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    Lars Eckmann

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-0683
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      PostdoctoralUC San Diego1996
      MDUniversity of Hamburg, Germany1989

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Our laboratory investigates the cellular and molecular events that occur in the intestine and in response, systemically, to infection with enteric pathogens. Our goal is to understand the mechanisms governing infection-related to intestinal disease and the host defenses against such pathogens as a basis for developing new treatment and preventive strategies.

      Two groups of enteric pathogens, Giardia and disease causing Escherichia coli serve as model systems to examine intestinal responses to microbial infection. Giardia is a waterborne protozoan parasite that colonizes the small intestine and attaches to the epithelium, but does not invade the mucosa. Infection is not accompanied by significant mucosal inflammation, yet the host develops effective immune defense and, in most cases, eradicates infection spontaneously. Enteropathogenic E. coli intimately attach to the epithelium and enters the mucosa in modest numbers, processes which are accompanied by significant mucosal inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia. We employ cell and molecular biologic, biochemical, and genetic approaches in murine infection models of Giardia and enteropathogenic E. coli to define the critical immune regulators and effector molecules that control infection with these pathogens and to develop preventive strategies against them.

      The other major focus of the laboratory is the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation. IBD in humans is characterized by chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammation, leading to bouts of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nutritional deficiencies. Furthermore, chronic inflammation promotes the development of colorectal cancer. The cause of IBD is poorly understood, but inflammation is believe to result from an interaction of the immune system and intestinal bacteria in a genetically susceptible host. Our laboratory employs murine and cell culture models to investigate different aspects of our inflammatory response to microbial and chemical challenges.

      Current projects explore the importance of innate immune receptors, specifically toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD2, and signaling through the NF-kB pathway and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways in controlling intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer development. Insights from these studies will help us to develop pharmacological strategies to attenuate inflammation and possibly prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer in IBD patients.


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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Chen P, Miyamoto Y, Mazagova M, Lee KC, Eckmann L, Schnabl B. Microbiota and Alcoholic Liver Disease. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016 Aug; 40(8):1791-2. PMID: 27364225.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Rouch JD, Scott A, Lei NY, Solorzano-Vargas RS, Wang J, Hanson EM, Kobayashi M, Lewis M, Stelzner MG, Dunn JC, Eckmann L, Martín MG. Development of Functional Microfold (M) Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0148216. PMID: 26820624; PMCID: PMC4731053.
        View in: PubMed
        View in: PubMed Central
      3. den Hartog G, Chattopadhyay R, Ablack A, Hall EH, Butcher LD, Bhattacharyya A, Eckmann L, Harris PR, Das S, Ernst PB, Crowe SE. Regulation of Rac1 and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Response to Infection of Gastrointestinal Epithelia. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005382. PMID: 26761793.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L. Drug Development Against the Major Diarrhea-Causing Parasites of the Small Intestine, Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6:1208. PMID: 26635732.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Chen P, Miyamoto Y, Mazagova M, Lee KC, Eckmann L, Schnabl B. Microbiota Protects Mice Against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015 Dec; 39(12):2313-23. PMID: 26556636.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Lakhdari O, Minev I, Shenouda S, Frey BF, Billeskov R, Singer SM, Berzofsky JA, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Lack of the programmed death-1 receptor renders host susceptible to enteric microbial infection through impairing the production of the mucosal natural killer cell effector molecules. J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Mar; 99(3):475-82. PMID: 26467188.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Manieri NA, Mack MR, Himmelrich MD, Worthley DL, Hanson EM, Eckmann L, Wang TC, Stappenbeck TS. Mucosally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal healing by promoting angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2015 Sep 1; 125(9):3606-18. PMID: 26280574.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Dann SM, Manthey CF, Le C, Miyamoto Y, Gima L, Abrahim A, Cao AT, Hanson EM, Kolls JK, Raz E, Cong Y, Eckmann L. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia. Exp Parasitol. 2015 Sep; 156:68-78. PMID: 26071205.
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      9. Eckmann L, Stappenbeck TS. IgG "detoxes" the intestinal mucosa. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 May 13; 17(5):538-9. PMID: 25974292.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Boland BS, Boyle DL, Sandborn WJ, Firestein GS, Levesque BG, Hillman J, Zhang B, Proudfoot J, Eckmann L, Ernst PB, Rivera-Nieves J, Pola S, Copur-Dahi N, Zou G, Chang JT. Validation of Gene Expression Biomarker Analysis for Biopsy-based Clinical Trials in Crohn's Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Feb; 21(2):323-30. PMID: 25545378.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Eckmann L, Barrett KE, Carethers JM. Martin f. Kagnoff, MD, january 19, 1941-november 16, 2014. Gastroenterology. 2015 Mar; 148(3):457-8. PMID: 25620667.
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      12. Mazagova M, Wang L, Anfora AT, Wissmueller M, Lesley SA, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Dhungana S, Pathmasiri W, Sumner S, Westwater C, Brenner DA, Schnabl B. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice. FASEB J. 2015 Mar; 29(3):1043-55. PMID: 25466902.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Manthey CF, Calabio CB, Wosinski A, Hanson EM, Vallance BA, Groisman A, Martín MG, Wang JY, Eckmann L. Indispensable functions of ABL and PDGF receptor kinases in epithelial adherence of attaching/effacing pathogens under physiological conditions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 Jul 15; 307(2):C180-9. PMID: 24848114.
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      14. Debnath A, Shahinas D, Bryant C, Hirata K, Miyamoto Y, Hwang G, Gut J, Renslo AR, Pillai DR, Eckmann L, Reed SL, McKerrow JH. Hsp90 inhibitors as new leads to target parasitic diarrheal diseases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Jul; 58(7):4138-44. PMID: 24820073.
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      15. Cao SS, Wang M, Harrington JC, Chuang BM, Eckmann L, Kaufman RJ. Phosphorylation of eIF2a Is Dispensable for Differentiation but Required at a Posttranscriptional Level for Paneth Cell Function and Intestinal Homeostasis in Mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014 Apr; 20(4):712-22. PMID: 24577114.
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      16. Dann SM, Le C, Choudhury BK, Liu H, Saldarriaga O, Hanson EM, Cong Y, Eckmann L. Attenuation of Intestinal Inflammation in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Infect Immun. 2014 May; 82(5):1949-58. PMID: 24566625.
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      17. Manthey CF, Autran CA, Eckmann L, Bode L. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Attachment In Vitro and EPEC Colonization in Suckling Mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb; 58(2):167-70. PMID: 24048169.
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      18. Miyamoto Y, Kalisiak J, Korthals K, Lauwaet T, Cheung DY, Lozano R, Cobo ER, Upcroft P, Upcroft JA, Berg DE, Gillin FD, Fokin VV, Sharpless KB, Eckmann L. Expanded therapeutic potential in activity space of next-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobials with broad structural diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 22; 110(43):17564-9. PMID: 24101497.
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      19. Spehlmann ME, Manthey CF, Dann SM, Hanson E, Sandhu SS, Liu LY, Abdelmalak FK, Diamanti MA, Retzlaff K, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Greten FR, Wang JY, Eckmann L. Trp53 deficiency protects against acute intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15; 191(2):837-47. PMID: 23772033.
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      20. Tejman-Yarden N, Miyamoto Y, Leitsch D, Santini J, Debnath A, Gut J, McKerrow JH, Reed SL, Eckmann L. A reprofiled drug, auranofin, is effective against metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 May; 57(5):2029-35. PMID: 23403423.
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      21. Han J, Soletti RC, Sadarangani A, Sridevi P, Ramirez ME, Eckmann L, Borges HL, Wang JY. Nuclear expression of ß-catenin promotes RB stability and resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2013 Mar; 11(3):207-18. PMID: 23339186.
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      22. McAllister CS, Lakhdari O, Pineton de Chambrun G, Gareau MG, Broquet A, Lee GH, Shenouda S, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase 8 determine double-stranded RNA-induced epithelial cell death and survival in vivo. J Immunol. 2013 Jan 1; 190(1):418-27. PMID: 23209324.
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      23. Grivennikov SI, Wang K, Mucida D, Stewart CA, Schnabl B, Jauch D, Taniguchi K, Yu GY, Osterreicher CH, Hung KE, Datz C, Feng Y, Fearon ER, Oukka M, Tessarollo L, Coppola V, Yarovinsky F, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Trinchieri G, Karin M. Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth. Nature. 2012 Nov 8; 491(7423):254-8. PMID: 23034650.
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      24. Ordás I, Eckmann L, Talamini M, Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ. Ulcerative colitis. Lancet. 2012 Nov 3; 380(9853):1606-19. PMID: 22914296.
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      25. Li X, Murray F, Koide N, Goldstone J, Dann SM, Chen J, Bertin S, Fu G, Weinstein LS, Chen M, Corr M, Eckmann L, Insel PA, Raz E. Divergent requirement for Gas and cAMP in the differentiation and inflammatory profile of distinct mouse Th subsets. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar 1; 122(3):963-73. PMID: 22326954.
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      26. Cobo ER, He C, Hirata K, Hwang G, Tran U, Eckmann L, Gallo RL, Reed SL. Entamoeba histolytica induces intestinal cathelicidins but is resistant to cathelicidin-mediated killing. Infect Immun. 2012 Jan; 80(1):143-9. PMID: 22083705.
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      27. Jenikova G, Hruz P, Andersson MK, Tejman-Yarden N, Ferreira PC, Andersen YS, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Svärd SG, Curtiss R, Eckmann L. ?1-giardin based live heterologous vaccine protects against Giardia lamblia infection in a murine model. Vaccine. 2011 Nov 28; 29(51):9529-37. PMID: 22001876.
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      28. Tejman-Yarden N, Eckmann L. New approaches to the treatment of giardiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Oct; 24(5):451-6. PMID: 21857510.
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      29. Cobo ER, Eckmann L, Corbeil LB. Murine models of vaginal trichomonad infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Oct; 85(4):667-73. PMID: 21976570.
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      30. Guma M, Stepniak D, Shaked H, Spehlmann ME, Shenouda S, Cheroutre H, Vicente-Suarez I, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. Constitutive intestinal NF-?B does not trigger destructive inflammation unless accompanied by MAPK activation. J Exp Med. 2011 Aug 29; 208(9):1889-900. PMID: 21825016.
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      31. Tejman-Yarden N, Millman M, Lauwaet T, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Dunn L, Upcroft JA, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L. Impaired parasite attachment as fitness cost of metronidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct; 55(10):4643-51. PMID: 21825286.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Ali SR, Timmer AM, Bilgrami S, Park EJ, Eckmann L, Nizet V, Karin M. Anthrax toxin induces macrophage death by p38 MAPK inhibition but leads to inflammasome activation via ATP leakage. Immunity. 2011 Jul 22; 35(1):34-44. PMID: 21683629.
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      33. Leitsch D, Burgess AG, Dunn LA, Krauer KG, Tan K, Duchêne M, Upcroft P, Eckmann L, Upcroft JA. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and thioredoxin reductase are involved in 5-nitroimidazole activation while flavin metabolism is linked to 5-nitroimidazole resistance in Giardia lamblia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Aug; 66(8):1756-65. PMID: 21602576.
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      34. Eckmann L, Neish AS. NF-?B and mucosal homeostasis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2011; 349:145-58. PMID: 20838961.
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      35. Hruz P, Eckmann L. Innate immune defence: NOD2 and autophagy in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011; 140:w13135. PMID: 21213148.
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      36. González-Navajas JM, Law J, Nguyen KP, Bhargava M, Corr MP, Varki N, Eckmann L, Hoffman HM, Lee J, Raz E. Interleukin 1 receptor signaling regulates DUBA expression and facilitates Toll-like receptor 9-driven antiinflammatory cytokine production. J Exp Med. 2010 Dec 20; 207(13):2799-807. PMID: 21115691.
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      37. Dunn LA, Burgess AG, Krauer KG, Eckmann L, Vanelle P, Crozet MD, Gillin FD, Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. A new-generation 5-nitroimidazole can induce highly metronidazole-resistant Giardia lamblia in vitro. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010 Jul; 36(1):37-42. PMID: 20456926.
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      38. He C, Nora GP, Schneider EL, Kerr ID, Hansell E, Hirata K, Gonzalez D, Sajid M, Boyd SE, Hruz P, Cobo ER, Le C, Liu WT, Eckmann L, Dorrestein PC, Houpt ER, Brinen LS, Craik CS, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Reed SL. A novel Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase, EhCP4, is key for invasive amebiasis and a therapeutic target. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11; 285(24):18516-27. PMID: 20378535.
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      39. Hruz P, Dann SM, Eckmann L. STAT3 and its activators in intestinal defense and mucosal homeostasis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar; 26(2):109-15. PMID: 20040863.
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      40. Hirata Y, Egea L, Dann SM, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. GM-CSF-facilitated dendritic cell recruitment and survival govern the intestinal mucosal response to a mouse enteric bacterial pathogen. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Feb 18; 7(2):151-63. PMID: 20159620.
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      41. Choi LJ, Jenikova G, Hanson E, Spehlmann ME, Boehling NS, Kirstein SL, Bundey RA, Smith JR, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Coordinate down-regulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms and the stimulatory G protein (G(s)) in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 23; 285(17):12504-11. PMID: 20157112.
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      42. Lauwaet T, Andersen Y, Van de Ven L, Eckmann L, Gillin FD. Rapid detachment of Giardia lamblia trophozoites as a mechanism of antimicrobial action of the isoflavone formononetin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Mar; 65(3):531-4. PMID: 20067984.
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      43. Barreau F, Madre C, Meinzer U, Berrebi D, Dussaillant M, Merlin F, Eckmann L, Karin M, Sterkers G, Bonacorsi S, Lesuffleur T, Hugot JP. Nod2 regulates the host response towards microflora by modulating T cell function and epithelial permeability in mouse Peyer's patches. Gut. 2010 Feb; 59(2):207-17. PMID: 19837677.
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      44. Spehlmann ME, Dann SM, Hruz P, Hanson E, McCole DF, Eckmann L. CXCR2-dependent mucosal neutrophil influx protects against colitis-associated diarrhea caused by an attaching/effacing lesion-forming bacterial pathogen. J Immunol. 2009 Sep 1; 183(5):3332-43. PMID: 19675161.
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      45. Valdez CA, Tripp JC, Miyamoto Y, Kalisiak J, Hruz P, Andersen YS, Brown SE, Kangas K, Arzu LV, Davids BJ, Gillin FD, Upcroft JA, Upcroft P, Fokin VV, Smith DK, Sharpless KB, Eckmann L. Synthesis and electrochemistry of 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl derivatives of 5-nitroimidazole and antimicrobial activity against Giardia lamblia. J Med Chem. 2009 Jul 9; 52(13):4038-53. PMID: 19480409.
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      46. Hruz P, Zinkernagel AS, Jenikova G, Botwin GJ, Hugot JP, Karin M, Nizet V, Eckmann L. NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through alpha-toxin-dependent innate immune activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 4; 106(31):12873-8. PMID: 19541630.
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      47. Spehlmann ME, Eckmann L. Nuclear factor-kappa B in intestinal protection and destruction. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar; 25(2):92-9. PMID: 19528876.
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      48. Grivennikov S, Karin E, Terzic J, Mucida D, Yu GY, Vallabhapurapu S, Scheller J, Rose-John S, Cheroutre H, Eckmann L, Karin M. IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer. Cancer Cell. 2009 Feb 3; 15(2):103-13. PMID: 19185845.
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      49. Eckmann L, Nebelsiek T, Fingerle AA, Dann SM, Mages J, Lang R, Robine S, Kagnoff MF, Schmid RM, Karin M, Arkan MC, Greten FR. Opposing functions of IKKbeta during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 30; 105(39):15058-63. PMID: 18815378.
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      50. Meinzer U, Esmiol-Welterlin S, Barreau F, Berrebi D, Dussaillant M, Bonacorsi S, Chareyre F, Niwa-Kawakita M, Alberti C, Sterkers G, Villard C, Lesuffleur T, Peuchmaur M, Karin M, Eckmann L, Giovannini M, Ollendorff V, Wolf-Watz H, Hugot JP. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice. PLoS One. 2008; 3(7):e2769. PMID: 18648508.
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      51. Hsu LC, Ali SR, McGillivray S, Tseng PH, Mariathasan S, Humke EW, Eckmann L, Powell JJ, Nizet V, Dixit VM, Karin M. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 3; 105(22):7803-8. PMID: 18511561.
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      52. Dann SM, Spehlmann ME, Hammond DC, Iimura M, Hase K, Choi LJ, Hanson E, Eckmann L. IL-6-dependent mucosal protection prevents establishment of a microbial niche for attaching/effacing lesion-forming enteric bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2008 May 15; 180(10):6816-26. PMID: 18453602.
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      53. Hruz P, Eckmann L. Caspase recruitment domain-containing sensors and adaptors in intestinal innate immunity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar; 24(2):108-14. PMID: 18301258.
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      54. Ringqvist E, Palm JE, Skarin H, Hehl AB, Weiland M, Davids BJ, Reiner DS, Griffiths WJ, Eckmann L, Gillin FD, Svärd SG. Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008 Jun; 159(2):85-91. PMID: 18359106.
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      55. Abe K, Nguyen KP, Fine SD, Mo JH, Shen C, Shenouda S, Corr M, Jung S, Lee J, Eckmann L, Raz E. Conventional dendritic cells regulate the outcome of colonic inflammation independently of T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23; 104(43):17022-7. PMID: 17942668.
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      56. Greten FR, Arkan MC, Bollrath J, Hsu LC, Goode J, Miething C, Göktuna SI, Neuenhahn M, Fierer J, Paxian S, Van Rooijen N, Xu Y, O'Cain T, Jaffee BB, Busch DH, Duyster J, Schmid RM, Eckmann L, Karin M. NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta. Cell. 2007 Sep 7; 130(5):918-31. PMID: 17803913.
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      57. Meléndez-López SG, Herdman S, Hirata K, Choi MH, Choe Y, Craik C, Caffrey CR, Hansell E, Chávez-Munguía B, Chen YT, Roush WR, McKerrow J, Eckmann L, Guo J, Stanley SL, Reed SL. Use of recombinant Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 1 to identify a potent inhibitor of amebic invasion in a human colonic model. Eukaryot Cell. 2007 Jul; 6(7):1130-6. PMID: 17513563.
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      58. Dann SM, Eckmann L. Innate immune defenses in the intestinal tract. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar; 23(2):115-20. PMID: 17268238.
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      59. Zaph C, Troy AE, Taylor BC, Berman-Booty LD, Guild KJ, Du Y, Yost EA, Gruber AD, May MJ, Greten FR, Eckmann L, Karin M, Artis D. Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-beta expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis. Nature. 2007 Mar 29; 446(7135):552-6. PMID: 17322906.
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      60. Lee J, Mo JH, Katakura K, Alkalay I, Rucker AN, Liu YT, Lee HK, Shen C, Cojocaru G, Shenouda S, Kagnoff M, Eckmann L, Ben-Neriah Y, Raz E. Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Dec; 8(12):1327-36. PMID: 17128265.
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      61. Davids BJ, Palm JE, Housley MP, Smith JR, Andersen YS, Martin MG, Hendrickson BA, Johansen FE, Svärd SG, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1; 177(9):6281-90. PMID: 17056558.
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      62. Eckmann L. Animal models of inflammatory bowel disease: lessons from enteric infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Aug; 1072:28-38. PMID: 17057188.
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      63. Chae S, Eckmann L, Miyamoto Y, Pothoulakis C, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. Epithelial cell I kappa B-kinase beta has an important protective role in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced mucosal injury. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15; 177(2):1214-20. PMID: 16818780.
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      64. Andersen YS, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Adaptive immunity-dependent intestinal hypermotility contributes to host defense against Giardia spp. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr; 74(4):2473-6. PMID: 16552082.
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      65. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12):4333-4. PMID: 16537368.
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      66. Eckmann L. Sensor molecules in intestinal innate immunity against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar; 22(2):95-101. PMID: 16462163.
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      67. Borges HL, Bird J, Wasson K, Cardiff RD, Varki N, Eckmann L, Wang JY. Tumor promotion by caspase-resistant retinoblastoma protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 25; 102(43):15587-92. PMID: 16227443.
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      68. Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Intestinal mucosal responses to microbial infection. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Sep; 27(2):181-96. PMID: 15928914.
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      69. Eckmann L, Karin M. NOD2 and Crohn's disease: loss or gain of function? Immunity. 2005 Jun; 22(6):661-7. PMID: 15963781.
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      70. Iimura M, Gallo RL, Hase K, Miyamoto Y, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Cathelicidin mediates innate intestinal defense against colonization with epithelial adherent bacterial pathogens. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):4901-7. PMID: 15814717.
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      71. Eckmann L. Defence molecules in intestinal innate immunity against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar; 21(2):147-51. PMID: 15711205.
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      72. Katakura K, Lee J, Rachmilewitz D, Li G, Eckmann L, Raz E. Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis. J Clin Invest. 2005 Mar; 115(3):695-702. PMID: 15765149.
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      73. Maeda S, Hsu LC, Liu H, Bankston LA, Iimura M, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L, Karin M. Nod2 mutation in Crohn's disease potentiates NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta processing. Science. 2005 Feb 4; 307(5710):734-8. PMID: 15692052.
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      74. Spahn TW, Maaser C, Eckmann L, Heidemann J, Lügering A, Newberry R, Domschke W, Herbst H, Kucharzik T. The lymphotoxin-beta receptor is critical for control of murine Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov; 127(5):1463-73. PMID: 15521015.
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      75. Yang CC, Ogawa H, Dwinell MB, McCole DF, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Chemokine receptor CCR6 transduces signals that activate p130Cas and alter cAMP-stimulated ion transport in human intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005 Feb; 288(2):C321-8. PMID: 15483227.
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      76. Sun K, Johansen FE, Eckmann L, Metzger DW. An important role for polymeric Ig receptor-mediated transport of IgA in protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 1; 173(7):4576-81. PMID: 15383591.
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      77. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, Kagnoff MF, Karin M. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell. 2004 Aug 6; 118(3):285-96. PMID: 15294155.
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      78. Ogawa H, Iimura M, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Regulated production of the chemokine CCL28 in human colon epithelium. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Nov; 287(5):G1062-9. PMID: 15246961.
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      79. Maaser C, Egan LJ, Birkenbach MP, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 and other interleukin-12-related molecules by human intestinal epithelium. Immunology. 2004 Jul; 112(3):437-45. PMID: 15196212.
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      80. Bertelsen LS, Paesold G, Marcus SL, Finlay BB, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Modulation of chloride secretory responses and barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells by the Salmonella effector protein SigD. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Oct; 287(4):C939-48. PMID: 15175224.
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      81. Maaser C, Housley MP, Iimura M, Smith JR, Vallance BA, Finlay BB, Schreiber JR, Varki NM, Kagnoff MF, Eckmann L. Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium requires B cells but not secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) or IgM antibodies. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3315-24. PMID: 15155635.
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      82. Nishihara H, Hwang M, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Eckmann L, Insel PA. Cyclic AMP promotes cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-dependent induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 and suppresses apoptosis of colon cancer cells through ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18; 279(25):26176-83. PMID: 15078890.
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      83. Hsu LC, Park JM, Zhang K, Luo JL, Maeda S, Kaufman RJ, Eckmann L, Guiney DG, Karin M. The protein kinase PKR is required for macrophage apoptosis after activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature. 2004 Mar 18; 428(6980):341-5. PMID: 15029200.
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      84. Eckmann L. Innate immunity and mucosal bacterial interactions in the intestine. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar; 20(2):82-8. PMID: 15703626.
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      85. Egan LJ, Eckmann L, Greten FR, Chae S, Li ZW, Myhre GM, Robine S, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. IkappaB-kinasebeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation provides radioprotection to the intestinal epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 24; 101(8):2452-7. PMID: 14983030.
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      86. Hase K, Murakami M, Iimura M, Cole SP, Horibe Y, Ohtake T, Obonyo M, Gallo RL, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec; 125(6):1613-25. PMID: 14724813.
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      87. Bertelsen LS, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Prolonged interferon-gamma exposure decreases ion transport, NKCC1, and Na+-K+-ATPase expression in human intestinal xenografts in vivo. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Jan; 286(1):G157-65. PMID: 12958023.
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      88. Nishihara H, Kizaka-Kondoh S, Insel PA, Eckmann L. Inhibition of apoptosis in normal and transformed intestinal epithelial cells by cAMP through induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22; 100(15):8921-6. PMID: 12837940.
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      89. Egan LJ, de Lecea A, Lehrman ED, Myhre GM, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Nuclear factor-kappa B activation promotes restitution of wounded intestinal epithelial monolayers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Nov; 285(5):C1028-35. PMID: 12826601.
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      90. Eckmann L. Mucosal defences against Giardia. Parasite Immunol. 2003 May; 25(5):259-70. PMID: 12969444.
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      91. Bertelsen LS, Paesold G, Eckmann L, Barrett KE. Salmonella infection induces a hypersecretory phenotype in human intestinal xenografts by inducing cyclooxygenase 2. Infect Immun. 2003 Apr; 71(4):2102-9. PMID: 12654832.
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      92. Que X, Kim SH, Sajid M, Eckmann L, Dinarello CA, McKerrow JH, Reed SL. A surface amebic cysteine proteinase inactivates interleukin-18. Infect Immun. 2003 Mar; 71(3):1274-80. PMID: 12595442.
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      93. Paesold G, Guiney DG, Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and the Salmonella virulence plasmid are essential for Salmonella-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2002 Nov; 4(11):771-81. PMID: 12427099.
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      94. Maaser C, Eckmann L, Paesold G, Kim HS, Kagnoff MF. Ubiquitous production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by human gastric and intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2002 Mar; 122(3):667-80. PMID: 11875000.
        View in: PubMed
      95. Eckmann L. Small bowel infections. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2002 Mar; 18(2):197-202. PMID: 17033287.
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      96. Hase K, Eckmann L, Leopard JD, Varki N, Kagnoff MF. Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human colon epithelium. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):953-63. PMID: 11796631.
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      97. Doran KS, Chang JC, Benoit VM, Eckmann L, Nizet V. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin promotes invasion of human lung epithelial cells and the release of interleukin-8. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 15; 185(2):196-203. PMID: 11807693.
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      98. Langford TD, Housley MP, Boes M, Chen J, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD, Eckmann L. Central importance of immunoglobulin A in host defense against Giardia spp. Infect Immun. 2002 Jan; 70(1):11-8. PMID: 11748158.
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      99. Eckmann L, Kagnoff MF. Cytokines in host defense against Salmonella. Microbes Infect. 2001 Nov-Dec; 3(14-15):1191-200. PMID: 11755407.
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      100. Eckmann L, Gillin FD. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions I. Pathophysiological aspects of enteric infections with the lumen-dwelling protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jan; 280(1):G1-6. PMID: 11123191.
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      101. Eckmann L, Smith JR, Housley MP, Dwinell MB, Kagnoff MF. Analysis by high density cDNA arrays of altered gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells in response to infection with the invasive enteric bacteria Salmonella. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 12; 275(19):14084-94. PMID: 10799483.
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      102. Eckmann L, Laurent F, Langford TD, Hetsko ML, Smith JR, Kagnoff MF, Gillin FD. Nitric oxide production by human intestinal epithelial cells and competition for arginine as potential determinants of host defense against the lumen-dwelling pathogen Giardia lamblia. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1; 164(3):1478-87. PMID: 10640765.
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