 and sestrin2 connect genotoxic stress and mTOR signaling. Cell. 2008 Aug 8; 134(3):451-60. PMID: 18692468.
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      92. Matsuzawa A, Tseng PH, Vallabhapurapu S, Luo JL, Zhang W, Wang H, Vignali DA, Gallagher E, Karin M. Essential cytoplasmic translocation of a cytokine receptor-assembled signaling complex. Science. 2008 Aug 1; 321(5889):663-8. PMID: 18635759.
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      93. Hsu LC, Ali SR, McGillivray S, Tseng PH, Mariathasan S, Humke EW, Eckmann L, Powell JJ, Nizet V, Dixit VM, Karin M. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 3; 105(22):7803-8. PMID: 18511561.
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      94. Naugler WE, Karin M. NF-kappaB and cancer-identifying targets and mechanisms. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2008 Feb; 18(1):19-26. PMID: 18440219.
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      95. Rius J, Guma M, Schachtrup C, Akassoglou K, Zinkernagel AS, Nizet V, Johnson RS, Haddad GG, Karin M. NF-kappaB links innate immunity to the hypoxic response through transcriptional regulation of HIF-1alpha. Nature. 2008 Jun 5; 453(7196):807-11. PMID: 18432192.
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      96. Karin M. The IkappaB kinase - a bridge between inflammation and cancer. Cell Res. 2008 Mar; 18(3):334-42. PMID: 18301380.
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      97. Descargues P, Sil AK, Sano Y, Korchynskyi O, Han G, Owens P, Wang XJ, Karin M. IKKalpha is a critical coregulator of a Smad4-independent TGFbeta-Smad2/3 signaling pathway that controls keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 19; 105(7):2487-92. PMID: 18268325.
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      98. Naugler WE, Karin M. The wolf in sheep's clothing: the role of interleukin-6 in immunity, inflammation and cancer. Trends Mol Med. 2008 Mar; 14(3):109-19. PMID: 18261959.
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      99. Grivennikov S, Karin M. Autocrine IL-6 signaling: a key event in tumorigenesis? Cancer Cell. 2008 Jan; 13(1):7-9. PMID: 18167335.
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      100. Temkin V, Karin M. From death receptor to reactive oxygen species and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase: the receptor-interacting protein 1 odyssey. Immunol Rev. 2007 Dec; 220:8-21. PMID: 17979836.
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      101. Solinas G, Vilcu C, Neels JG, Bandyopadhyay GK, Luo JL, Naugler W, Grivennikov S, Wynshaw-Boris A, Scadeng M, Olefsky JM, Karin M. JNK1 in hematopoietically derived cells contributes to diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance without affecting obesity. Cell Metab. 2007 Nov; 6(5):386-97. PMID: 17983584.
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      102. Cao Y, Luo JL, Karin M. IkappaB kinase alpha kinase activity is required for self-renewal of ErbB2/Her2-transformed mammary tumor-initiating cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 2; 104(40):15852-7. PMID: 17890319.
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      103. Greten FR, Arkan MC, Bollrath J, Hsu LC, Goode J, Miething C, Göktuna SI, Neuenhahn M, Fierer J, Paxian S, Van Rooijen N, Xu Y, O'Cain T, Jaffee BB, Busch DH, Duyster J, Schmid RM, Eckmann L, Karin M. NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta. Cell. 2007 Sep 7; 130(5):918-31. PMID: 17803913.
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      104. Naugler WE, Sakurai T, Kim S, Maeda S, Kim K, Elsharkawy AM, Karin M. Gender disparity in liver cancer due to sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production. Science. 2007 Jul 6; 317(5834):121-4. PMID: 17615358.
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      105. Lin WW, Karin M. A cytokine-mediated link between innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. J Clin Invest. 2007 May; 117(5):1175-83. PMID: 17476347.
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      106. Luo JL, Tan W, Ricono JM, Korchynskyi O, Zhang M, Gonias SL, Cheresh DA, Karin M. Nuclear cytokine-activated IKKalpha controls prostate cancer metastasis by repressing Maspin. Nature. 2007 Apr 5; 446(7136):690-4. PMID: 17377533.
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      107. Ruocco MG, Karin M. Control of osteoclast activity and bone loss by IKK subunits: new targets for therapy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007; 602:125-34. PMID: 17966397.
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      108. Gallagher E, Enzler T, Matsuzawa A, Anzelon-Mills A, Otero D, Holzer R, Janssen E, Gao M, Karin M. Kinase MEKK1 is required for CD40-dependent activation of the kinases Jnk and p38, germinal center formation, B cell proliferation and antibody production. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jan; 8(1):57-63. PMID: 17143273.
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      109. Karin M. Role for IKK2 in muscle: waste not, want not. J Clin Invest. 2006 Nov; 116(11):2866-8. PMID: 17080193.
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      110. Solinas G, Naugler W, Galimi F, Lee MS, Karin M. Saturated fatty acids inhibit induction of insulin gene transcription by JNK-mediated phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31; 103(44):16454-9. PMID: 17050683.
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      111. Endo T, Nishio M, Enzler T, Cottam HB, Fukuda T, James DF, Karin M, Kipps TJ. BAFF and APRIL support chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cell survival through activation of the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. Blood. 2007 Jan 15; 109(2):703-10. PMID: 16973958.
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      112. Enzler T, Bonizzi G, Silverman GJ, Otero DC, Widhopf GF, Anzelon-Mills A, Rickert RC, Karin M. Alternative and classical NF-kappa B signaling retain autoreactive B cells in the splenic marginal zone and result in lupus-like disease. Immunity. 2006 Sep; 25(3):403-15. PMID: 16973390.
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      113. Chae S, Eckmann L, Miyamoto Y, Pothoulakis C, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. Epithelial cell I kappa B-kinase beta has an important protective role in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced mucosal injury. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15; 177(2):1214-20. PMID: 16818780.
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      114. Sakurai T, Maeda S, Chang L, Karin M. Loss of hepatic NF-kappa B activity enhances chemical hepatocarcinogenesis through sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 11; 103(28):10544-51. PMID: 16807293.
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      115. Karin M. NF-kappaB and cancer: mechanisms and targets. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jun; 45(6):355-61. PMID: 16673382.
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      116. Karin M. Nuclear factor-kappaB in cancer development and progression. Nature. 2006 May 25; 441(7092):431-6. PMID: 16724054.
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      117. Karin M, Lawrence T, Nizet V. Innate immunity gone awry: linking microbial infections to chronic inflammation and cancer. Cell. 2006 Feb 24; 124(4):823-35. PMID: 16497591.
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      118. Gallagher E, Gao M, Liu YC, Karin M. Activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch through a phosphorylation-induced conformational change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 7; 103(6):1717-22. PMID: 16446428.
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      119. Karin M. Tracking the road from inflammation to cancer: the critical role of IkappaB kinase (IKK). Harvey Lect. 2006-2007; 102:133-51. PMID: 20166567.
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      120. Broide DH, Lawrence T, Doherty T, Cho JY, Miller M, McElwain K, McElwain S, Karin M. Allergen-induced peribronchial fibrosis and mucus production mediated by IkappaB kinase beta-dependent genes in airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 6; 102(49):17723-8. PMID: 16317067.
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      121. Häcker H, Redecke V, Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Hsu LC, Wang GG, Kamps MP, Raz E, Wagner H, Häcker G, Mann M, Karin M. Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6. Nature. 2006 Jan 12; 439(7073):204-7. PMID: 16306937.
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      122. Luo JL, Kamata H, Karin M. The anti-death machinery in IKK/NF-kappaB signaling. J Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov; 25(6):541-50. PMID: 16380818.
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      123. Karin M, Greten FR. NF-kappaB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Oct; 5(10):749-59. PMID: 16175180.
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      124. Luo JL, Kamata H, Karin M. IKK/NF-kappaB signaling: balancing life and death--a new approach to cancer therapy. J Clin Invest. 2005 Oct; 115(10):2625-32. PMID: 16200195.
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      125. Park JM, Greten FR, Wong A, Westrick RJ, Arthur JS, Otsu K, Hoffmann A, Montminy M, Karin M. Signaling pathways and genes that inhibit pathogen-induced macrophage apoptosis--CREB and NF-kappaB as key regulators. Immunity. 2005 Sep; 23(3):319-29. PMID: 16169504.
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      126. Maeda S, Kamata H, Luo JL, Leffert H, Karin M. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell. 2005 Jul 1; 121(7):977-90. PMID: 15989949.
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      127. Eckmann L, Karin M. NOD2 and Crohn's disease: loss or gain of function? Immunity. 2005 Jun; 22(6):661-7. PMID: 15963781.
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      128. Ruocco MG, Maeda S, Park JM, Lawrence T, Hsu LC, Cao Y, Schett G, Wagner EF, Karin M. I{kappa}B kinase (IKK){beta}, but not IKK{alpha}, is a critical mediator of osteoclast survival and is required for inflammation-induced bone loss. J Exp Med. 2005 May 16; 201(10):1677-87. PMID: 15897281.
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      129. Lawrence T, Bebien M, Liu GY, Nizet V, Karin M. IKKalpha limits macrophage NF-kappaB activation and contributes to the resolution of inflammation. Nature. 2005 Apr 28; 434(7037):1138-43. PMID: 15858576.
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      130. Karin M, Gallagher E. From JNK to pay dirt: jun kinases, their biochemistry, physiology and clinical importance. IUBMB Life. 2005 Apr-May; 57(4-5):283-95. PMID: 16036612.
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      131. Kamata H, Honda S, Maeda S, Chang L, Hirata H, Karin M. Reactive oxygen species promote TNFalpha-induced death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases. Cell. 2005 Mar 11; 120(5):649-61. PMID: 15766528.
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      132. Maeda S, Hsu LC, Liu H, Bankston LA, Iimura M, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L, Karin M. Nod2 mutation in Crohn's disease potentiates NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta processing. Science. 2005 Feb 4; 307(5710):734-8. PMID: 15692052.
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      133. Arkan MC, Hevener AL, Greten FR, Maeda S, Li ZW, Long JM, Wynshaw-Boris A, Poli G, Olefsky J, Karin M. IKK-beta links inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance. Nat Med. 2005 Feb; 11(2):191-8. PMID: 15685170.
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      134. Karin M. Inflammation-activated protein kinases as targets for drug development. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005; 2(4):386-90; discussion 394-5. PMID: 16267367.
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      135. Park JM, Ng VH, Maeda S, Rest RF, Karin M. Anthrolysin O and other gram-positive cytolysins are toll-like receptor 4 agonists. J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 20; 200(12):1647-55. PMID: 15611291.
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      136. Valledor AF, Hsu LC, Ogawa S, Sawka-Verhelle D, Karin M, Glass CK. Activation of liver X receptors and retinoid X receptors prevents bacterial-induced macrophage apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21; 101(51):17813-8. PMID: 15601766.
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      137. Bonizzi G, Bebien M, Otero DC, Johnson-Vroom KE, Cao Y, Vu D, Jegga AG, Aronow BJ, Ghosh G, Rickert RC, Karin M. Activation of IKKalpha target genes depends on recognition of specific kappaB binding sites by RelB:p52 dimers. EMBO J. 2004 Oct 27; 23(21):4202-10. PMID: 15470505.
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      138. Gao M, Labuda T, Xia Y, Gallagher E, Fang D, Liu YC, Karin M. Jun turnover is controlled through JNK-dependent phosphorylation of the E3 ligase Itch. Science. 2004 Oct 8; 306(5694):271-5. PMID: 15358865.
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      139. Luo JL, Maeda S, Hsu LC, Yagita H, Karin M. Inhibition of NF-kappaB in cancer cells converts inflammation- induced tumor growth mediated by TNFalpha to TRAIL-mediated tumor regression. Cancer Cell. 2004 Sep; 6(3):297-305. PMID: 15380520.
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      140. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell. 2004 Aug 6; 118(3):285-96. PMID: 15294155.
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      141. Bonizzi G, Karin M. The two NF-kappaB activation pathways and their role in innate and adaptive immunity. Trends Immunol. 2004 Jun; 25(6):280-8. PMID: 15145317.
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      142. Greten FR, Karin M. The IKK/NF-kappaB activation pathway-a target for prevention and treatment of cancer. Cancer Lett. 2004 Apr 8; 206(2):193-9. PMID: 15013524.
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      143. Sil AK, Maeda S, Sano Y, Roop DR, Karin M. IkappaB kinase-alpha acts in the epidermis to control skeletal and craniofacial morphogenesis. Nature. 2004 Apr 8; 428(6983):660-4. PMID: 15071597.
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      144. Galijatovic A, Beaton D, Nguyen N, Chen S, Bonzo J, Johnson R, Maeda S, Karin M, Guengerich FP, Tukey RH. The human CYP1A1 gene is regulated in a developmental and tissue-specific fashion in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 4; 279(23):23969-76. PMID: 15037607.
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      145. Hsu LC, Park JM, Zhang K, Luo JL, Maeda S, Kaufman RJ, Eckmann L, Guiney DG, Karin M. The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature. 2004 Mar 18; 428(6980):341-5. PMID: 15029200.
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      146. Park JM, Brady H, Ruocco MG, Sun H, Williams D, Lee SJ, Kato T, Richards N, Chan K, Mercurio F, Karin M, Wasserman SA. Targeting of TAK1 by the NF-kappa B protein Relish regulates the JNK-mediated immune response in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2004 Mar 1; 18(5):584-94. PMID: 15037551.
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      147. Karin M, Yamamoto Y, Wang QM. The IKK NF-kappa B system: a treasure trove for drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Jan; 3(1):17-26. PMID: 14708018.
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      148. Kato T, Delhase M, Hoffmann A, Karin M. CK2 Is a C-Terminal IkappaB Kinase Responsible for NF-kappaB Activation during the UV Response. Mol Cell. 2003 Oct; 12(4):829-39. PMID: 14580335.
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      149. Li ZW, Omori SA, Labuda T, Karin M, Rickert RC. IKK beta is required for peripheral B cell survival and proliferation. J Immunol. 2003 May 1; 170(9):4630-7. PMID: 12707341.
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      150. Chen LW, Egan L, Li ZW, Greten FR, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. The two faces of IKK and NF-kappaB inhibition: prevention of systemic inflammation but increased local injury following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Nat Med. 2003 May; 9(5):575-81. PMID: 12692538.
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      151. Lin A, Karin M. NF-kappaB in cancer: a marked target. Semin Cancer Biol. 2003 Apr; 13(2):107-14. PMID: 12654254.
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      152. Chang L, Jones Y, Ellisman MH, Goldstein LS, Karin M. JNK1 is required for maintenance of neuronal microtubules and controls phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Dev Cell. 2003 Apr; 4(4):521-33. PMID: 12689591.
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      153. Cao Y, Karin M. NF-kappaB in mammary gland development and breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2003 Apr; 8(2):215-23. PMID: 14635796.
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      154. Chen S, Nguyen N, Tamura K, Karin M, Tukey RH. The role of the Ah receptor and p38 in benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 23; 278(21):19526-33. PMID: 12637498.
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      155. Bayon Y, Ortiz MA, Lopez-Hernandez FJ, Gao F, Karin M, Pfahl M, Piedrafita FJ. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase by a new class of retinoid-related anticancer agents that induce apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Feb; 23(3):1061-74. PMID: 12529410.
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      156. Maeda S, Karin M. Oncogene at last--c-Jun promotes liver cancer in mice. Cancer Cell. 2003 Feb; 3(2):102-4. PMID: 12620404.
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      157. Shim J, Karin M. The control of mRNA stability in response to extracellular stimuli. Mol Cells. 2002 Dec 31; 14(3):323-31. PMID: 12521293.
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      158. Häcker H, Karin M. Is NF-kappaB2/p100 a direct activator of programmed cell death? Cancer Cell. 2002 Dec; 2(6):431-3. PMID: 12498710.
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      159. Shim J, Lim H, R Yates J, Karin M. Nuclear export of NF90 is required for interleukin-2 mRNA stabilization. Mol Cell. 2002 Dec; 10(6):1331-44. PMID: 12504009.
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      160. Makris C, Roberts JL, Karin M. The carboxyl-terminal region of IkappaB kinase gamma (IKKgamma) is required for full IKK activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Sep; 22(18):6573-81. PMID: 12192055.
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      161. Park JM, Greten FR, Li ZW, Karin M. Macrophage apoptosis by anthrax lethal factor through p38 MAP kinase inhibition. Science. 2002 Sep 20; 297(5589):2048-51. PMID: 12202685.
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      162. Yoshida K, Behrens A, Le-Niculescu H, Wagner EF, Harada T, Imaki J, Ohno S, Karin M. Amino-terminal phosphorylation of c-Jun regulates apoptosis in the retinal ganglion cells by optic nerve transection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 May; 43(5):1631-5. PMID: 11980884.
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      163. Karin M, Cao Y, Greten FR, Li ZW. NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Apr; 2(4):301-10. PMID: 12001991.
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      164. Karin M, Lin A. NF-kappaB at the crossroads of life and death. Nat Immunol. 2002 Mar; 3(3):221-7. PMID: 11875461.
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      165. Han Z, Chang L, Yamanishi Y, Karin M, Firestein GS. Joint damage and inflammation in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 knockout mice with passive murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Mar; 46(3):818-23. PMID: 11920420.
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      166. Senftleben U, Karin M. The IKK/NF-kappa B pathway. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jan; 30(1 Suppl):S18-26. PMID: 11782557.
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