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    John Carethers

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      (PQ3) Immune Modulation of DNA Mismatch Repair in Colorectal Cancer
      NIH/NCI R01CA206010Apr 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2021
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Inflammatory Differentiation of Colorectal Cancer Among African Americans
      NIH/NCI U01CA162147Sep 1, 2012 - Aug 31, 2017
      Role: Principal Investigator
      The UCSD Digestive Diseases Research Development Center
      NIH/NIDDK R24DK080506Apr 10, 2008 - Feb 28, 2014
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Microsatellite Instability and the DNA Mismatch Repair System
      NIH/NIDDK R01DK067287Apr 1, 2004 - Aug 31, 2016
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Pathogensis of Hamartomatous Polyps
      NIH/NCI R01CA090231Sep 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2006
      Role: Principal Investigator
      CELL CYCLE REGULATION BY THE MISMATCH REPAIR GENES
      NIH/NIDDK K08DK002433Sep 30, 1995 - Aug 31, 2000
      Role: Principal Investigator
      GASTROENTEROLOGY TRAINING GRANT
      NIH/NIDDK T32DK007202Jul 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2017
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Xie R, Xu J, Xiao YF, Wu J, Wan H, Tang B, Liu J, Fan Y, Wang SM, Wu YY, Dong TX, Zhu M, Carethers J, Dong H, Yang SM. Calcium promotes human gastric cancer via a novel coupling of calcium-sensing receptor and TRPV4 channel. Cancer Res. 2017 Sep 26. PMID: 28951460.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Koi M, Carethers J. The colorectal cancer immune microenvironment and approach to immunotherapies. Future Oncol. 2017 Aug; 13(18):1633-1647. PMID: 28829193.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ashktorab H, Kupfer SS, Brim H, Carethers J. Racial Disparity in Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk. Gastroenterology. 2017 Aug 11. PMID: 28807841.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Polite BN, Adams-Campbell LL, Brawley OW, Bickell N, Carethers J, Flowers CR, Foti M, Gomez SL, Griggs JJ, Lathan CS, Li CI, Lichtenfeld JL, McCaskill-Stevens W, Paskett ED. Charting the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research: A Position Statement From the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep 10; 35(26):3075-3082. PMID: 28737975.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Polite BN, Adams-Campbell LL, Brawley OW, Bickell N, Carethers J, Flowers CR, Foti M, Gomez SL, Griggs JJ, Lathan CS, Li CI, Lichtenfeld JL, McCaskill-Stevens W, Paskett ED. Charting the future of cancer health disparities research: A position statement from the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017 Sep; 67(5):353-361. PMID: 28738442.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Polite BN, Adams-Campbell LL, Brawley OW, Bickell N, Carethers J, Flowers CR, Foti M, Gomez SL, Griggs JJ, Lathan CS, Li CI, Lichtenfeld JL, McCaskill-Stevens W, Paskett ED. Charting the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research: A Position Statement from the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute. Cancer Res. 2017 Sep 01; 77(17):4548-4555. PMID: 28739629.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Wan H, Xie R, Xu J, He J, Tang B, Liu Q, Wang S, Guo Y, Yang X, Dong TX, Carethers J, Yang S, Dong H. Anti-proliferative Effects of Nucleotides on Gastric Cancer via a Novel P2Y6/SOCE/Ca2+/ß-catenin Pathway. Sci Rep. 2017 May 26; 7(1):2459. PMID: 28550303.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Carethers J. Microsatellite Instability Pathway and EMAST in Colorectal Cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. 2017 Feb; 13(1):73-80. PMID: 28367107.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Armstrong K, Anderson ME, Carethers J, Loscalzo J, Parmacek MS, Wachter RM, Zeidel ML. International Exchange and American Medicine. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 11; 376(19):e40. PMID: 28146413.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Carethers J. The Increasing Incidence of Colorectal Cancers Diagnosed in Subjects Under Age 50 Among Races: CRaCking the Conundrum. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Oct; 61(10):2767-2769. PMID: 27480086.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Basa RC, Davies V, Li X, Murali B, Shah J, Yang B, Li S, Khan MW, Tian M, Tejada R, Hassan A, Washington A, Mukherjee B, Carethers J, McGuire KL. Decreased Anti-Tumor Cytotoxic Immunity among Microsatellite-Stable Colon Cancers from African Americans. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0156660. PMID: 27310868; PMCID: PMC4911070.
      12. Carethers J. GRG Profiles: John M. Carethers. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Jun; 61(6):1429-35. PMID: 26846119; PMCID: PMC4946577.
      13. Carethers J. Facilitating Minority Medical Education, Research, and Faculty. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Jun; 61(6):1436-9. PMID: 26856718; PMCID: PMC4875788 [Available on 06/01/17].
      14. Omary MB, Carethers J, Owyang C. Gastroenterology 2011-2016: Looking Back and Forward. Gastroenterology. 2016 Jun; 150(7):1496-1502. PMID: 27302536.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Munakata K, Uemura M, Tanaka S, Kawai K, Kitahara T, Miyo M, Kano Y, Nishikawa S, Fukusumi T, Takahashi Y, Hata T, Nishimura J, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Ikenaga M, Kato T, Murata K, Carethers J, Yamamoto H, Doki Y, Mori M. Cancer Stem-like Properties in Colorectal Cancer Cells with Low Proteasome Activity. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Nov 01; 22(21):5277-5286. PMID: 27166395.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Carethers J, Goel A. Presentation of the Julius M. Friedenwald Medal to C. Richard Boland, MD, AGAF. Gastroenterology. 2016 Jun; 150(7):1673-1677. PMID: 27138978; PMCID: PMC4951086.
      17. Suzuki S, Iwaizumi M, Tseng-Rogenski S, Hamaya Y, Miyajima H, Kanaoka S, Sugimoto K, Carethers J. Production of truncated MBD4 protein by frameshift mutation in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cells enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity that is independent of hMLH1 status. Cancer Biol Ther. 2016 Jul 02; 17(7):760-8. PMID: 27115207; PMCID: PMC4970528 [Available on 04/26/17].
      18. Ashktorab H, Ahuja S, Kannan L, Llor X, Ellis NA, Xicola RM, Laiyemo AO, Carethers J, Brim H, Nouraie M. A meta-analysis of MSI frequency and race in colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 Apr 23; 7(23):34546-57. PMID: 27120810.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Tang B, Chow JY, Dong TX, Yang SM, Lu DS, Carethers J, Dong H. Calcium sensing receptor suppresses human pancreatic tumorigenesis through a novel NCX1/Ca(2+)/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Cancer Lett. 2016 Jul 10; 377(1):44-54. PMID: 27108064.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Koi M, Garcia M, Choi C, Kim HR, Koike J, Hemmi H, Nagasaka T, Okugawa Y, Toiyama Y, Kitajima T, Imaoka H, Kusunoki M, Chen YH, Mukherjee B, Boland CR, Carethers J. Microsatellite Alterations With Allelic Loss at 9p24.2 Signify Less-Aggressive Colorectal Cancer Metastasis. Gastroenterology. 2016 Apr; 150(4):944-55. PMID: 26752111; PMCID: PMC4808397 [Available on 04/01/17].
      21. Carethers J. HEREDITARY, SPORADIC AND METASTATIC COLORECTAL CANCER ARE COMMONLY DRIVEN BY SPECIFIC SPECTRUMS OF DEFECTIVE DNA MISMATCH REPAIR COMPONENTS. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2016; 127:81-97. PMID: 28066040.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Carethers J, Braun J, Sands BE. Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Biomarkers of Digestive Diseases. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct; 149(5):1131-3. PMID: 26327133; PMCID: PMC4589521 [Available on 10/01/16].
      23. Kupfer SS, Carr RM, Carethers J. Reducing colorectal cancer risk among African Americans. Gastroenterology. 2015 Nov; 149(6):1302-4. PMID: 26302487; PMCID: PMC4955535.
      24. Carethers J, Stoffel EM. Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome mimics: The growing complex landscape of hereditary colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug 21; 21(31):9253-61. PMID: 26309352; PMCID: PMC4541378.
      25. Carethers J, Jung BH. Genetics and Genetic Biomarkers in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct; 149(5):1177-1190.e3. PMID: 26216840; PMCID: PMC4589489 [Available on 10/01/16].
      26. Carethers J. Biomarker-directed Targeted Therapy in Colorectal Cancer. J Dig Cancer Rep. 2015 Jun; 3(1):5-10. PMID: 26609516.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Hamaya Y, Guarinos C, Tseng-Rogenski SS, Iwaizumi M, Das R, Jover R, Castells A, Llor X, Andreu M, Carethers J. Efficacy of Adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil Therapy for Patients with EMAST-Positive Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127591. PMID: 25996601; PMCID: PMC4440728.
      28. Barrett KE, Eckmann L, Carethers J. Martin F. Kagnoff, MD: 1941-2014. Mucosal Immunol. 2015 May; 8(3):441-3. PMID: 25943415.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Carethers J, Koi M, Tseng-Rogenski SS. EMAST is a Form of Microsatellite Instability That is Initiated by Inflammation and Modulates Colorectal Cancer Progression. Genes (Basel). 2015 Mar 31; 6(2):185-205. PMID: 25836926; PMCID: PMC4488660.
      30. Eckmann L, Barrett KE, Carethers J. Martin F. Kagnoff, MD, January 19, 1941--November 16, 2014. Gastroenterology. 2015 Mar; 148(3):457-8. PMID: 25620667.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Carethers J. Screening for colorectal cancer in African Americans: determinants and rationale for an earlier age to commence screening. Dig Dis Sci. 2015 Mar; 60(3):711-21. PMID: 25540085; PMCID: PMC4369177.
      32. Fearon ER, Carethers J. Molecular subtyping of colorectal cancer: time to explore both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity to evaluate patient outcome. Gastroenterology. 2015 Jan; 148(1):10-3. PMID: 25451650; PMCID: PMC4471844.
      33. Tseng-Rogenski SS, Hamaya Y, Choi DY, Carethers J. Interleukin 6 alters localization of hMSH3, leading to DNA mismatch repair defects in colorectal cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2015 Mar; 148(3):579-89. PMID: 25461668; PMCID: PMC4339542.
      34. Carethers J, Coughlin S, Diamond B, Erzurum S, Fried LP, Jameson JL, Kaushansky K, Klotman ME, Lemon S, Mitchell B, Rothman P, Sawyers C, Seidman C, Somlo S. The imperative to invest in science has never been greater. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep; 124(9):3680-1. PMID: 25180532; PMCID: PMC4151225.
      35. Carethers J, Murali B, Yang B, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Basa R, Smith EJ, Lee M, Janke R, Ngo T, Tejada R, Ji M, Kinseth M, Cabrera BL, Miyai K, Keku TO, Martin CF, Galanko JA, Sandler RS, McGuire KL. Influence of race on microsatellite instability and CD8+ T cell infiltration in colon cancer. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100461. PMID: 24956473; PMCID: PMC4067325.
      36. Carethers J. Differentiating Lynch-like from Lynch syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2014 Mar; 146(3):602-4. PMID: 24468183; PMCID: PMC4134259.
      37. Carethers J. The United States System for Training of Gastroenterologists in Oncology. J Dig Cancer Rep. 2014; 2(1):11-14. PMID: 25584345.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Carethers J. DNA testing and molecular screening for colon cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Mar; 12(3):377-81. PMID: 24355100; PMCID: PMC4151968.
      39. Carethers J. Current and Future Role of the Gastroenterologist in GI Cancer Management. J Dig Cancer Rep. 2013 Nov; 1(2):78-81. PMID: 25506586.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Ashktorab H, Rahi H, Wansley D, Varma S, Shokrani B, Lee E, Daremipouran M, Laiyemo A, Goel A, Carethers J, Brim H. Toward a comprehensive and systematic methylome signature in colorectal cancers. Epigenetics. 2013 Aug; 8(8):807-15. PMID: 23975090; PMCID: PMC3883784.
      41. Iwaizumi M, Tseng-Rogenski S, Carethers J. Acidic tumor microenvironment downregulates hMLH1 but does not diminish 5-fluorouracil chemosensitivity. Mutat Res. 2013 Jul-Aug; 747-748:19-27. PMID: 23643670; PMCID: PMC3770844.
      42. Tseng-Rogenski SS, Chung H, Wilk MB, Zhang S, Iwaizumi M, Carethers J. Oxidative stress induces nuclear-to-cytosol shift of hMSH3, a potential mechanism for EMAST in colorectal cancer cells. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50616. PMID: 23226332; PMCID: PMC3511561.
      43. Ayanian JZ, Carethers J. Bridging behavior and biology to reduce socioeconomic disparities in colorectal cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Sep 19; 104(18):1343-4. PMID: 22952312.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Carethers J. Proteomics, genomics, and molecular biology in the personalized treatment of colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012 Sep; 16(9):1648-50. PMID: 22760966; PMCID: PMC3424282.
      45. Tajima A, Iwaizumi M, Tseng-Rogenski S, Cabrera BL, Carethers J. Both hMutSa and hMutSß DNA mismatch repair complexes participate in 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e28117. PMID: 22164234; PMCID: PMC3229514.
      46. Iwaizumi M, Tseng-Rogenski S, Carethers J. DNA mismatch repair proficiency executing 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Oct 15; 12(8):756-64. PMID: 21814034; PMCID: PMC3367669.
      47. Chung H, Chaudhry J, Lai JF, Young DJ, Carethers J. Flanking nucleotide specificity for DNA mismatch repair-deficient frameshifts within activin receptor 2 (ACVR2). Mutat Res. 2012 Jan 03; 729(1-2):73-80. PMID: 22001236; PMCID: PMC3237829.
      48. Lee SY, Miyai K, Han HS, Hwang DY, Seong MK, Chung H, Jung BH, Devaraj B, McGuire KL, Carethers J. Microsatellite instability, EMAST, and morphology associations with T cell infiltration in colorectal neoplasia. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Jan; 57(1):72-8. PMID: 21773681; PMCID: PMC3245369.
      49. Carethers J. One colon lumen but two organs. Gastroenterology. 2011 Aug; 141(2):411-2. PMID: 21708155; PMCID: PMC3424279.
      50. Ramamoorthy S, Devaraj B, Miyai K, Luo L, Liu YT, Boland CR, Goel A, Carethers J. John Cunningham virus T-antigen expression in anal carcinoma. Cancer. 2011 Jun 01; 117(11):2379-85. PMID: 24048785; PMCID: PMC3060305.
      51. Chung H, Chaudhry J, Lopez CG, Carethers J. Cyclin E and histone H3 levels are regulated by 5-fluorouracil in a DNA mismatch repair-dependent manner. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010 Dec 01; 10(11):1147-56. PMID: 20930505; PMCID: PMC3230292.
      52. Garcia-Marcos M, Jung BH, Ear J, Cabrera B, Carethers J, Ghosh P. Expression of GIV/Girdin, a metastasis-related protein, predicts patient survival in colon cancer. FASEB J. 2011 Feb; 25(2):590-9. PMID: 20974669; PMCID: PMC3023389.
      53. Ramamoorthy S, Liu YT, Luo L, Miyai K, Lu Q, Carethers J. Detection of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in anal carcinoma. Infect Agent Cancer. 2010 Oct 12; 5:17. PMID: 20939896; PMCID: PMC2964599.
      54. Dong H, Shim KN, Li JM, Estrema C, Ornelas TA, Nguyen F, Liu S, Ramamoorthy SL, Ho S, Carethers J, Chow JY. Molecular mechanisms underlying Ca2+-mediated motility of human pancreatic duct cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Dec; 299(6):C1493-503. PMID: 20861471; PMCID: PMC3006328.
      55. Devaraj B, Lee A, Cabrera BL, Miyai K, Luo L, Ramamoorthy S, Keku T, Sandler RS, McGuire KL, Carethers J. Relationship of EMAST and microsatellite instability among patients with rectal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 Oct; 14(10):1521-8. PMID: 20844976; PMCID: PMC2943582.
      56. Huang SC, Lee JK, Smith EJ, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Beck SE, Weidner N, Carethers J. Evidence for an hMSH3 defect in familial hamartomatous polyps. Cancer. 2011 Feb 01; 117(3):492-500. PMID: 20845481; PMCID: PMC3005073.
      57. Lee SY, Chung H, Devaraj B, Iwaizumi M, Han HS, Hwang DY, Seong MK, Jung BH, Carethers J. Microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats are associated with morphologies of colorectal neoplasias. Gastroenterology. 2010 Nov; 139(5):1519-25. PMID: 20708618; PMCID: PMC2967646.
      58. Ghosh P, Beas AO, Bornheimer SJ, Garcia-Marcos M, Forry EP, Johannson C, Ear J, Jung BH, Cabrera B, Carethers J, Farquhar MG. A G{alpha}i-GIV molecular complex binds epidermal growth factor receptor and determines whether cells migrate or proliferate. Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Jul 01; 21(13):2338-54. PMID: 20462955; PMCID: PMC2893996.
      59. Chung H, Lopez CG, Holmstrom J, Young DJ, Lai JF, Ream-Robinson D, Carethers J. Both microsatellite length and sequence context determine frameshift mutation rates in defective DNA mismatch repair. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Jul 01; 19(13):2638-47. PMID: 20418486; PMCID: PMC2912546.
      60. Campregher C, Honeder C, Chung H, Carethers J, Gasche C. Mesalazine reduces mutations in transforming growth factor beta receptor II and activin type II receptor by improvement of replication fidelity in mononucleotide repeats. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15; 16(6):1950-6. PMID: 20197483; PMCID: PMC3437339.
      61. Chung H, Lopez CG, Young DJ, Lai JF, Holmstrom J, Ream-Robinson D, Cabrera BL, Carethers J. Flanking sequence specificity determines coding microsatellite heteroduplex and mutation rates with defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Oncogene. 2010 Apr 15; 29(15):2172-80. PMID: 20140012; PMCID: PMC4028169.
      62. Carethers J. Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: Is There an Optimal Follow-up for Patients with Colorectal Cancer? Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. 2010 Jan; 6(1):24-29. PMID: 20157368.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Jung B, Gomez J, Chau E, Cabral J, Lee JK, Anselm A, Slowik P, Ream-Robinson D, Messer K, Sporn J, Shin SK, Boland CR, Goel A, Carethers J. Activin signaling in microsatellite stable colon cancers is disrupted by a combination of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. PLoS One. 2009 Dec 14; 4(12):e8308. PMID: 20011542; PMCID: PMC2789408.
      64. Chow JY, Ban M, Wu HL, Nguyen F, Huang M, Chung H, Dong H, Carethers J. TGF-beta downregulates PTEN via activation of NF-kappaB in pancreatic cancer cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Feb; 298(2):G275-82. PMID: 19940030; PMCID: PMC3774494.
      65. Ghosh P, Carethers J. Multiple "apple-core" lesions in chronic ischemic colitis: the great masquerader. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Nov; 104(11):2870-2. PMID: 19888260.
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      66. Lee JK, Carethers J, Ghosh P. ArterioVenous Malformation within Jejunal Diverticulum: an unusual cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2009; 2009:384506. PMID: 19753317; PMCID: PMC2742646.
      67. Ramamoorthy SL, Lee JK, Luo L, Mintz Y, Cullen J, Easter DW, Savu MK, Chock A, Carethers J, Horgan S, Talamini MA. The inflammatory response in transgastric surgery: gastric content leak leads to localized inflammatory response and higher adhesive disease. Surg Endosc. 2010 Mar; 24(3):531-5. PMID: 19688397; PMCID: PMC2821621.
      68. Carethers J. Intersection of transforming growth factor-beta and Wnt signaling pathways in colorectal cancer and metastasis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jul; 137(1):33-6. PMID: 19482104; PMCID: PMC3417342.
      69. Chow JY, Cabral JA, Chang J, Carethers J. TGFbeta modulates PTEN expression independently of SMAD signaling for growth proliferation in colon cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Oct; 7(10):1694-9. PMID: 18769113; PMCID: PMC2820113.
      70. Chung H, Young DJ, Lopez CG, Le TA, Lee JK, Ream-Robinson D, Huang SC, Carethers J. Mutation rates of TGFBR2 and ACVR2 coding microsatellites in human cells with defective DNA mismatch repair. PLoS One. 2008; 3(10):e3463. PMID: 18941508; PMCID: PMC2565065.
      71. Tack J, Carethers J. This month in Gastroenterology. Gastroenterology. 2008 Nov; 135(5):1435-8. PMID: 18848831.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Grady WM, Carethers J. Genomic and epigenetic instability in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct; 135(4):1079-99. PMID: 18773902; PMCID: PMC2866182.
      73. Lee JK, Ghosh P, McWhorter V, Payne M, Olson R, Krinsky ML, Ramamoorthy S, Carethers J. Evidence for colorectal sarcomatoid carcinoma arising from tubulovillous adenoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul 21; 14(27):4389-94. PMID: 18666331; PMCID: PMC2731194.
      74. Ramamoorthy S, Luo L, Luo E, Carethers J. Tobacco smoking and risk of recurrence for squamous cell cancer of the anus. Cancer Detect Prev. 2008; 32(2):116-20. PMID: 18639388; PMCID: PMC3427794.
      75. Carethers J. Systemic treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: tailoring therapy to the tumor. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul; 1(1):33-42. PMID: 21180512; PMCID: PMC3002487.
      76. Tack J, Carethers J. This month in gastroenterology. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jul; 135(1):1-5. PMID: 18554514.
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      77. Chow JY, Dong H, Quach KT, Van Nguyen PN, Chen K, Carethers J. TGF-beta mediates PTEN suppression and cell motility through calcium-dependent PKC-alpha activation in pancreatic cancer cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Apr; 294(4):G899-905. PMID: 18239055; PMCID: PMC2820122.
      78. Carethers J. Starting your first faculty position. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007 Dec; 66(6):1186-7. PMID: 18061719.
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      79. Shin SK, Nagasaka T, Jung BH, Matsubara N, Kim WH, Carethers J, Boland CR, Goel A. Epigenetic and genetic alterations in Netrin-1 receptors UNC5C and DCC in human colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2007 Dec; 133(6):1849-57. PMID: 18054557; PMCID: PMC4139066.
      80. Beck SE, Carethers J. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Aug; 6(8):1313-7. PMID: 18059158; PMCID: PMC4154563.
      81. Boland CR, Koi M, Chang DK, Carethers J. The biochemical basis of microsatellite instability and abnormal immunohistochemistry and clinical behavior in Lynch syndrome: from bench to bedside. Fam Cancer. 2008; 7(1):41-52. PMID: 17636426; PMCID: PMC2847875.
      82. Chow JY, Quach KT, Cabrera BL, Cabral JA, Beck SE, Carethers J. RAS/ERK modulates TGFbeta-regulated PTEN expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Nov; 28(11):2321-7. PMID: 17638924; PMCID: PMC4151289.
      83. Kurland JE, Beck SE, Solomon CJ, Brann OS, Carethers J, Huang SC. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in polyps from a patient with juvenile polyposis syndrome with mutant BMPR1A. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Mar; 44(3):318-25. PMID: 17325551.
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      84. Beck SE, Jung BH, Del Rosario E, Gomez J, Carethers J. BMP-induced growth suppression in colon cancer cells is mediated by p21WAF1 stabilization and modulated by RAS/ERK. Cell Signal. 2007 Jul; 19(7):1465-72. PMID: 17317101; PMCID: PMC3444522.
      85. Carethers J. Prospective evaluation of fluorouracil chemotherapy based on the genetic makeup of colorectal cancer. Gut. 2006 Dec; 55(12):1819. PMID: 17124162; PMCID: PMC1856455.
      86. Jung BH, Beck SE, Cabral J, Chau E, Cabrera BL, Fiorino A, Smith EJ, Bocanegra M, Carethers J. Activin type 2 receptor restoration in MSI-H colon cancer suppresses growth and enhances migration with activin. Gastroenterology. 2007 Feb; 132(2):633-44. PMID: 17258738; PMCID: PMC4154562.
      87. Lin RK, Miyai K, Carethers J. Symptomatic colonic spirochaetosis in an immunocompetent patient. J Clin Pathol. 2006 Oct; 59(10):1100-1. PMID: 17021136; PMCID: PMC1861742.
      88. Beck SE, Jung BH, Fiorino A, Gomez J, Rosario ED, Cabrera BL, Huang SC, Chow JY, Carethers J. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling and growth suppression in colon cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006 Jul; 291(1):G135-45. PMID: 16769811; PMCID: PMC4138725.
      89. Carethers J. Prospective evaluation of fluorouracil chemotherapy based on the genetic makeup of colorectal cancer. Gut. 2006 Jun; 55(6):759-61. PMID: 16698750; PMCID: PMC1856230.
      90. Jung B, Smith EJ, Doctolero RT, Gervaz P, Alonso JC, Miyai K, Keku T, Sandler RS, Carethers J. Influence of target gene mutations on survival, stage and histology in sporadic microsatellite unstable colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2006 May 15; 118(10):2509-13. PMID: 16380996; PMCID: PMC4155491.
      91. Ghosh P, Strong C, Naugler W, Haghighi P, Carethers J. Peritoneal mice implicated in intestinal obstruction: report of a case and review of the literature. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 May-Jun; 40(5):427-30. PMID: 16721225.
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      92. Jo WS, Carethers J. Chemotherapeutic implications in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer. Cancer Biomark. 2006; 2(1-2):51-60. PMID: 17192059; PMCID: PMC4948976.
      93. Carethers J. Unwinding the heterogeneous nature of hamartomatous polyposis syndromes. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16; 294(19):2498-500. PMID: 16287964.
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      94. Ashktorab H, Smoot DT, Farzanmehr H, Fidelia-Lambert M, Momen B, Hylind L, Iacosozio-Dononue C, Carethers J, Goel A, Boland CR, Giardiello FM. Clinicopathological features and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancers from African Americans. Int J Cancer. 2005 Oct 10; 116(6):914-9. PMID: 15856472; PMCID: PMC4155490.
      95. Yashiro M, Laghi L, Saito K, Carethers J, Slezak P, Rubio C, Hirakawa K, Boland CR. Serrated adenomas have a pattern of genetic alterations that distinguishes them from other colorectal polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Sep; 14(9):2253-6. PMID: 16172239.
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      96. Carethers J. Should African Americans be screened for colorectal cancer at an earlier age? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Aug; 2(8):352-3. PMID: 16265401; PMCID: PMC4155399.
      97. Eaton AM, Sandler R, Carethers J, Millikan RC, Galanko J, Keku TO. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 and 1298 polymorphisms, folate intake, and microsatellite instability in colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug; 14(8):2023-9. PMID: 16103455; PMCID: PMC4540476.
      98. Satia JA, Keku T, Galanko JA, Martin C, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Sandler RS, Carethers J. Diet, lifestyle, and genomic instability in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Feb; 14(2):429-36. PMID: 15734969.
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      99. Pakiz B, Flatt SW, Mills KC, Jordan LJ, Carethers J, Rock CL. Quality of life and diet intervention in individuals at risk for recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Psychooncology. 2005 Feb; 14(2):85-93. PMID: 15386785; PMCID: PMC4428563.
      100. Tajima A, Hess MT, Cabrera BL, Kolodner RD, Carethers J. The mismatch repair complex hMutS alpha recognizes 5-fluorouracil-modified DNA: implications for chemosensitivity and resistance. Gastroenterology. 2004 Dec; 127(6):1678-84. PMID: 15578504.
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      101. Iwamoto M, Hoffenberg EJ, Carethers J, Doctolero R, Tajima A, Sugano K, Franklin WA, Ahnen DJ. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin occurs commonly in the epithelial cells of juvenile polyps. Pediatr Res. 2005 Jan; 57(1):4-9; discussion 1-3. PMID: 15557107.
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      102. Gasche C, Carethers J. NOD2 and colorectal cancer: guilt by non-association. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 01; 64(15):5525; author reply 5525-6. PMID: 15289364.
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      103. Goel A, Arnold CN, Niedzwiecki D, Carethers J, Dowell JM, Wasserman L, Compton C, Mayer RJ, Bertagnolli MM, Boland CR. Frequent inactivation of PTEN by promoter hypermethylation in microsatellite instability-high sporadic colorectal cancers. Cancer Res. 2004 May 01; 64(9):3014-21. PMID: 15126336.
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      104. Jung B, Doctolero RT, Tajima A, Nguyen AK, Keku T, Sandler RS, Carethers J. Loss of activin receptor type 2 protein expression in microsatellite unstable colon cancers. Gastroenterology. 2004 Mar; 126(3):654-9. PMID: 14988818.
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      105. Carethers J, Smith EJ, Behling CA, Nguyen L, Tajima A, Doctolero RT, Cabrera BL, Goel A, Arnold CA, Miyai K, Boland CR. Use of 5-fluorouracil and survival in patients with microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2004 Feb; 126(2):394-401. PMID: 14762775.
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      106. Jung B, Carethers J, Behling C, Garvie JJ. Aphthous colitis in a young man with diverticulitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003 Aug; 58(2):301-4. PMID: 12872111.
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      107. Chang DK, Goel A, Ricciardiello L, Lee DH, Chang CL, Carethers J, Boland CR. Effect of H(2)O(2) on cell cycle and survival in DNA mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient cell lines. Cancer Lett. 2003 Jun 10; 195(2):243-51. PMID: 12767533.
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      108. Goel A, Arnold CN, Niedzwiecki D, Chang DK, Ricciardiello L, Carethers J, Dowell JM, Wasserman L, Compton C, Mayer RJ, Bertagnolli MM, Boland CR. Characterization of sporadic colon cancer by patterns of genomic instability. Cancer Res. 2003 Apr 01; 63(7):1608-14. PMID: 12670912.
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      109. Ashktorab H, Smoot DT, Carethers J, Rahmanian M, Kittles R, Vosganian G, Doura M, Nidhiry E, Naab T, Momen B, Shakhani S, Giardiello FM, Shakhani S. High incidence of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer from African Americans. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Mar; 9(3):1112-7. PMID: 12631615.
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      110. Pompa DJ, Carethers J. Occult gastrointestinal bleeding and colonic mass lesion as initial presentation of renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002 Nov-Dec; 35(5):410-2. PMID: 12394233.
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      111. Chang CL, Marra G, Chauhan DP, Ha HT, Chang DK, Ricciardiello L, Randolph A, Carethers J, Boland CR. Oxidative stress inactivates the human DNA mismatch repair system. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Jul; 283(1):C148-54. PMID: 12055083.
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      112. Gervaz P, Cerottini JP, Bouzourene H, Hahnloser D, Doan CL, Benhattar J, Chaubert P, Secic M, Gillet M, Carethers J. Comparison of microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability in predicting survival of patients with T3N0 colorectal cancer. Surgery. 2002 Feb; 131(2):190-7. PMID: 11854698.
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      113. Carethers J. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes: genetic pathways. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2002 Jan; 18(1):60-7. PMID: 17031232.
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      114. Gervaz P, Efron J, Poza AA, Chun SW, Pham TT, Woodhouse S, Wexner SD, Carethers J. Loss of heterozygosity and HIV infection in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001 Oct; 44(10):1503-8. PMID: 11598481.
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      115. Ahn MS, Miyai K, Carethers J. Intramural duodenal hematoma presenting as a complication of peptic ulcer disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001 Jul; 33(1):53-5. PMID: 11418792.
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      116. Huang SC, Lavine JE, Boland PS, Newbury RO, Kolodner R, Pham TT, Arnold CN, Boland CR, Carethers J. Germline characterization of early-aged onset of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. J Pediatr. 2001 May; 138(5):629-35. PMID: 11343035.
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      117. Yashiro M, Carethers J, Laghi L, Saito K, Slezak P, Jaramillo E, Rubio C, Koizumi K, Hirakawa K, Boland CR. Genetic pathways in the evolution of morphologically distinct colorectal neoplasms. Cancer Res. 2001 Mar 15; 61(6):2676-83. PMID: 11289147.
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      118. Bouvet M, Nardin SR, Burton DW, Behling C, Carethers J, Moossa AR, Deftos LJ. Human pancreatic adenocarcinomas express parathyroid hormone-related protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan; 86(1):310-6. PMID: 11232017.
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      119. Huang SC, Chen CR, Lavine JE, Taylor SF, Newbury RO, Pham TT, Ricciardiello L, Carethers J. Genetic heterogeneity in familial juvenile polyposis. Cancer Res. 2000 Dec 15; 60(24):6882-5. PMID: 11156385.
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      120. Chauhan DP, Yang Q, Carethers J, Marra G, Chang CL, Chamberlain SM, Boland CR. Antisense inhibition of hMLH1 is not sufficient for loss of DNA mismatch repair function in the HCT116+chromosome 3 cell line. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Oct; 6(10):3827-31. PMID: 11051225.
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      121. Boland CR, Sinicrope FA, Brenner DE, Carethers J. Colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb; 118(2 Suppl 1):S115-28. PMID: 10868902.
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      122. Carethers J, Pham TT. Mutations of transforming growth factor beta 1 type II receptor, BAX, and insulin-like growth factor II receptor genes in microsatellite unstable cell lines. In Vivo. 2000 Jan-Feb; 14(1):13-20. PMID: 10757056.
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      123. Carethers J, Chauhan DP, Fink D, Nebel S, Bresalier RS, Howell SB, Boland CR. Mismatch repair proficiency and in vitro response to 5-fluorouracil. Gastroenterology. 1999 Jul; 117(1):123-31. PMID: 10381918; PMCID: PMC4343206.
      124. Carethers J. Racial and ethnic factors in the genetic pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. J Assoc Acad Minor Phys. 1999; 10(3):59-67. PMID: 10826011.
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      125. Carethers J. Cell checkpoints and enterocyte differentiation: a recipe for sequential stages focus on "Caco-2 intestinal cell differentiation is associated with G1 arrest and suppression of CDK2 and CDK4". Am J Physiol. 1998 Nov; 275(5 Pt 1):C1191-2. PMID: 9814965.
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      126. Carethers J, Furnari FB, Zigman AF, Lavine JE, Jones MC, Graham GE, Teebi AS, Huang HJ, Ha HT, Chauhan DP, Chang CL, Cavenee WK, Boland CR. Absence of PTEN/MMAC1 germ-line mutations in sporadic Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. Cancer Res. 1998 Jul 01; 58(13):2724-6. PMID: 9661881.
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      127. Carethers J, Hawn MT, Greenson JK, Hitchcock CL, Boland CR. Prognostic significance of allelic lost at chromosome 18q21 for stage II colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 1998 Jun; 114(6):1188-95. PMID: 9609755.
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      128. Boland CR, Sato J, Saito K, Carethers J, Marra G, Laghi L, Chauhan DP. Genetic instability and chromosomal aberrations in colorectal cancer: a review of the current models. Cancer Detect Prev. 1998; 22(5):377-82. PMID: 9727618.
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      129. Zigman AF, Lavine JE, Jones MC, Boland CR, Carethers J. Localization of the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome gene to chromosome 10q23. Gastroenterology. 1997 Nov; 113(5):1433-7. PMID: 9352843.
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      130. Carethers J. The cellular and molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996 Dec; 25(4):737-54. PMID: 8960890.
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      131. Carethers J, Hawn MT, Chauhan DP, Luce MC, Marra G, Koi M, Boland CR. Competency in mismatch repair prohibits clonal expansion of cancer cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jul 01; 98(1):199-206. PMID: 8690794; PMCID: PMC507417.
      132. Carethers J, McDonnell WM, Owyang C, Scheiman JM. Massive secretory diarrhea and pseudo-obstruction as the initial presentation of Crohn's disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Jul; 23(1):55-9. PMID: 8835903.
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      133. Luce MC, Marra G, Chauhan DP, Laghi L, Carethers J, Cherian SP, Hawn M, Binnie CG, Kam-Morgan LN, Cayouette MC. In vitro transcription/translation assay for the screening of hMLH1 and hMSH2 mutations in familial colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 1995 Oct; 109(4):1368-74. PMID: 7557107.
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      134. Hawn MT, Umar A, Carethers J, Marra G, Kunkel TA, Boland CR, Koi M. Evidence for a connection between the mismatch repair system and the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. Cancer Res. 1995 Sep 01; 55(17):3721-5. PMID: 7641183.
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      135. Tobi M, Holtz T, Carethers J, Owyang C. Delayed gastric emptying after laparoscopic anterior highly selective and posterior truncal vagotomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 May; 90(5):810-1. PMID: 7733092.
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      136. Koi M, Umar A, Chauhan DP, Cherian SP, Carethers J, Kunkel TA, Boland CR. Human chromosome 3 corrects mismatch repair deficiency and microsatellite instability and reduces N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine tolerance in colon tumor cells with homozygous hMLH1 mutation. Cancer Res. 1994 Aug 15; 54(16):4308-12. PMID: 8044777.
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      137. Carethers J, McDonnell WM. Images in clinical medicine. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 30; 330(26):1870. PMID: 8196730.
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      138. Heggers JP, Phillips LG, Boertman JA, Carethers J, Weingarten M, Lentz CW, Hayden J, Robson MC. The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a burn center. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1988 Nov-Dec; 9(6):610-2. PMID: 3220868.
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      139. Heggers JP, Robson MC, Manavalen K, Weingarten MD, Carethers J, Boertman JA, Smith DJ, Sachs RJ. Experimental and clinical observations on frostbite. Ann Emerg Med. 1987 Sep; 16(9):1056-62. PMID: 3631670.
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