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    Hagop Akiskal

    TitleEmeritus Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentPsychiatry
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #9116A
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Biography

      Dr. Akiskal obtained his medical degree (Alpha Omega Alpha) from the American University of Beirut in 1969. Thereafter he settled in the United States and obtained his psychiatric training at the Universities of Tennessee, Memphis and Wisconsin, Madison. He was appointed Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the University of Tennessee (1972-1990), and subsequently recruited as the Senior Science Advisor to the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (1990-1994). He is presently Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the International Mood Center at the University of California at San Diego. He holds an honorary doctorate degree from the University of Lisbon. Since 1996, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Affective Disorders.

      Research Interests

      Professor Akiskal rose to prominence with his integrative theory of depression (Science, 1973). Subsequently he established chronic depressions as treatable mood disorders. His research on cyclothymia paved the way for understanding the childhood antecedents of bipolarity, and helped in the worldwide renaissance of the temperament field. His focus on subthreshold mood disorders enlarged the boundaries of bipolar disorders. He has received the Gold Medal for Pioneer Research (Society of Biological Psychiatry), the German Anna Monika Prize for Depression, the NARSAD Prize for Affective Disorders, the Jean Delay Prize for international collaborative research (World Psychiatric Association), as well as the French Jules Baillarger and the Italian Aretaeus Prizes for his research on the bipolar spectrum.

      Clinical Focus

      Professor Akiskal has pioneered in the study of outpatient mood disorders. At the University of Tennessee, he established mood clinics which have had worldwide appeal because of his philosophy of conducting clinical training and research while delivering high quality care. His clinical expertise ranges from dysthymia to bipolar spectrum disorders, as well as comorbidity, resistant depression, interface of personality with mood disorders, mixed states, anxious bipolarity, and PTSD. In 2003, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor “for exceptional national humanitarian service.” He consults and lectures internationally.


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      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Qiu F, Akiskal H, Kelsoe JR, Greenwood TA. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity. J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 01; 207:282-290. PMID: 27741464.
        View in: PubMed
      2. de Carvalho MR, Velasques BB, Freire RC, Cagy M, Marques JB, Teixeira S, Thomaz R, Rangé BP, Piedade R, Akiskal H, Nardi AE, Ribeiro P. Frontal cortex absolute beta power measurement in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia patients. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15; 184:176-81. PMID: 26093831.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Karam EG, Itani L, Fayyad J, Hantouche E, Karam A, Mneimneh Z, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z. Temperament and suicide: A national study. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 15; 184:123-8. PMID: 26080077.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Lara DR, Bisol LW, Ottoni GL, de Carvalho HW, Banerjee D, Golshan S, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Validation of the "rule of three", the "red sign" and temperament as behavioral markers of bipolar spectrum disorders in a large sample. J Affect Disord. 2015 Sep 01; 183:195-204. PMID: 26021969.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Akiskal H, Katona C. Valedictory editorial. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 15; 177:iii. PMID: 25843206.
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      6. Maremmani AG, Rovai L, Rugani F, Bacciardi S, Massimetti E, Gazzarrini D, Dell'Osso L, Tang F, Akiskal H, Maremmani I. Chronology of illness in dual diagnosis heroin addicts: The role of mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jul 01; 179:156-60. PMID: 25863912.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Maremmani AG, Bacciardi S, Gehring ND, Cambioli L, Schütz C, Akiskal H, Jang K, Krausz M. The impact of mood symptomatology on pattern of substance use among homeless. J Affect Disord. 2015 May 01; 176:164-70. PMID: 25723559.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Carta MG, Saba L, Moro MF, Demelia E, Sorbello O, Pintus M, Pintus E, Simavorian T, Akiskal H, Demelia L. Homogeneous magnetic resonance imaging of brain abnormalities in bipolar spectrum disorders comorbid with Wilson's disease. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2015 Mar-Apr; 37(2):134-8. PMID: 25772945.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Fountoulakis KN, Gazouli M, Kelsoe J, Akiskal H. The pharmacodynamic properties of lurasidone and their role in its antidepressant efficacy in bipolar disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Mar; 25(3):335-42. PMID: 25596883.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Lolich M, Vázquez GH, Zapata S, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments in tango dancers. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 01; 173:27-30. PMID: 25462392.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Eory A, Rozsa S, Gonda X, Dome P, Torzsa P, Simavorian T, Fountoulakis KN, Pompili M, Serafini G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z, Kalabay L. The association of affective temperaments with smoking initiation and maintenance in adult primary care patients. J Affect Disord. 2015 Feb 01; 172:397-402. PMID: 25451443.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Jacobsen KK, Nievergelt CM, Zayats T, Greenwood TA, Anttila V, Akiskal H, Haavik J, Bernt Fasmer O, Kelsoe JR, Johansson S, Oedegaard KJ. Genome wide association study identifies variants in NBEA associated with migraine in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Feb 01; 172:453-61. PMID: 25451450; PMCID: PMC4394021.
      13. Piccinni A, Veltri A, Costanzo D, Vanelli F, Franceschini C, Moroni I, Domenici L, Origlia N, Marazziti D, Akiskal H, Dell'Osso L. Decreased plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during mixed episodes of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 15; 171:167-70. PMID: 25305432.
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      14. Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H, Gonda X, Erbuto D, Belvederi Murri M, Perugi G, Amore M, Girardi P, Pompili M. Cyclothymic temperament rather than polarity is associated with hopelessness and suicidality in hospitalized patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:161-5. PMID: 25240844.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Yuan C, Huang J, Gao K, Wu Z, Chen J, Wang Y, Hong W, Yi Z, Hu Y, Cao L, Li Z, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Wang B, Fang Y. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Short TEMPS-A and its application in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:178-84. PMID: 25243747.
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      16. Siwek M, Dudek D, Drozdowicz K, Jaeschke R, Styczen K, Arciszewska A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Rybakowski JK. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in male and female subjects engaging in extreme or/and high risk sports. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:66-70. PMID: 25233241.
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      17. Leung CM, Mak AD, Xiang YT, Lee S, Yan CT, Leung T, Bessonov D, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Psychometric properties of the Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese) TEMPS-A in medical students. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 01; 170:23-9. PMID: 25218733.
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      18. Lin K, Xu G, Lu W, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Lorenzo-Seva U, Guo Y, Bessonov D, Akiskal H, So KF, Lee TM. Neuropsychological performance in melancholic, atypical and undifferentiated major depression during depressed and remitted states: a prospective longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2014 Oct; 168:184-91. PMID: 25061955.
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      19. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Gonda X, Erbuto D, Forte A, Ricci F, Lester D, Akiskal H, Vázquez GH, Rihmer Z, Amore M, Girardi P. Characterization of patients with mood disorders for their prevalent temperament and level of hopelessness. J Affect Disord. 2014 Sep; 166:285-91. PMID: 25012443.
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      20. Marazziti D, Akiskal H, Udo M, Picchetti M, Baroni S, Massimetti G, Albanese F, Dell'Osso L. Dimorphic changes of some features of loving relationships during long-term use of antidepressants in depressed outpatients. J Affect Disord. 2014 Sep; 166:151-5. PMID: 25012424.
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      21. Rybakowski JK, Kaminska K, Charytonik J, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in females with co-morbid bipolar disorder and bulimia. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug; 164:90-3. PMID: 24856559.
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      22. Ristic-Ignjatovic D, Hinic D, Bessonov D, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Ristic B. Towards validation of the short TEMPS-A in non-clinical adult population in Serbia. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug; 164:43-9. PMID: 24856552.
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      23. Xu G, Lu W, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Guo Y, Miao G, Bessonov D, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Lin K. Association of affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-a with cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2014 Jun; 161:109-15. PMID: 24751317.
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      24. Karam EG, Sampson N, Itani L, Andrade LH, Borges G, Chiu WT, Florescu S, Horiguchi I, Zarkov Z, Akiskal H. Under-reporting bipolar disorder in large-scale epidemiologic studies. J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr; 159:147-54. PMID: 24679403.
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      25. Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Magiria M, Pantoula E, Moutou K, Kemeridou M, Mavridou E, Panagiotidis P, Loli E, Batsiari E, Preti A, Tondo L, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. J Affect Disord. 2014 Apr; 158:19-29. PMID: 24655761.
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      26. He H, Xu G, Sun B, Ouyang H, Dang Y, Guo Y, Miao G, Rios C, Akiskal H, Lin K. The use of 15-point hypomanic checklist in differentiating bipolar I and bipolar II disorder from major depressive disorder. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014 May-Jun; 36(3):347-51. PMID: 24461731.
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      27. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Akiskal H, Fiedorowicz JG. Overt irritability/anger in unipolar major depressive episodes: past and current characteristics and implications for long-term course. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Nov; 70(11):1171-80. PMID: 24026579.
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      28. Pacchiarotti I, Bond DJ, Baldessarini RJ, Nolen WA, Grunze H, Licht RW, Post RM, Berk M, Goodwin GM, Sachs GS, Tondo L, Findling RL, Youngstrom EA, Tohen M, Undurraga J, González-Pinto A, Goldberg JF, Yildiz A, Altshuler LL, Calabrese JR, Mitchell PB, Thase ME, Koukopoulos A, Colom F, Frye MA, Malhi GS, Fountoulakis KN, Vázquez G, Perlis RH, Ketter TA, Cassidy F, Akiskal H, Azorin JM, Valentí M, Mazzei DH, Lafer B, Kato T, Mazzarini L, Martínez-Aran A, Parker G, Souery D, Ozerdem A, McElroy SL, Girardi P, Bauer M, Yatham LN, Zarate CA, Nierenberg AA, Birmaher B, Kanba S, El-Mallakh RS, Serretti A, Rihmer Z, Young AH, Kotzalidis GD, MacQueen GM, Bowden CL, Ghaemi SN, Lopez-Jaramillo C, Rybakowski J, Ha K, Perugi G, Kasper S, Amsterdam JD, Hirschfeld RM, Kapczinski F, Vieta E. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) task force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Nov; 170(11):1249-62. PMID: 24030475; PMCID: PMC4091043.
      29. Carta MG, Massidda D, Moro MF, Aguglia E, Balestrieri M, Caraci F, Dell'Osso L, Di Sciascio G, Drago F, Faravelli C, Hardoy MC, Calò S, Pollice R, Fortezzo A, Akiskal H. Comparing factor structure of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ): In Italy sexual behavior is euphoric but in Asia mysterious and forbidden. J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb; 155:96-103. PMID: 24238869.
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      30. Dell'osso L, Stratta P, Conversano C, Massimetti E, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Rossi A, Carmassi C. Lifetime mania is related to post-traumatic stress symptoms in high school students exposed to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 Feb; 55(2):357-62. PMID: 24269194.
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      31. Pombo S, Figueira ML, da Costa NF, Ismail F, Yang G, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The burden of cyclothymia on alcohol dependence. J Affect Disord. 2013 Dec; 151(3):1090-6. PMID: 24091304.
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      32. Maremmani AG, Rovai L, Bacciardi S, Rugani F, Pacini M, Pani PP, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal H, Maremmani I. The long-term outcomes of heroin dependent-treatment-resistant patients with bipolar 1 comorbidity after admission to enhanced methadone maintenance. J Affect Disord. 2013 Nov; 151(2):582-9. PMID: 23931828.
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      33. de Carvalho MR, Velasques BB, Freire RC, Cagy M, Marques JB, Teixeira S, Rangé BP, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Nardi AE, Akiskal H. Alpha absolute power measurement in panic disorder with agoraphobia patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct; 151(1):259-64. PMID: 23820098.
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      34. Greenwood TA, Badner JA, Byerley W, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Remick RA, Sadovnick AD, Akiskal H, Kelsoe JR. Heritability and genome-wide SNP linkage analysis of temperament in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 25; 150(3):1031-40. PMID: 23759419; PMCID: PMC3759543.
      35. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Gonda X, Serafini G, Sarno S, Erbuto D, Palermo M, Elena Seretti M, Stefani H, Lester D, Perugi G, Akiskal H, Siracusano A, Rihmer Z, Tatarelli R, Amore M, Girardi P. Affective temperaments and hopelessness as predictors of health and social functioning in mood disorder patients: a prospective follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 05; 150(2):216-22. PMID: 23684516.
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      36. Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Torzsa P, Kalabay L, Akiskal H, Eory A. Affective temperament, history of suicide attempt and family history of suicide in general practice patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Jul; 149(1-3):350-4. PMID: 23477849.
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      37. Lin K, Xu G, Miao G, Ning Y, Ouyang H, Chen X, Hoang N, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) TEMPS-A: a population study of 985 non-clinical subjects in China. J Affect Disord. 2013 May; 147(1-3):29-33. PMID: 23384971.
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      38. Dell'osso L, Carmassi C, Stratta P, Massimetti G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Maremmani I, Rossi A. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors. Front Psychiatry. 2012; 3:111. PMID: 23293608; PMCID: PMC3537190.
      39. Gois C, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. The relationship between temperament, diabetes and depression. J Affect Disord. 2012 Oct; 142 Suppl:S67-71. PMID: 23062859.
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      40. Maremmani I, Maremmani AG, Rugani F, Rovai L, Pacini M, Bacciardi S, Deltito J, Dell'osso L, Akiskal H. Clinical presentations of substance abuse in bipolar heroin addicts at time of treatment entry. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Sep 03; 11(1):23. PMID: 22943591; PMCID: PMC3473306.
      41. Rovai L, Leonardi A, Bacciardi S, Maremmani AG, Rugani F, dell'Osso L, Akiskal K, Akiskal H, Maremmani I. Discriminant and convergent validity of TEMPS-A[P]. Correlation with Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32) during a stressful situation. J Affect Disord. 2013 Mar 20; 146(1):142-5. PMID: 22917939.
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      42. Gois C, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. Depressive temperament, distress, psychological adjustment and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 20; 143(1-3):1-4. PMID: 22901331.
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      43. Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Leonardi A, Bacciardi S, Rugani F, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal H, Maremmani I. TEMPS-A[P] temperament profile related to professional choice. Differences between applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian Air Force or Navy. J Affect Disord. 2013 Feb 15; 145(1):106-10. PMID: 22884231.
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      44. Dolenc B, Sprah L, Dernovšek MZ, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A): temperament profiles in Slovenian university students. J Affect Disord. 2013 Jan 25; 144(3):253-62. PMID: 22868062.
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      45. Velasques B, Bittencourt J, Diniz C, Teixeira S, Basile LF, Inácio Salles J, Novis F, Angélica Silveira L, de Assis da Silva R, de Lima Teixeira A, Nardi AE, Akiskal H, Cagy M, Piedade R, Cheniaux E, Kapczinki F, Ribeiro P. Changes in saccadic eye movement (SEM) and quantitative EEG parameter in bipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2013 Mar 05; 145(3):378-85. PMID: 22832171.
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      46. Carta MG, Mura G, Lecca ME, Moro MF, Bhat KM, Angermeyer MC, Hardoy M, Akiskal H. Decreases in depression over 20 years in a mining area of Sardinia: due to selective migration? J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 10; 141(2-3):255-60. PMID: 22575287.
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      47. Omrani A, Holtzman NS, Akiskal H, Ghaemi SN. Ibn Imran's 10th century Treatise on Melancholy. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 10; 141(2-3):116-9. PMID: 22386476.
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      48. Greenwood TA, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Kelsoe JR. Genome-wide association study of temperament in bipolar disorder reveals significant associations with three novel Loci. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 15; 72(4):303-10. PMID: 22365631; PMCID: PMC3925336.
      49. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal H, Coryell W, Fawcett J, Fiedorowicz JG, Solomon DA, Keller MB. Prevalence and clinical significance of subsyndromal manic symptoms, including irritability and psychomotor agitation, during bipolar major depressive episodes. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):440-8. PMID: 22314261; PMCID: PMC3677770.
      50. Fountoulakis KN, Pantoula E, Siamouli M, Moutou K, Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Iacovides A, Akiskal H. Development of the Risk Assessment Suicidality Scale (RASS): a population-based study. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):449-57. PMID: 22301115.
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      51. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Serafini G, Akiskal H, Amore M, Niolu C, Sher L, Tatarelli R, Perugi G, Girardi P. Cyclothymic-depressive-anxious temperament pattern is related to suicide risk in 346 patients with major mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb; 136(3):405-11. PMID: 22177743.
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      52. Oedegaard KJ, Dilsaver SC, Hundal O, Riise T, Lund A, Akiskal H, Fasmer OB. Are migraine and bipolar disorders comorbid phenomena?: findings from a pharmacoepidemiological study using the Norwegian Prescription Database. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011 Dec; 31(6):734-9. PMID: 22020352.
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      53. Vellante M, Zucca G, Preti A, Sisti D, Rocchi MB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Creativity and affective temperaments in non-clinical professional artists: an empirical psychometric investigation. J Affect Disord. 2011 Dec; 135(1-3):28-36. PMID: 21820743.
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      54. Woodruff E, Genaro LT, Landeira-Fernandez J, Cheniaux E, Laks J, Jean-Louis G, Nardi AE, Versiani MC, Akiskal H, Mendlowicz MV. Validation of the Brazilian brief version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: the brief TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. J Affect Disord. 2011 Nov; 134(1-3):65-76. PMID: 21782248.
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      55. Perugi G, Del Carlo A, Benvenuti M, Fornaro M, Toni C, Akiskal K, Dell'Osso L, Akiskal H. Impulsivity in anxiety disorder patients: is it related to comorbid cyclothymia? J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct; 133(3):600-6. PMID: 21665290.
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      56. Gois C, Barbosa A, Ferro A, Santos AL, Sousa F, Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Figueira ML. The role of affective temperaments in metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Affect Disord. 2011 Nov; 134(1-3):52-8. PMID: 21641045.
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      57. Pompili M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H, Amore M, Gonda X, Innamorati M, Lester D, Perugi G, Serafini G, Telesforo L, Tatarelli R, Girardi P. Temperaments mediate suicide risk and psychopathology among patients with bipolar disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 53(3):280-5. PMID: 21641589.
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      58. Maremmani I, Perugi G, Rovai L, Maremmani AG, Pacini M, Canonico PL, Carbonato P, Mencacci C, Muscettola G, Pani L, Torta R, Vampini C, Akiskal H. Are "social drugs" (tobacco, coffee and chocolate) related to the bipolar spectrum? J Affect Disord. 2011 Sep; 133(1-2):227-33. PMID: 21605911.
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      59. Fountoulakis KN, Kelsoe JR, Akiskal H. Receptor targets for antidepressant therapy in bipolar disorder: an overview. J Affect Disord. 2012 May; 138(3):222-38. PMID: 21601292.
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      60. Oedegaard KJ, Riise T, Dilsaver SC, Lund A, Akiskal H, Fasmer OB, Hundal Ø. A pharmaco-epidemiological study of migraine and antidepressant medications: complete one year data from the Norwegian population. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):198-204. PMID: 20889212.
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      61. Morvan Y, Tibaoui F, Bourdel MC, Lôo H, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Krebs MO. Confirmation of the factorial structure of temperamental autoquestionnaire TEMPS-A in non-clinical young adults and relation to current state of anxiety, depression and to schizotypal traits. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jun; 131(1-3):37-44. PMID: 21333358.
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      62. Perugi G, Fornaro M, Akiskal H. Are atypical depression, borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder overlapping manifestations of a common cyclothymic diathesis? World Psychiatry. 2011 Feb; 10(1):45-51. PMID: 21379356; PMCID: PMC3048510.
      63. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Serafini G, Forte A, Cittadini A, Mancinelli I, Calabró G, Dominici G, Lester D, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z, Iacorossi G, Girardi N, Talamo A, Tatarelli R. Suicide attempters in the emergency department before hospitalization in a psychiatric ward. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2011 Jan; 47(1):23-34. PMID: 21418070.
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      64. Gonda X, Vázquez GH, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. From putative genes to temperament and culture: cultural characteristics of the distribution of dominant affective temperaments in national studies. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jun; 131(1-3):45-51. PMID: 21195481.
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      65. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Arduino G, Maremmani AG, Schiavi E, Perugi G, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Temperamental traits of women applying for a type of job that has been characterized historically by male identity: the military career as case study. J Affect Disord. 2011 Apr; 130(1-2):275-9. PMID: 21056474.
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      66. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Harro J, Pompili M, Akiskal H, Bagdy G, Rihmer Z. The possible contributory role of the S allele of 5-HTTLPR in the emergence of suicidality. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul; 25(7):857-66. PMID: 20837566.
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      67. Serafini G, Pompili M, Innamorati M, Fusar-Poli P, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z, Lester D, Romano A, de Oliveira IR, Strusi L, Ferracuti S, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Affective temperamental profiles are associated with white matter hyperintensity and suicidal risk in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):47-55. PMID: 20708276.
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      68. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Arduino G, Montagnari A, Abbenante D, Popovic D, Maremmani AG, Perugi G, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Discriminant and convergent validity of TEMPS-A[P] correlation with MMPI and the emotional-affective state following a stressful situation. J Affect Disord. 2011 Mar; 129(1-3):27-33. PMID: 20708277.
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      69. Parker G, Fink M, Shorter E, Taylor MA, Akiskal H, Berrios G, Bolwig T, Brown WA, Carroll B, Healy D, Klein DF, Koukopoulos A, Michels R, Paris J, Rubin RT, Spitzer R, Swartz C. Issues for DSM-5: whither melancholia? The case for its classification as a distinct mood disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Jul; 167(7):745-7. PMID: 20595426; PMCID: PMC3733615.
      70. Iliceto P, Pompili M, Girardi P, Lester D, Vincenti C, Rihmer Z, Tatarelli R, Akiskal H. Hopelessness, temperament, and health perception in heroin addicts. J Addict Dis. 2010 Jul; 29(3):352-8. PMID: 20635284.
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      71. Karam EG, Salamoun MM, Yeretzian JS, Mneimneh ZN, Karam AN, Fayyad J, Hantouche E, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The role of anxious and hyperthymic temperaments in mental disorders: a national epidemiologic study. World Psychiatry. 2010 Jun; 9(2):103-10. PMID: 20671899; PMCID: PMC2911090.
      72. Kawamura Y, Liu X, Akiyama T, Shimada T, Otowa T, Sakai Y, Kakiuchi C, Umekage T, Sasaki T, Akiskal H. The association between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and affective temperaments, as measured by TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec; 127(1-3):31-7. PMID: 20488544.
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      73. Kawamura Y, Akiyama T, Shimada T, Minato T, Umekage T, Noda Y, Ukawa K, Hashidume C, Sakai Y, Otowa T, Sasaki T, Akiskal H. Six-year stability of affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. Psychopathology. 2010; 43(4):240-7. PMID: 20424505.
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      74. Maremmani I, Dell'Osso L, Rovai L, Pacini M, Arduino G, Montagnari A, Abbenante D, Maremmani AG, Giulio P, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. TEMPS-A[p] temperament profile related to professional choice: A study in 1548 applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian air force. J Affect Disord. 2010 Aug; 124(3):314-8. PMID: 20417972.
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      75. Camacho A, Simmons AN, Ng B, Matthews SC, Akiskal H. A factor analysis of different temperament domains in a border region in rural Southern California. J Affect Disord. 2010 Oct; 126(1-2):46-8. PMID: 20392499; PMCID: PMC3782388.
      76. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Gagliano A, D'Amico F, Akiskal H. Pharmacological response in juvenile bipolar disorder subtypes: A naturalistic retrospective examination. Psychiatry Res. 2010 May 15; 177(1-2):192-8. PMID: 20381170.
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      77. Perugi G, Frare F, Toni C, Tusini G, Vannucchi G, Akiskal H. Adjunctive valproate in panic disorder patients with comorbid bipolar disorder or otherwise resistant to standard antidepressants: a 3-year "open" follow-up study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010 Oct; 260(7):553-60. PMID: 20238120.
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      78. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Lamanna F, Pani PP, Perugi G, Deltito J, Salloum IM, Akiskal H. Mood stabilizers in the treatment of substance use disorders. CNS Spectr. 2010 Feb; 15(2):95-109. PMID: 20414155.
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      79. Srivastava S, Childers ME, Baek JH, Strong CM, Hill SJ, Warsett KS, Wang PW, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Ketter TA. Toward interaction of affective and cognitive contributors to creativity in bipolar disorders: a controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep; 125(1-3):27-34. PMID: 20085848.
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      80. Masi G, Millepiedi S, Perugi G, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Mucci M, Akiskal H. A naturalistic exploratory study of the impact of demographic, phenotypic and comorbid features in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopathology. 2010; 43(2):69-78. PMID: 20068377.
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      81. Rihmer Z, Akiskal KK, Rihmer A, Akiskal H. Current research on affective temperaments. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 23(1):12-8. PMID: 19809321.
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      82. Figueira ML, Caeiro L, Ferro A, Cordeiro R, Duarte PM, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. Temperament in Portuguese university students as measured by TEMPS-A: implications for professional choice. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):30-5. PMID: 19910054.
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      83. Borkowska A, Rybakowski JK, Drozdz W, Bielinski M, Kosmowska M, Rajewska-Rager A, Bucinski A, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Polish validation of the TEMPS-A: the profile of affective temperaments in a college student population. J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):36-41. PMID: 19880192.
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      84. Pompili M, Iliceto P, Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Lester D, Akiskal H, Girardi P, Ferracuti S, Tatarelli R. Suicide risk and personality traits in physically and/or sexually abused acute psychiatric inpatients: a preliminary study. Psychol Rep. 2009 Oct; 105(2):554-68. PMID: 19928616.
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      85. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche EG, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. Psychopathological correlates of lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I patients: findings from a French national cohort. Psychopathology. 2009; 42(6):380-6. PMID: 19776668.
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      86. Pani PP, Maremmani I, Trogu E, Gessa GL, Ruiz P, Akiskal H. Delineating the psychic structure of substance abuse and addictions: should anxiety, mood and impulse-control dysregulation be included? J Affect Disord. 2010 May; 122(3):185-97. PMID: 19584019.
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      87. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. The modified SCID Hypomania Module (SCID-Hba): a detailed systematic phenomenologic probing. J Affect Disord. 2009 Oct; 117(3):131-6. PMID: 19552962.
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      88. Sakai Y, Akiyama T, Kawamura Y, Matsumoto S, Tominaga M, Kurabayashi L, Miyake Y, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Temperament and melancholic type: path analysis of a prospective study of depressive mood change in a nonclinical population. Psychopathology. 2009; 42(4):249-56. PMID: 19521141.
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      89. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal H. Is a family history of bipolar disorder a risk factor for migraine among affectively ill patients? Psychopathology. 2009; 42(2):119-23. PMID: 19246955.
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      90. Oedegaard KJ, Syrstad VE, Morken G, Akiskal H, Fasmer OB. A study of age at onset and affective temperaments in a Norwegian sample of patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2009 Nov; 118(1-3):229-33. PMID: 19243836.
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      91. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Popovic D, Romano A, Maremmani AG, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments in heroin addiction. J Affect Disord. 2009 Oct; 117(3):186-92. PMID: 19201034.
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      92. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Migraine in affectively ill Mexican adolescents. World Psychiatry. 2009 Feb; 8(1):37-9. PMID: 20157635; PMCID: PMC2821071.
      93. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Oedegaard KJ, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Migraine headache in affectively ill latino adults of mexican american origin is associated with bipolarity. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 11(6):302-6. PMID: 20098521.
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      94. Pompili M, Innamorati M, Lester D, Akiskal H, Rihmer Z, del Casale A, Amore M, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Substance abuse, temperament and suicide risk: evidence from a case-control study. J Addict Dis. 2009; 28(1):13-20. PMID: 19197591.
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      95. Rihmer A, Rozsa S, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments, as measured by TEMPS-A, among nonviolent suicide attempters. J Affect Disord. 2009 Jul; 116(1-2):18-22. PMID: 19036456.
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      96. Toni C, Perugi G, Frare F, Tusini G, Fountoulakis KN, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. The clinical-familial correlates and naturalistic outcome of panic-disorder-agoraphobia with and without lifetime bipolar II comorbidity. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov 13; 7:23. PMID: 19014559; PMCID: PMC2600819.
      97. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal H. "Mixed hypomania" in children and adolescents: is it a pediatric bipolar phenotype with extreme diurnal variation between depression and hypomania? J Affect Disord. 2009 Jul; 116(1-2):12-7. PMID: 19007995.
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      98. Lunde AV, Fasmer OB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H, Oedegaard KJ. The relationship of bulimia and anorexia nervosa with bipolar disorder and its temperamental foundations. J Affect Disord. 2009 Jun; 115(3):309-14. PMID: 19007998.
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      99. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche E, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. Risk factors associated with lifetime suicide attempts in bipolar I patients: findings from a French National Cohort. Compr Psychiatry. 2009 Mar-Apr; 50(2):115-20. PMID: 19216887.
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      100. Gonda X, Fountoulakis KN, Juhasz G, Rihmer Z, Lazary J, Laszik A, Akiskal H, Bagdy G. Association of the s allele of the 5-HTTLPR with neuroticism-related traits and temperaments in a psychiatrically healthy population. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Mar; 259(2):106-13. PMID: 18806915.
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      101. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche EG, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. Factors associated with rapid cycling in bipolar I manic patients: findings from a French national study. CNS Spectr. 2008 Sep; 13(9):780-7. PMID: 18849897.
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      102. Dorey JM, Beauchet O, Thomas Antérion C, Rouch I, Krolak-Salmon P, Gaucher J, Gonthier R, Akiskal H. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and bipolar spectrum disorders: review of the evidence of a relationship and treatment implications. CNS Spectr. 2008 Sep; 13(9):796-803. PMID: 18849899.
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      103. Pompili M, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H, Innamorati M, Iliceto P, Akiskal KK, Lester D, Narciso V, Ferracuti S, Tatarelli R, De Pisa E, Girardi P. Temperament and personality dimensions in suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatric inpatients. Psychopathology. 2008; 41(5):313-21. PMID: 18635934.
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      104. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Adida M, Hantouche E, Hameg A, Lancrenon S, Akiskal H. Toward the delineation of mania subtypes in the French National EPIMAN-II Mille Cohort. Comparisons with prior cluster analytic investigations. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Dec; 258(8):497-504. PMID: 18574610.
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      105. Figueira ML, Caeiro L, Ferro A, Severino L, Duarte PM, Abreu M, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. Validation of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A): Portuguese-Lisbon version. J Affect Disord. 2008 Dec; 111(2-3):193-203. PMID: 18440648.
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      106. Evans LM, Akiskal H, Greenwood TA, Nievergelt CM, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, Schork NJ, Kelsoe JR. Suggestive linkage of a chromosomal locus on 18p11 to cyclothymic temperament in bipolar disorder families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Apr 05; 147(3):326-32. PMID: 18081158.
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      107. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal H, Coryell W, Leon AC, Maser JD, Solomon DA. Residual symptom recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorders and rapid episode relapse/recurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Apr; 65(4):386-94. PMID: 18391127.
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      108. Oedegaard KJ, Neckelmann D, Benazzi F, Syrstad VE, Akiskal H, Fasmer OB. Dissociative experiences differentiate bipolar-II from unipolar depressed patients: the mediating role of cyclothymia and the Type A behaviour speed and impatience subscale. J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun; 108(3):207-16. PMID: 18077000.
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      109. Akiskal H. The field of affectiveology at the new millennium: clinically relevant advances as reflected in books (1998-2007). J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):1-4. PMID: 18187206.
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      110. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Manning JS, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Pain complaints in latino adults of mexican origin with and without major depressive episode: a cross-sectional study. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 10(3):191-6. PMID: 18615171; PMCID: PMC2446491.
      111. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Differential patterns of lifetime multiple anxiety disorder comorbidity between Latino adults with bipolar I and major depressive disorders. Bull Menninger Clin. 2008; 72(2):130-48. PMID: 18637749.
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      112. Fasmer OB, Akiskal H, Hugdahl K, Oedegaard KJ. Non-right-handedness is associated with migraine and soft bipolarity in patients with mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun; 108(3):217-24. PMID: 18160136.
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      113. Akiskal H. Targeting suicide prevention to modifiable risk factors: has bipolar II been overlooked? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Dec; 116(6):395-402. PMID: 17997720.
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      114. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Solomon DA, Maser JD, Coryell W, Endicott J, Akiskal H. Psychosocial disability and work role function compared across the long-term course of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 2008 May; 108(1-2):49-58. PMID: 18006071.
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      115. Vázquez GH, Kahn C, Schiavo CE, Goldchluk A, Herbst L, Piccione M, Saidman N, Ruggeri H, Silva A, Leal J, Bonetto GG, Zaratiegui R, Padilla E, Vilapriño JJ, Calvó M, Guerrero G, Strejilevich SA, Cetkovich-Bakmas MG, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Bipolar disorders and affective temperaments: a national family study testing the "endophenotype" and "subaffective" theses using the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires. J Affect Disord. 2008 May; 108(1-2):25-32. PMID: 18006072.
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      116. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Pani PP, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal H. The mental status of 1090 heroin addicts at entry into treatment: should depression be considered a 'dual diagnosis'? Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 13; 6:31. PMID: 17999769; PMCID: PMC2216008.
      117. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Continuous distribution of atypical depressive symptoms between major depressive and bipolar II disorders: dose-response relationship with bipolar family history. Psychopathology. 2008; 41(1):39-42. PMID: 17952020.
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      118. Ng B, Camacho A, Lara DR, Brunstein MG, Pinto OC, Akiskal H. A case series on the hypothesized connection between dementia and bipolar spectrum disorders: bipolar type VI? J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):307-15. PMID: 17889374.
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      119. Pompili M, Girardi P, Tatarelli R, Iliceto P, De Pisa E, Tondo L, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. TEMPS-A (Rome): psychometric validation of affective temperaments in clinically well subjects in mid- and south Italy. J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):63-75. PMID: 17884175.
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      120. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. How best to identify a bipolar-related subtype among major depressive patients without spontaneous hypomania: superiority of age at onset criterion over recurrence and polarity? J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr; 107(1-3):77-88. PMID: 17854907.
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      121. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. Post-traumatic stress disorder among adolescents with bipolar disorder and its relationship to suicidality. Bipolar Disord. 2007 Sep; 9(6):649-55. PMID: 17845281.
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      122. Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Affective temperament: a mediating variable between environment and clinical depression? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 64(9):1096-7. PMID: 17768275.
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      123. Azorin JM, Kaladjian A, Akiskal H, Hantouche EG, Duchêne LC, Gury C, Lancrenon S. Validation of a severity threshold for the Mania Rating Scale: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Psychopathology. 2007; 40(6):453-60. PMID: 17709976.
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      124. Rózsa S, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Szili I, Rihmer A, Ko N, Németh A, Pestality P, Bagdy G, Alhassoon O, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. A study of affective temperaments in Hungary: internal consistency and concurrent validity of the TEMPS-A against the TCI and NEO-PI-R. J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb; 106(1-2):45-53. PMID: 17706791.
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      125. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Toni C, Mucci M, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Akiskal H. Bipolar co-morbidity in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and treatment implications. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007 Aug; 17(4):475-86. PMID: 17822342.
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      126. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Perugi G, Deltito J, Akiskal H. Cocaine abuse and the bipolar spectrum in 1090 heroin addicts: clinical observations and a proposed pathophysiologic model. J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb; 106(1-2):55-61. PMID: 17669508.
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      127. Yerevanian BI, Koek RJ, Mintz J, Akiskal H. Bipolar pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior Part 2. The impact of antidepressants. J Affect Disord. 2007 Nov; 103(1-3):13-21. PMID: 17617467.
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      128. Maremmani I, Pani PP, Canoniero S, Pacini M, Perugi G, Rihmer Z, Akiskal H. Is the bipolar spectrum the psychopathological substrate of suicidality in heroin addicts? Psychopathology. 2007; 40(5):269-77. PMID: 17622705.
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      129. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, Toni C, Mucci M, Bertini N, Pfanner C, Berloffa S, Pari C, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Clinical and research implications of panic-bipolar comorbidity in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2007 Sep 30; 153(1):47-54. PMID: 17602754.
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      130. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence. J Affect Disord. 2007 Jun; 100(1-3):1-6. PMID: 17499855.
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      131. Fountoulakis KN, Vieta E, Bouras C, Notaridis G, Giannakopoulos P, Kaprinis G, Akiskal H. A systematic review of existing data on long-term lithium therapy: neuroprotective or neurotoxic? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Mar; 11(2):269-87. PMID: 17506922.
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      132. Merikangas KR, Akiskal H, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, Kessler RC. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May; 64(5):543-52. PMID: 17485606; PMCID: PMC1931566.
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      134. Kessler RC, Akiskal H, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Wang PS. Considering the costs of bipolar depression. Behav Healthc. 2007 Jan; 27(1):45-7. PMID: 17310917.
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      135. Akiskal H. The emergence of the bipolar spectrum: validation along clinical-epidemiologic and familial-genetic lines. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2007; 40(4):99-115. PMID: 18227781.
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      136. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. A mixed state core for melancholia: an exploration in history, art and clinical science. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007; (433):44-9. PMID: 17280570.
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      137. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Biphasic course in bipolar II outpatients: prevalence and clinical correlates of a cyclic pattern described by Baillarger and Falret in hospitalised patients in 1854. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):183-7. PMID: 16427131.
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      138. Azorin JM, Akiskal H, Hantouche E. The mood-instability hypothesis in the origin of mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent psychotic distinction in mania: validation in a French National Study of 1090 patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):215-23. PMID: 16427134.
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      139. van Valkenburg C, Kluznik JC, Speed N, Akiskal H. Cyclothymia and labile personality: is all folie circulaire? J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):177-81. PMID: 16427135.
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      140. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. The duration of hypomania in bipolar-II disorder in private practice: methodology and validation. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):189-96. PMID: 16427136.
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      141. Krebs MO, Kazes M, Olié JP, Loo H, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. The French version of the validated short TEMPS-A: the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):271-3. PMID: 17123631.
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      142. Akiskal H. Special issue on circular insanity and beyond: historic contributions of French psychiatry to contemporary concepts and research on bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):141-3. PMID: 17123632.
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      143. Haustgen T, Akiskal H. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):149-63. PMID: 17092563.
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      144. Kessler RC, Akiskal H, Angst J, Guyer M, Hirschfeld RM, Merikangas KR, Stang PE. Validity of the assessment of bipolar spectrum disorders in the WHO CIDI 3.0. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):259-69. PMID: 16997383; PMCID: PMC1821426.
      145. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Perugi G, Toni C, Ruffolo G, Tusini G. Bipolar II and anxious reactive "comorbidity": toward better phenotypic characterization suitable for genotyping. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):239-47. PMID: 16973219.
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      146. Akiskal H, Vázquez GH. [Widening the borders of the bipolar disorder: validation of the concept of bipolar spectrum]. Vertex. 2006 Sep-Oct; 17(69):340-6. PMID: 17088954.
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      147. Kessler RC, Akiskal H, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg P, Hirschfeld RM, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Simon GE, Wang PS. Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep; 163(9):1561-8. PMID: 16946181; PMCID: PMC1924724.
      148. Karam EG, Mneimneh ZN, Salamoun MM, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. Suitability of the TEMPS-A for population-based studies: ease of administration and stability of affective temperaments in its Lebanese version. J Affect Disord. 2007 Feb; 98(1-2):45-53. PMID: 16949160.
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      149. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Benazzi F. Dose-response relationship between number of comorbid anxiety disorders in adolescent bipolar/unipolar disorders, and psychosis, suicidality, substance abuse and familiality. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):249-58. PMID: 16904187.
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      150. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche EG, Fraud JP, Gury C, Allilaire JF. Validating the bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: overview of the phenomenology and relative prevalence of its clinical prototypes. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):197-205. PMID: 16824616.
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      151. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Does the FDA proposed list of possible correlates of suicidality associated with antidepressants apply to an adult private practice population? J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):105-10. PMID: 16766043.
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      152. Lara DR, Pinto O, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Toward an integrative model of the spectrum of mood, behavioral and personality disorders based on fear and anger traits: I. Clinical implications. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):67-87. PMID: 16730070.
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      153. Lara DR, Akiskal H. Toward an integrative model of the spectrum of mood, behavioral and personality disorders based on fear and anger traits: II. Implications for neurobiology, genetics and psychopharmacological treatment. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):89-103. PMID: 16712943.
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      154. Rihmer Z, Akiskal H. Do antidepressants t(h)reat(en) depressives? Toward a clinically judicious formulation of the antidepressant-suicidality FDA advisory in light of declining national suicide statistics from many countries. J Affect Disord. 2006 Aug; 94(1-3):3-13. PMID: 16712945.
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      155. Maremmani I, Perugi G, Pacini M, Akiskal H. Toward a unitary perspective on the bipolar spectrum and substance abuse: opiate addiction as a paradigm. J Affect Disord. 2006 Jul; 93(1-3):1-12. PMID: 16675028.
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      156. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Lancrenon S, Hantouche E. Validating the soft bipolar spectrum in the French National EPIDEP Study: the prominence of BP-II 1/2. J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec; 96(3):207-13. PMID: 16647762.
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      157. Akiskal H, Kilzieh N, Maser JD, Clayton PJ, Schettler PJ, Traci Shea M, Endicott J, Scheftner W, Hirschfeld RM, Keller MB. The distinct temperament profiles of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):19-33. PMID: 16635528.
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      158. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent [major] depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):45-54. PMID: 16488021.
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      159. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal H. The clinical phenotypes of juvenile bipolar disorder: toward a validation of the episodic-chronic-distinction. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 01; 59(7):603-10. PMID: 16487492.
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      160. Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Zsombok T, Bagdy G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. The 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2006 Apr; 91(2-3):125-31. PMID: 16464506.
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      161. Perugi G, Toni C, Passino MC, Akiskal KK, Kaprinis S, Akiskal H. Bulimia nervosa in atypical depression: the mediating role of cyclothymic temperament. J Affect Disord. 2006 May; 92(1):91-7. PMID: 16436300.
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      162. Judd LL, Akiskal H, Schettler PJ, Endicott J, Leon AC, Solomon DA, Coryell W, Maser JD, Keller MB. Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: a prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Dec; 62(12):1322-30. PMID: 16330720.
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      163. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Psychometric delineation of the most discriminant symptoms of depressive mixed states. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30; 141(1):81-8. PMID: 16313969.
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      164. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Toward a clinical delineation of dysphoric hypomania - operational and conceptual dilemmas. Bipolar Disord. 2005 Oct; 7(5):456-64. PMID: 16176439.
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      165. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Mixed states: the most common outpatient presentation of bipolar depressed adolescents? Psychopathology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 38(5):268-72. PMID: 16179813.
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      166. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Psychopathologic correlates of suicidal ideation in major depressive outpatients: is it all due to unrecognized (bipolar) depressive mixed states? Psychopathology. 2005 Sep-Oct; 38(5):273-80. PMID: 16179814.
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      167. Karam EG, Mneimneh Z, Salamoun M, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Psychometric properties of the Lebanese-Arabic TEMPS-A: a national epidemiologic study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Aug; 87(2-3):169-83. PMID: 16023731.
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      168. Akiskal H, Katona C. Good news to share: backlog no more. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jul; 87(1):1-2. PMID: 15939480.
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      169. Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Rihmer Z, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Gender, suicidality and bipolar mixed states in adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jul; 87(1):11-6. PMID: 15944138.
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      170. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Optimizing the detection of bipolar II disorder in outpatient private practice: toward a systematization of clinical diagnostic wisdom. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jul; 66(7):914-21. PMID: 16013908.
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      171. Akiskal H, Fuller MA, Hirschfeld RM, Keck PE, Ketter TA, Weisler RH. Reassessing carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar disorder: clinical implications of new data. CNS Spectr. 2005 Jun; 10(6):suppl 1-11; discuss 12-3; quiz 14-5. PMID: 16041864.
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      172. McElroy SL, Kotwal R, Keck PE, Akiskal H. Comorbidity of bipolar and eating disorders: distinct or related disorders with shared dysregulations? J Affect Disord. 2005 Jun; 86(2-3):107-27. PMID: 15935230.
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      173. Akiskal H, Benazzi F, Perugi G, Rihmer Z. Agitated "unipolar" depression re-conceptualized as a depressive mixed state: implications for the antidepressant-suicide controversy. J Affect Disord. 2005 Apr; 85(3):245-58. PMID: 15780694.
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      174. Vázquez GH, Akiskal H. [The temperament evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire, Argentine version (TEMPS-A Buenos Aires)]. Vertex. 2005 Mar-Apr; 16(60):89-94. PMID: 15912215.
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      175. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK. TEMPS: Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):1-2. PMID: 15780670.
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      176. Akiskal H, Akiskal KK, Haykal RF, Manning JS, Connor PD. TEMPS-A: progress towards validation of a self-rated clinical version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):3-16. PMID: 15780671.
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      177. Akiskal H, Akiskal K, Allilaire JF, Azorin JM, Bourgeois ML, Sechter D, Fraud JP, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S, Perugi G, Hantouche EG. Validating affective temperaments in their subaffective and socially positive attributes: psychometric, clinical and familial data from a French national study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):29-36. PMID: 15780673.
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      178. Akiskal H, Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR, Gillin JC, Smith TL. TEMPS-A: validation of a short version of a self-rated instrument designed to measure variations in temperament. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):45-52. PMID: 15780675.
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      179. Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Hellweg I, Boenigk I, Michael N, Akiskal H. Studies on a German (Münster) version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: construction and validation of the briefTEMPS-M. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):53-69. PMID: 15780676.
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      180. Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Michael N, Boenigk I, Hellweg I, Signoretta S, Akiskal K, Akiskal H. Distribution and gender effects of the subscales of a German version of the temperament autoquestionnaire briefTEMPS-M in a university student population. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):71-6. PMID: 15780677.
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      181. Blöink R, Brieger P, Akiskal H, Marneros A. Factorial structure and internal consistency of the German TEMPS-A scale: validation against the NEO-FFI questionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):77-83. PMID: 15780678.
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      182. Matsumoto S, Akiyama T, Tsuda H, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Noda T, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Reliability and validity of TEMPS-A in a Japanese non-clinical population: application to unipolar and bipolar depressives. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):85-92. PMID: 15780679.
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      183. Akiyama T, Tsuda H, Matsumoto S, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Noda T, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. The proposed factor structure of temperament and personality in Japan: combining traits from TEMPS-A and MPT. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):93-100. PMID: 15780680.
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      184. Vahip S, Kesebir S, Alkan M, Yazici O, Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments in clinically-well subjects in Turkey: initial psychometric data on the TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):113-25. PMID: 15780682.
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      185. Kesebir S, Vahip S, Akdeniz F, Yüncü Z, Alkan M, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A in patients with bipolar I disorder and their first-degree relatives: a controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):127-33. PMID: 15780683.
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      186. Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Kelsoe JR, Akiskal H. A comparison of recovered bipolar patients, healthy relatives of bipolar probands, and normal controls using the short TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):147-51. PMID: 15780685.
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      187. Evans L, Akiskal H, Keck PE, McElroy SL, Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, Kelsoe JR. Familiality of temperament in bipolar disorder: support for a genetic spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):153-68. PMID: 15780686.
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      188. Signoretta S, Maremmani I, Liguori A, Perugi G, Akiskal H. Affective temperament traits measured by TEMPS-I and emotional-behavioral problems in clinically-well children, adolescents, and young adults. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):169-80. PMID: 15780687.
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      189. Moore DJ, Atkinson JH, Akiskal H, Gonzalez R, Wolfson T, Grant I. Temperament and risky behaviors: a pathway to HIV? J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):191-200. PMID: 15780689.
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      190. Akiskal KK, Savino M, Akiskal H. Temperament profiles in physicians, lawyers, managers, industrialists, architects, journalists, and artists: a study in psychiatric outpatients. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):201-6. PMID: 15780690.
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      191. Camacho A, Akiskal H. Proposal for a bipolar-stimulant spectrum: temperament, diagnostic validation and therapeutic outcomes with mood stabilizers. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):217-30. PMID: 15780692.
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      192. Akiskal KK, Akiskal H. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature. J Affect Disord. 2005 Mar; 85(1-2):231-9. PMID: 15780693.
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      193. Akiskal H. Bipolar depression: focus on phenomenology. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):105-6. PMID: 15708406.
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      194. Akiskal H. The dark side of bipolarity: detecting bipolar depression in its pleomorphic expressions. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):107-15. PMID: 15708407.
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      195. Hantouche EG, Akiskal H. Bipolar II vs. unipolar depression: psychopathologic differentiation by dimensional measures. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):127-32. PMID: 15708409.
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      196. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal H. High rate of unrecognized bipolar mixed states among destitute Hispanic adolescents referred for "major depressive disorder". J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):179-86. PMID: 15708415.
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      197. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Irritable-hostile depression: further validation as a bipolar depressive mixed state. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):197-207. PMID: 15708417.
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      198. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Atypical depression: a variant of bipolar II or a bridge between unipolar and bipolar II? J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):209-17. PMID: 15708418.
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      199. Mendlowicz MV, Akiskal H, Kelsoe JR, Rapaport MH, Jean-Louis G, Gillin JC. Temperament in the clinical differentiation of depressed bipolar and unipolar major depressive patients. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):219-23. PMID: 15708419.
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      200. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. A downscaled practical measure of mood lability as a screening tool for bipolar II. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):225-32. PMID: 15708420.
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      201. Akiskal H. Searching for behavioral indicators of bipolar II in patients presenting with major depressive episodes: the "red sign," the "rule of three" and other biographic signs of temperamental extravagance, activation and hypomania. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb; 84(2-3):279-90. PMID: 15708427.
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      202. Akiskal H. Demystifying borderline personality: critique of the concept and unorthodox reflections on its natural kinship with the bipolar spectrum. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004 Dec; 110(6):401-7. PMID: 15521823.
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      203. Baker RW, Brown E, Akiskal H, Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Schuh LM, Trzepacz PT, Watkin JG, Tohen M. Efficacy of olanzapine combined with valproate or lithium in the treatment of dysphoric mania. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec; 185:472-8. PMID: 15572737.
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      204. Dilsaver SC, Akiskal H. Preschool-onset mania: incidence, phenomenology and family history. J Affect Disord. 2004 Oct; 82 Suppl 1:S35-43. PMID: 15571788.
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      205. Soldani F, Ghaemi SN, Tondo L, Akiskal H, Goodwin FK. Relapse after antidepressant discontinuation. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul; 161(7):1312-3; author reply 1313. PMID: 15229079.
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      206. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Validating Kraepelin's two types of depressive mixed states: "depression with flight of ideas" and "excited depression". World J Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr; 5(2):107-13. PMID: 15179670.
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      207. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal H. Obsessive-compulsive bipolar comorbidity: focus on children and adolescents. J Affect Disord. 2004 Mar; 78(3):175-83. PMID: 15013241.
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      208. Akiskal H. [From circular insanity (in double form) to the bipolar spectrum: the chronic tendency for depressive recurrence]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2004; 188(2):285-96; discussion 296. PMID: 15506719.
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      209. Masi G, Perugi G, Toni C, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Bertini N, Akiskal H. Predictors of treatment nonresponse in bipolar children and adolescents with manic or mixed episodes. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2004; 14(3):395-404. PMID: 15650495.
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      210. Judd LL, Akiskal H. Depressive episodes and symptoms dominate the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2003 Dec; 5(6):417-8. PMID: 14609495.
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      211. Dilsaver SC, Henderson-Fuller S, Akiskal H. Occult mood disorders in 104 consecutively presenting children referred for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a community mental health clinic. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Oct; 64(10):1170-6; quiz, 1274-6. PMID: 14658964.
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      212. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal H, Maser J, Coryell W, Solomon D, Endicott J, Keller M. Long-term symptomatic status of bipolar I vs. bipolar II disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Jun; 6(2):127-37. PMID: 12890306.
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      213. Masi G, Toni C, Perugi G, Travierso MC, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Akiskal H. Externalizing disorders in consecutively referred children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2003 May-Jun; 44(3):184-9. PMID: 12764705.
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      214. Judd LL, Akiskal H, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Endicott J, Maser JD, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Keller MB. A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Mar; 60(3):261-9. PMID: 12622659.
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      215. Masi G, Millepiedi S, Mucci M, Pascale RR, Perugi G, Akiskal H. Phenomenology and comorbidity of dysthymic disorder in 100 consecutively referred children and adolescents: beyond DSM-IV. Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Mar; 48(2):99-105. PMID: 12655907.
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      216. Akiskal H. Validating 'hard' and 'soft' phenotypes within the bipolar spectrum: continuity or discontinuity? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):1-5. PMID: 12507732.
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      217. Akiskal H, Azorin JM, Hantouche EG. Proposed multidimensional structure of mania: beyond the euphoric-dysphoric dichotomy. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):7-18. PMID: 12507733.
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      218. Judd LL, Akiskal H, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Maser J, Rice JA, Solomon DA, Keller MB. The comparative clinical phenotype and long term longitudinal episode course of bipolar I and II: a clinical spectrum or distinct disorders? J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):19-32. PMID: 12507734.
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      219. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. Refining the evaluation of bipolar II: beyond the strict SCID-CV guidelines for hypomania. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):33-8. PMID: 12507735.
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      220. Hantouche EG, Angst J, Akiskal H. Factor structure of hypomania: interrelationships with cyclothymia and the soft bipolar spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):39-47. PMID: 12507736.
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      221. Akiskal H, Hantouche EG, Allilaire JF. Bipolar II with and without cyclothymic temperament: "dark" and "sunny" expressions of soft bipolarity. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):49-57. PMID: 12507737.
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      222. Benazzi F, Akiskal H. The dual factor structure of self-rated MDQ hypomania: energized-activity versus irritable-thought racing. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):59-64. PMID: 12507738.
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      223. Akiskal H, Hantouche EG, Allilaire JF, Sechter D, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. Validating antidepressant-associated hypomania (bipolar III): a systematic comparison with spontaneous hypomania (bipolar II). J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):65-74. PMID: 12507739.
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      224. Perugi G, Toni C, Travierso MC, Akiskal H. The role of cyclothymia in atypical depression: toward a data-based reconceptualization of the borderline-bipolar II connection. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):87-98. PMID: 12507741.
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      225. Akiskal H, Benazzi F. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):113-22. PMID: 12507744.
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      226. Judd LL, Akiskal H. The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population: re-analysis of the ECA database taking into account subthreshold cases. J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan; 73(1-2):123-31. PMID: 12507745.
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      227. Perugi G, Toni C, Frare F, Travierso MC, Hantouche E, Akiskal H. Obsessive-compulsive-bipolar comorbidity: a systematic exploration of clinical features and treatment outcome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1129-34. PMID: 12523872.
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      228. Perugi G, Toni C, Frare F, Ruffolo G, Moretti L, Torti C, Akiskal H. Effectiveness of adjunctive gabapentin in resistant bipolar disorder: is it due to anxious-alcohol abuse comorbidity? J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Dec; 22(6):584-91. PMID: 12454558.
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      229. Maser JD, Akiskal H. Spectrum concepts in major mental disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):xi-xiii. PMID: 12462854.
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      230. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Akiskal H. The prevalence, clinical relevance, and public health significance of subthreshold depressions. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):685-98. PMID: 12462855.
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      231. Perugi G, Akiskal H. The soft bipolar spectrum redefined: focus on the cyclothymic, anxious-sensitive, impulse-dyscontrol, and binge-eating connection in bipolar II and related conditions. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002 Dec; 25(4):713-37. PMID: 12462857.
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      232. Judd LL, Akiskal H, Schettler PJ, Endicott J, Maser J, Solomon DA, Leon AC, Rice JA, Keller MB. The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jun; 59(6):530-7. PMID: 12044195.
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      233. Judd LL, Akiskal H. The clinical and public health relevance of current research on subthreshold depressive symptoms to elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002 May-Jun; 10(3):233-8. PMID: 11994210.
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      234. Akiskal H. The bipolar spectrum--the shaping of a new paradigm in psychiatry. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2002 Feb; 4(1):1-3. PMID: 11814388.
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      235. Perugi G, Frare F, Madaro D, Maremmani I, Akiskal H. Alcohol abuse in social phobic patients: is there a bipolar connection? J Affect Disord. 2002 Feb; 68(1):33-9. PMID: 11869780.
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      236. Maser JD, Akiskal H, Schettler P, Scheftner W, Mueller T, Endicott J, Solomon D, Clayton P. Can temperament identify affectively ill patients who engage in lethal or near-lethal suicidal behavior? A 14-year prospective study. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2002; 32(1):10-32. PMID: 11931008.
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      237. Akiskal H, Hantouche EG, Bourgeois ML, Azorin JM, Sechter D, Allilaire JF, Chatenêt-Duchêne L, Lancrenon S. Toward a refined phenomenology of mania: combining clinician-assessment and self-report in the French EPIMAN study. J Affect Disord. 2001 Dec; 67(1-3):89-96. PMID: 11869755.
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      238. Akiskal H. Dysthymia and cyclothymia in psychiatric practice a century after Kraepelin. J Affect Disord. 2001 Jan; 62(1-2):17-31. PMID: 11172870.
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      239. Akiskal H, Bourgeois ML, Angst J, Post R, Möller H, Hirschfeld R. Re-evaluating the prevalence of and diagnostic composition within the broad clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2000 Sep; 59 Suppl 1:S5-S30. PMID: 11121824.
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      240. Akiskal H, Pinto O. The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1999 Sep; 22(3):517-34, vii. PMID: 10550853.
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      241. Akiskal H, Placidi GF, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Gervasi R, Mallya G, Puzantian VR. TEMPS-I: delineating the most discriminant traits of the cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in a nonpatient population. J Affect Disord. 1998 Oct; 51(1):7-19. PMID: 9879799.
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