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    Lars Bode

    TitleAssociate Professor In Residence
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentPediatrics
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0715
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-246-1874
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2016President
      International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2014President-Elect
      International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)2012Ehrlich-Koldovsky Young Investigator Award for Research in Human Milk and Lactation
      American Society for Nutrition (ASN)2013Norman Kretchmer Memorial Award in Nutrition and Development
      American Society for Nutrition (ASN)2014Bio-Serv Award in Experimental Animal Nutrition

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of human breast milk. We are just now beginning to understand how these complex sugars benefit the breast-fed infant (Bode 2006, Bode 2009, Bode 2012).

      The goal of our research is to answer two very fundamental questions regarding HMO:

      How are HMO synthesized in the mother's lactating mammary gland?

      How do HMO benefit the breast-fed infant and potentially also the breast-feeding mother?

      Our lab uses a multidisciplinary collaborative approach that combines preclinical studies and human cohort studies with the goal to identify structure-function relationships in a variety of clinical contexts related to maternal and infant health.


      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Exploring Associations between Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Growth, Body Composition and Obesity Risk in Infancy and Early Childhood
      NIH/NICHD R21HD088953Aug 4, 2017 - Jul 31, 2019
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Exploring The Impact of Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Atherosclerosis
      NIH/NICHD R21HD089067Aug 1, 2017 - Jul 31, 2019
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Disialyl oligosaccharides as Necrotizing Enterocolitis therapeutics
      NIH/NICHD R43HD087077Sep 25, 2015 - Jun 30, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Exploring Oligosaccharide Synthesis in Human Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells
      NIH/NICHD R21HD080682Feb 23, 2015 - Jan 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Selective Inhibitors of Plasmodium Falciparum G6PD as Novel Antimalarials
      NIH/NIAID R01AI104916Aug 15, 2014 - Jul 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Fusing Glycobiology and Nutritional Sciences to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis
      NIH/NIDDK R00DK078668Sep 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Identification of G6PD inhibitors for the development of novel antimalarial drugs
      NIH/NIAID R21AI082434Aug 1, 2009 - Jul 31, 2012
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Screening for Human Milk Oligosaccharides that Protect Infants from HIV Infection
      NIH/NICHD R03HD059717Aug 7, 2008 - Aug 31, 2011
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Fusing Glycobiology and Nutritional Sciences to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis
      NIH/NIDDK K99DK078668Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Featured Publications
      Collapse Websites
      Collapse In The News

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Bazanella M, Maier TV, Clavel T, Lagkouvardos I, Lucio M, Maldonado-Gòmez MX, Autran C, Walter J, Bode L, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Haller D. Randomized controlled trial on the impact of early-life intervention with bifidobacteria on the healthy infant fecal microbiota and metabolome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 06. PMID: 28877893.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Lin AE, Autran CA, Szyszka A, Escajadillo T, Huang M, Godula K, Prudden AR, Boons GJ, Lewis AL, Doran KS, Nizet V, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2017 Jul 07; 292(27):11243-11249. PMID: 28416607.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Autran CA, Kellman BP, Kim JH, Asztalos E, Blood AB, Spence EC, Patel AL, Hou J, Lewis NE, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharide composition predicts risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Gut. 2017 Apr 05. PMID: 28381523.
        View in: PubMed
      4. McGuire MK, Meehan CL, McGuire MA, Williams JE, Foster J, Sellen DW, Kamau-Mbuthia EW, Kamundia EW, Mbugua S, Moore SE, Prentice AM, Kvist LJ, Otoo GE, Brooker SL, Price WJ, Shafii B, Placek C, Lackey KA, Robertson B, Manzano S, Ruíz L, Rodríguez JM, Pareja RG, Bode L. What's normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May; 105(5):1086-1100. PMID: 28356278.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Daniels B, Coutsoudis A, Autran C, Amundson Mansen K, Israel-Ballard K, Bode L. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2017 Aug; 37(3):204-209. PMID: 28262036.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Holscher HD, Bode L, Tappenden KA. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Intestinal Epithelial Cell Maturation In Vitro. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb; 64(2):296-301. PMID: 28114245.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Moukarzel S, Bode L. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and the Preterm Infant: A Journey in Sickness and in Health. Clin Perinatol. 2017 Mar; 44(1):193-207. PMID: 28159206.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Bode L, Contractor N, Barile D, Pohl N, Prudden AR, Boons GJ, Jin YS, Jennewein S. Overcoming the limited availability of human milk oligosaccharides: challenges and opportunities for research and application. Nutr Rev. 2016 Oct; 74(10):635-44. PMID: 27634978.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Seppo AE, Autran CA, Bode L, Järvinen KM. Human milk oligosaccharides and development of cow's milk allergy in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Feb; 139(2):708-711.e5. PMID: 27702672.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Autran CA, Schoterman MH, Jantscher-Krenn E, Kamerling JP, Bode L. Sialylated galacto-oligosaccharides and 2'-fucosyllactose reduce necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jul; 116(2):294-9. PMID: 27212112.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Alderete TL, Autran C, Brekke BE, Knight R, Bode L, Goran MI, Fields DA. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec; 102(6):1381-8. PMID: 26511224.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Bode L. The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides. Early Hum Dev. 2015 Nov; 91(11):619-22. PMID: 26375354.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Wahl A, Baker C, Spagnuolo RA, Stamper LW, Fouda GG, Permar SR, Hinde K, Kuhn L, Bode L, Aldrovandi GM, Garcia JV. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity. J Virol. 2015 Nov; 89(21):10868-78. PMID: 26292320; PMCID: PMC4621099.
      14. Gonia S, Tuepker M, Heisel T, Autran C, Bode L, Gale CA. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Candida albicans Invasion of Human Premature Intestinal Epithelial Cells. J Nutr. 2015 Sep; 145(9):1992-8. PMID: 26180242.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Kuhn L, Kim HY, Hsiao L, Nissan C, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM, Bode L. Oligosaccharide composition of breast milk influences survival of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Lusaka, Zambia. J Nutr. 2015 Jan; 145(1):66-72. PMID: 25527660; PMCID: PMC4264023.
      16. Bode L, McGuire M, Rodriguez JM, Geddes DT, Hassiotou F, Hartmann PE, McGuire MK. It’s alive: microbes and cells in human milk and their potential benefits to mother and infant. Adv Nutr. 2014 Sep; 5(5):571-3. PMID: 25469400; PMCID: PMC4188237.
      17. Etzold S, Bode L. Glycan-dependent viral infection in infants and the role of human milk oligosaccharides. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Aug; 7:101-7. PMID: 25047751.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Van Niekerk E, Autran CA, Nel DG, Kirsten GF, Blaauw R, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides differ between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and are related to necrotizing enterocolitis incidence in their preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. J Nutr. 2014 Aug; 144(8):1227-33. PMID: 24919691.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Yu H, Lau K, Thon V, Autran CA, Jantscher-Krenn E, Xue M, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Qu J, Mu S, Ding L, Bode L, Chen X. Synthetic disialyl hexasaccharides protect neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Jun 23; 53(26):6687-91. PMID: 24848971; PMCID: PMC4147952.
      20. Manthey CF, Autran CA, Eckmann L, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides protect against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attachment in vitro and EPEC colonization in suckling mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb; 58(2):165-8. PMID: 24048169.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Chan CS, Kim HY, Autran C, Kim JH, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM, Kuhn L, Bode L. Human milk galectin-3 binding protein and breast-feeding-associated HIV transmission. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Dec; 32(12):e473-5. PMID: 23899964; PMCID: PMC3907473.
      22. Marx C, Bridge R, Wolf AK, Rich W, Kim JH, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharide composition differs between donor milk and mother's own milk in the NICU. J Hum Lact. 2014 Feb; 30(1):54-61. PMID: 24282194.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Meier PP, Bode L. Health, nutrition, and cost outcomes of human milk feedings for very low birthweight infants. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov; 4(6):670-1. PMID: 24228197; PMCID: PMC3823514.
      24. Lin AE, Autran CA, Espanola SD, Bode L, Nizet V. Human milk oligosaccharides protect bladder epithelial cells against uropathogenic Escherichia coli invasion and cytotoxicity. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 01; 209(3):389-98. PMID: 23990566; PMCID: PMC3883170.
      25. Jantscher-Krenn E, Marx C, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides are differentially metabolised in neonatal rats. Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug; 110(4):640-50. PMID: 23312292.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Preuss J, Richardson AD, Pinkerton A, Hedrick M, Sergienko E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Bode L. Identification and characterization of novel human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2013 Mar; 18(3):286-97. PMID: 23023104.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Bode L, Kuhn L, Kim HY, Hsiao L, Nissan C, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Aldrovandi GM. Human milk oligosaccharide concentration and risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct; 96(4):831-9. PMID: 22894939; PMCID: PMC3441110.
      28. Preuss J, Maloney P, Peddibhotla S, Hedrick MP, Hershberger P, Gosalia P, Milewski M, Li YL, Sugarman E, Hood B, Suyama E, Nguyen K, Vasile S, Sergienko E, Mangravita-Novo A, Vicchiarelli M, McAnally D, Smith LH, Roth GP, Diwan J, Chung TD, Jortzik E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Pinkerton AB, Bode L. Discovery of a Plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase inhibitor (R,Z)-N-((1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl)methyl)-2-(2-fluorobenzylidene)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (ML276) that reduces parasite growth in vitro. J Med Chem. 2012 Aug 23; 55(16):7262-72. PMID: 22813531; PMCID: PMC3530835.
      29. Bode L, Jantscher-Krenn E. Structure-function relationships of human milk oligosaccharides. Adv Nutr. 2012 May 01; 3(3):383S-91S. PMID: 22585916; PMCID: PMC3649474.
      30. Bode L. [Researchers discover a unique human milk oligosaccharide]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2012 May; 31(5):214. PMID: 22685944.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology. 2012 Sep; 22(9):1147-62. PMID: 22513036; PMCID: PMC3406618.
      32. Preuss J, Hedrick M, Sergienko E, Pinkerton A, Mangravita-Novo A, Smith L, Marx C, Fischer E, Jortzik E, Rahlfs S, Becker K, Bode L. High-throughput screening for small-molecule inhibitors of plasmodium falciparum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6-phosphogluconolactonase. J Biomol Screen. 2012 Jul; 17(6):738-51. PMID: 22496096.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Jantscher-Krenn E, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides and their potential benefits for the breast-fed neonate. Minerva Pediatr. 2012 Feb; 64(1):83-99. PMID: 22350049.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Jantscher-Krenn E, Lauwaet T, Bliss LA, Reed SL, Gillin FD, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce Entamoeba histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity in vitro. Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 28; 108(10):1839-46. PMID: 22264879.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Jantscher-Krenn E, Zherebtsov M, Nissan C, Goth K, Guner YS, Naidu N, Choudhury B, Grishin AV, Ford HR, Bode L. The human milk oligosaccharide disialyllacto-N-tetraose prevents necrotising enterocolitis in neonatal rats. Gut. 2012 Oct; 61(10):1417-25. PMID: 22138535; PMCID: PMC3909680.
      36. Jortzik E, Mailu BM, Preuss J, Fischer M, Bode L, Rahlfs S, Becker K. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-6-phosphogluconolactonase: a unique bifunctional enzyme from Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem J. 2011 Jun 15; 436(3):641-50. PMID: 21443518.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides: prebiotics and beyond. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov; 67 Suppl 2:S183-91. PMID: 19906222.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Hong P, Ninonuevo MR, Lee B, Lebrilla C, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce HIV-1-gp120 binding to dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb; 101(4):482-6. PMID: 19230080.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Ninonuevo MR, Bode L. Infant formula oligosaccharides opening the gates (for speculation): commentary on the article by Barrat et al. on page 34. Pediatr Res. 2008 Jul; 64(1):8-10. PMID: 18574406.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Bode L, Salvestrini C, Park PW, Li JP, Esko JD, Yamaguchi Y, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 are essential in maintaining murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function. J Clin Invest. 2008 Jan; 118(1):229-38. PMID: 18064305; PMCID: PMC2117765.
      41. Bode L. Recent advances on structure, metabolism, and function of human milk oligosaccharides. J Nutr. 2006 Aug; 136(8):2127-30. PMID: 16857829.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Bode L, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate plays a central role in a dynamic in vitro model of protein-losing enteropathy. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 24; 281(12):7809-15. PMID: 16434407.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Bode L, Freeze HH. Applied glycoproteomics--approaches to study genetic-environmental collisions causing protein-losing enteropathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Apr; 1760(4):547-59. PMID: 16380211.
        View in: PubMed
      44. DeRossi C, Bode L, Eklund EA, Zhang F, Davis JA, Westphal V, Wang L, Borowsky AD, Freeze HH. Ablation of mouse phosphomannose isomerase (Mpi) causes mannose 6-phosphate accumulation, toxicity, and embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 03; 281(9):5916-27. PMID: 16339137.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Bode L, Eklund EA, Murch S, Freeze HH. Heparan sulfate depletion amplifies TNF-alpha-induced protein leakage in an in vitro model of protein-losing enteropathy. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):G1015-23. PMID: 15604198.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Bode L, Kunz C, Muhly-Reinholz M, Mayer K, Seeger W, Rudloff S. Inhibition of monocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells by human milk oligosaccharides. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Dec; 92(6):1402-10. PMID: 15583750.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Bode L, Beermann C, Mank M, Kohn G, Boehm G. human and bovine milk gangliosides differ in their fatty acid composition. J Nutr. 2004 Nov; 134(11):3016-20. PMID: 15514268.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Bode L, Rudloff S, Kunz C, Strobel S, Klein N. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce platelet-neutrophil complex formation leading to a decrease in neutrophil beta 2 integrin expression. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Oct; 76(4):820-6. PMID: 15240751.
        View in: PubMed
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