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    George Somero

    TitleEmeritus Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentScripps Institution of Oceanography Department
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0202
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Liao ML, Zhang S, Zhang GY, Chu YM, Somero G, Dong YW. Heat-resistant cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDHs) of thermophilic intertidal snails (genus Echinolittorina): protein underpinnings of tolerance to body temperatures reaching 55°C. J Exp Biol. 2017 Jun 01; 220(Pt 11):2066-2075. PMID: 28566358.
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      2. Dong YW, Li XX, Choi FMP, Williams GA, Somero G, Helmuth B. Untangling the roles of microclimate, behaviour and physiological polymorphism in governing vulnerability of intertidal snails to heat stress. Proc Biol Sci. 2017 May 17; 284(1854). PMID: 28469014.
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      3. Fields PA, Dong Y, Meng X, Somero G. Adaptations of protein structure and function to temperature: there is more than one way to 'skin a cat'. J Exp Biol. 2015 Jun; 218(Pt 12):1801-11. PMID: 26085658.
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      4. Jayasundara N, Tomanek L, Dowd WW, Somero G. Proteomic analysis of cardiac response to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal goby fish Gillichthys mirabilis. J Exp Biol. 2015 May; 218(Pt 9):1359-72. PMID: 25954043.
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      5. Somero G. Temporal patterning of thermal acclimation: from behavior to membrane biophysics. J Exp Biol. 2015 Feb 01; 218(Pt 3):500. PMID: 25653424.
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      6. Somero G. Temporal patterning of thermal acclimation: from behavior to membrane biophysics. J Exp Biol. 2015 Jan 15; 218(Pt 2):167-9. PMID: 25609779.
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      7. Tepolt CK, Somero G. Master of all trades: thermal acclimation and adaptation of cardiac function in a broadly distributed marine invasive species, the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. J Exp Biol. 2014 Apr 01; 217(Pt 7):1129-38. PMID: 24671964.
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      8. Jayasundara N, Somero G. Physiological plasticity of cardiorespiratory function in a eurythermal marine teleost, the longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis. J Exp Biol. 2013 Jun 01; 216(Pt 11):2111-21. PMID: 23678101.
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      9. Somero G. A 1950s classic of thermal adaptation to cold. J Exp Biol. 2013 May 15; 216(Pt 10):1759-61. PMID: 23785104.
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      10. Yao CL, Somero G. Thermal stress and cellular signaling processes in hemocytes of native (Mytilus californianus) and invasive (M. galloprovincialis) mussels: cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013 Jun; 165(2):159-68. PMID: 23454628.
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      11. Dowd WW, Somero G. Behavior and survival of Mytilus congeners following episodes of elevated body temperature in air and seawater. J Exp Biol. 2013 Feb 01; 216(Pt 3):502-14. PMID: 23038732.
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      12. Yao CL, Somero G. The impact of acute temperature stress on hemocytes of invasive and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus californianus): DNA damage, membrane integrity, apoptosis and signaling pathways. J Exp Biol. 2012 Dec 15; 215(Pt 24):4267-77. PMID: 22972891.
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      13. Lockwood BL, Somero G. Functional determinants of temperature adaptation in enzymes of cold- versus warm-adapted mussels (Genus Mytilus). Mol Biol Evol. 2012 Oct; 29(10):3061-70. PMID: 22491035.
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      14. Somero G. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2012; 4:39-61. PMID: 22457968.
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      15. Driedzic WR, Shick JM, Somero G. Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011 Nov; 160(3):440-2. PMID: 21980604.
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      16. Driedzic WR, Shick JM, Somero G. Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Nov; 154(4):437-9. PMID: 22010291.
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      17. Driedzic WR, Shick JM, Somero G. Bruce D. Sidell (20 March 1948-8 February 2011). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Oct; 160(2-3):119-21. PMID: 21984995.
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      18. Driedzic W, Shick JM, Somero G. Bruce D. Sidell. 20 March 1948 - 8 February 2011. J Exp Biol. 2011 Aug 01; 214(Pt 15):2453-4. PMID: 21877336.
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      19. Somero G. Comparative physiology: a "crystal ball" for predicting consequences of global change. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jul; 301(1):R1-14. PMID: 21430078.
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      20. Logan CA, Somero G. Effects of thermal acclimation on transcriptional responses to acute heat stress in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jun; 300(6):R1373-83. PMID: 21411771.
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      21. Lockwood BL, Somero G. Transcriptomic responses to salinity stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus). Mol Ecol. 2011 Feb; 20(3):517-29. PMID: 21199031.
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      22. Lockwood BL, Sanders JG, Somero G. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress in invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus): molecular correlates of invasive success. J Exp Biol. 2010 Oct 15; 213(Pt 20):3548-58. PMID: 20889835.
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      23. Evans TG, Somero G. Phosphorylation events catalyzed by major cell signaling proteins differ in response to thermal and osmotic stress among native (Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus) and invasive (Mytilus galloprovincialis) species of mussels. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010 Nov-Dec; 83(6):984-96. PMID: 20946068.
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      24. Logan CA, Somero G. Transcriptional responses to thermal acclimation in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper 1864). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Sep; 299(3):R843-52. PMID: 20610827.
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      25. Somero G. The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine 'winners' and 'losers'. J Exp Biol. 2010 Mar 15; 213(6):912-20. PMID: 20190116.
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      26. Castilho PC, Buckley BA, Somero G, Block BA. Heterologous hybridization to a complementary DNA microarray reveals the effect of thermal acclimation in the endothermic bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). Mol Ecol. 2009 May; 18(10):2092-102. PMID: 19389180.
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      27. Evans TG, Somero G. Protein-protein interactions enable rapid adaptive response to osmotic stress in fish gills. Commun Integr Biol. 2009; 2(2):94-6. PMID: 19704899; PMCID: PMC2686354.
      28. Dong Y, Somero G. Temperature adaptation of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases of limpets (genus Lottia): differences in stability and function due to minor changes in sequence correlate with biogeographic and vertical distributions. J Exp Biol. 2009 Jan; 212(Pt 2):169-77. PMID: 19112135.
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      29. Evans TG, Somero G. A microarray-based transcriptomic time-course of hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress signaling events in the euryhaline fish Gillichthys mirabilis: osmosensors to effectors. J Exp Biol. 2008 Nov; 211(Pt 22):3636-49. PMID: 18978229.
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      30. Gracey AY, Chaney ML, Boomhower JP, Tyburczy WR, Connor K, Somero G. Rhythms of gene expression in a fluctuating intertidal environment. Curr Biol. 2008 Oct 14; 18(19):1501-7. PMID: 18848447.
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      31. Dong Y, Miller LP, Sanders JG, Somero G. Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in four limpets of the genus Lottia: interspecific variation in constitutive and inducible synthesis correlates with in situ exposure to heat stress. Biol Bull. 2008 Oct; 215(2):173-81. PMID: 18840778.
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      32. Pörtner HO, Peck L, Somero G. Thermal limits and adaptation in marine Antarctic ectotherms: an integrative view. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Dec 29; 362(1488):2233-58. PMID: 17553776; PMCID: PMC2443174.
      33. Podrabsky JE, Lopez JP, Fan TW, Higashi R, Somero G. Extreme anoxia tolerance in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus: insights from a metabolomics analysis. J Exp Biol. 2007 Jul; 210(Pt 13):2253-66. PMID: 17575031.
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      34. Cossins A, Somero G. Guest editors' introduction. J Exp Biol. 2007 May; 210(Pt 9):1491. PMID: 17449813.
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      35. Podrabsky JE, Somero G. An inducible 70 kDa-class heat shock protein is constitutively expressed during early development and diapause in the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2007; 12(3):199-204. PMID: 17915551; PMCID: PMC1971235.
      36. Petricorena ZL, Somero G. Biochemical adaptations of notothenioid fishes: comparisons between cold temperate South American and New Zealand species and Antarctic species. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Jul; 147(3):799-807. PMID: 17293146.
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      37. Braby CE, Somero G. Following the heart: temperature and salinity effects on heart rate in native and invasive species of blue mussels (genus Mytilus). J Exp Biol. 2006 Jul; 209(Pt 13):2554-66. PMID: 16788038.
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      38. Buckley BA, Gracey AY, Somero G. The cellular response to heat stress in the goby Gillichthys mirabilis: a cDNA microarray and protein-level analysis. J Exp Biol. 2006 Jul; 209(Pt 14):2660-77. PMID: 16809457.
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      39. Fields PA, Rudomin EL, Somero G. Temperature sensitivities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases from native and invasive species of marine mussels (genus Mytilus): sequence-function linkages and correlations with biogeographic distribution. J Exp Biol. 2006 Feb; 209(Pt 4):656-67. PMID: 16449560.
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      40. Stenseng E, Braby CE, Somero G. Evolutionary and acclimation-induced variation in the thermal limits of heart function in congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula): implications for vertical zonation. Biol Bull. 2005 Apr; 208(2):138-44. PMID: 15837963.
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      41. Somero G. Linking biogeography to physiology: Evolutionary and acclimatory adjustments of thermal limits. Front Zool. 2005 Jan 17; 2(1):1. PMID: 15679952.
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      42. Somero G, Suarez RK. Peter Hochachka: adventures in biochemical adaptation. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005; 67:25-37. PMID: 15709951.
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      43. Somero G. Preface to Peter Hochachka memorial volume. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Nov; 139(3):311-5. PMID: 15544956.
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      44. Somero G. Adaptation of enzymes to temperature: searching for basic "strategies". Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Nov; 139(3):321-33. PMID: 15544958.
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      45. Podrabsky JE, Somero G. Changes in gene expression associated with acclimation to constant temperatures and fluctuating daily temperatures in an annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus. J Exp Biol. 2004 Jun; 207(Pt 13):2237-54. PMID: 15159429.
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      46. Johns GC, Somero G. Evolutionary convergence in adaptation of proteins to temperature: A4-lactate dehydrogenases of Pacific damselfishes (Chromis spp.). Mol Biol Evol. 2004 Feb; 21(2):314-20. PMID: 14660697.
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      47. Ream RA, Theriot JA, Somero G. Influences of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the motility of epithelial wound-healing cells (keratocytes) of tropical, temperate and Antarctic fish. J Exp Biol. 2003 Dec; 206(Pt 24):4539-51. PMID: 14610038.
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      48. Somero G. Protein adaptations to temperature and pressure: complementary roles of adaptive changes in amino acid sequence and internal milieu. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Dec; 136(4):577-91. PMID: 14662287.
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      49. Sanford E, Roth MS, Johns GC, Wares JP, Somero G. Local selection and latitudinal variation in a marine predator-prey interaction. Science. 2003 May 16; 300(5622):1135-7. PMID: 12750518.
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      50. Ream RA, Johns GC, Somero G. Base compositions of genes encoding alpha-actin and lactate dehydrogenase-A from differently adapted vertebrates show no temperature-adaptive variation in G + C content. Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Jan; 20(1):105-10. PMID: 12519912.
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      51. Somero G. Obituary: Peter W. Hochachka (1937-2002). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002 Dec; 133(4):471-3. PMID: 12841218.
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      52. Somero G. Thermal physiology and vertical zonation of intertidal animals: optima, limits, and costs of living. Integr Comp Biol. 2002 Aug; 42(4):780-9. PMID: 21708776.
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      53. Fields PA, Kim YS, Carpenter JF, Somero G. Temperature adaptation in Gillichthys (Teleost: Gobiidae) A(4)-lactate dehydrogenases: identical primary structures produce subtly different conformations. J Exp Biol. 2002 May; 205(Pt 9):1293-303. PMID: 11948206.
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      54. Tomanek L, Somero G. Interspecific- and acclimation-induced variation in levels of heat-shock proteins 70 (hsp70) and 90 (hsp90) and heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in congeneric marine snails (genus Tegula): implications for regulation of hsp gene expression. J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar; 205(Pt 5):677-85. PMID: 11907057.
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      55. Lin JJ, Yang TH, Wahlstrand BD, Fields PA, Somero G. Phylogenetic relationships and biochemical properties of the duplicated cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of malate dehydrogenase from a teleost fish, Sphyraena idiastes. J Mol Evol. 2002 Jan; 54(1):107-17. PMID: 11734904.
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      56. Fields PA, Wahlstrand BD, Somero G. Intrinsic versus extrinsic stabilization of enzymes: the interaction of solutes and temperature on A4-lactate dehydrogenase orthologs from warm-adapted and cold-adapted marine fishes. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Aug; 268(16):4497-505. PMID: 11502210.
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      57. Gracey AY, Troll JV, Somero G. Hypoxia-induced gene expression profiling in the euryoxic fish Gillichthys mirabilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13; 98(4):1993-8. PMID: 11172064; PMCID: PMC29370.
      58. Stillman JH, Somero G. A comparative analysis of the evolutionary patterning and mechanistic bases of lactate dehydrogenase thermal stability in porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes. J Exp Biol. 2001 Feb; 204(Pt 4):767-76. PMID: 11171359.
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      59. Hofmann GE, Buckley BA, Airaksinen S, Keen JE, Somero G. Heat-shock protein expression is absent in the antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii (family Nototheniidae). J Exp Biol. 2000 Aug; 203(Pt 15):2331-9. PMID: 10887071.
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      60. Tomanek L, Somero G. Time course and magnitude of synthesis of heat-shock proteins in congeneric marine snails (Genus tegula) from different tidal heights. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2000 Mar-Apr; 73(2):249-56. PMID: 10801403.
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      61. Stillman JH, Somero G. A comparative analysis of the upper thermal tolerance limits of eastern Pacific porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes: influences of latitude, vertical zonation, acclimation, and phylogeny. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2000 Mar-Apr; 73(2):200-8. PMID: 10801398.
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      62. Somero G. Unity in diversity: a perspective on the methods, contributions, and future of comparative physiology. Annu Rev Physiol. 2000; 62:927-37. PMID: 10845117.
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      63. Fields PA, Somero G. Hot spots in cold adaptation: localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 15; 95(19):11476-81. PMID: 9736762; PMCID: PMC21668.
      64. Roberts DA, Hofmann GE, Somero G. Heat-Shock Protein Expression in Mytilus californianus: Acclimatization (Seasonal and Tidal-Height Comparisons) and Acclimation Effects. Biol Bull. 1997 Apr; 192(2):309-320. PMID: 28581871.
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      65. Holland LZ, McFall-Ngai M, Somero G. Evolution of lactate dehydrogenase-A homologs of barracuda fishes (genus Sphyraena) from different thermal environments: differences in kinetic properties and thermal stability are due to amino acid substitutions outside the active site. Biochemistry. 1997 Mar 18; 36(11):3207-15. PMID: 9115998.
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      66. Schellman JA, Somero G. Serge Timasheff: the man with a genius for solutions in biology. Biophys J. 1996 Oct; 71(4):1985-93. PMID: 8889172; PMCID: PMC1233664.
      67. Yang TH, Somero G. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase but not its concentration of messenger RNA increases with body size in barred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Teleostei). Biol Bull. 1996 Oct; 191(2):155-8. PMID: 8916541.
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      68. Kültz D, Somero G. Differences in protein patterns of gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis after osmotic and thermal acclimation. J Comp Physiol B. 1996; 166(2):88-100. PMID: 8766907.
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      69. Kültz D, Somero G. Ion transport in gills of the euryhaline fish Gillichthys mirabilis is facilitated by a phosphocreatine circuit. Am J Physiol. 1995 Apr; 268(4 Pt 2):R1003-12. PMID: 7733382.
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      70. Somero G. Proteins and temperature. Annu Rev Physiol. 1995; 57:43-68. PMID: 7778874.
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      71. Fields PA, Graham JB, Rosenblatt RH, Somero G. Effects of expected global climate change on marine faunas. Trends Ecol Evol. 1993 Oct; 8(10):361-7. PMID: 21236196.
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      72. Somero G. Biochemical ecology of deep-sea animals. Experientia. 1992 Jun 15; 48(6):537-43. PMID: 1319350.
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      73. Dietz TJ, Somero G. The threshold induction temperature of the 90-kDa heat shock protein is subject to acclimatization in eurythermal goby fishes (genus Gillichthys). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 15; 89(8):3389-93. PMID: 1565632; PMCID: PMC48873.
      74. Nishiguchi MK, Somero G. Temperature- and concentration-dependence of compatibility of the organic osmolyte beta-dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Cryobiology. 1992 Feb; 29(1):118-24. PMID: 1295491.
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      75. Somero G. Adaptations to high hydrostatic pressure. Annu Rev Physiol. 1992; 54:557-77. PMID: 1314046.
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      76. Gibbs A, Somero G. Pressure adaptation of Na+/K+-ATPase in gills of marine teleosts. J Exp Biol. 1989 May; 143:475-92. PMID: 2543729.
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      77. Roberts SJ, Somero G. Properties of the interaction between phosphofructokinase and actin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Feb 15; 269(1):284-94. PMID: 2521786.
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      78. Roberts SJ, Lowery MS, Somero G. Regulation of binding of phosphofructokinase to myofibrils in the red and white muscle of the barred sand bass, Paralabrax nebulifer (Serranidae). J Exp Biol. 1988 Jul; 137:13-27. PMID: 2974860.
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      79. Roberts SJ, Somero G. Binding of phosphofructokinase to filamentous actin. Biochemistry. 1987 Jun 16; 26(12):3437-42. PMID: 2958082.
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      80. Somero G. Protein adaptation and biogeography: Threshold effects on molecular evolution. Trends Ecol Evol. 1986 Nov; 1(5):124-7. PMID: 21227795.
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      81. Powell MA, Somero G. Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Is Coupled to Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria of Solemya reidi. Science. 1986 Aug 01; 233(4763):563-6. PMID: 17820467.
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      82. Somero G. Protons, osmolytes, and fitness of internal milieu for protein function. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug; 251(2 Pt 2):R197-213. PMID: 3017133.
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      83. Swezey RR, Somero G. Pressure effects on actin self-assembly: interspecific differences in the equilibrium and kinetics of the G to F transformation. Biochemistry. 1985 Feb 12; 24(4):852-60. PMID: 3994993.
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      84. Hand SC, Somero G. Influence of osmolytes, thin filaments, and solubility state on elasmobranch phosphofructokinase in vitro. J Exp Zool. 1984 Aug; 231(2):297-302. PMID: 6237173.
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      85. Powell MA, Somero G. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila. Science. 1983 Jan 21; 219(4582):297-9. PMID: 17798280.
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      86. Somero G. Environmental adaptation of proteins: strategies for the conservation of critical functional and structural traits. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1983; 76(3):621-33. PMID: 6139233.
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      87. Graves JE, Rosenblatt RH, Somero G. KINETIC AND ELECTROPHORETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES OF TELEOST SPECIES-PAIRS FROM THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC COASTS OF PANAMA. Evolution. 1983 Jan; 37(1):30-37. PMID: 28568030.
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      88. Yancey PH, Clark ME, Hand SC, Bowlus RD, Somero G. Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte systems. Science. 1982 Sep 24; 217(4566):1214-22. PMID: 7112124.
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      89. Swezey RR, Somero G. Polymerization thermodynamics and structural stabilities of skeletal muscle actins from vertebrates adapted to different temperatures and hydrostatic pressures. Biochemistry. 1982 Aug 31; 21(18):4496-503. PMID: 7126554.
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      90. Hand SC, Somero G. Urea and methylamine effects on rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase. Catalytic stability and aggregation state as a function of pH and temperature. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jan 25; 257(2):734-41. PMID: 6459323.
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      91. White FN, Somero G. Acid-base regulation and phospholipid adaptations to temperature: time courses and physiological significance of modifying the milieu for protein function. Physiol Rev. 1982 Jan; 62(1):40-90. PMID: 7034010.
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      92. Graves JE, Somero G. ELECTROPHORETIC AND FUNCTIONAL ENZYMIC EVOLUTION IN FOUR SPECIES OF EASTERN PACIFIC BARRACUDAS FROM DIFFERENT THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS. Evolution. 1982 Jan; 36(1):97-106. PMID: 28581099.
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      93. Greaney GS, Somero G. Effects of anions on the activation thermodynamics and fluorescence emission spectrum of alkaline phosphatase: evidence for enzyme hydration changes during catalysis. Biochemistry. 1979 Nov 27; 18(24):5322-32. PMID: 518838.
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      94. Somero G, Siebenaller JF. Inefficient lactate dehydrogenases of deep-sea fishes. Nature. 1979 Nov 01; 282(5734):100-2. PMID: 503183.
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      95. Yancey PH, Somero G. Counteraction of urea destabilization of protein structure by methylamine osmoregulatory compounds of elasmobranch fishes. Biochem J. 1979 Nov 01; 183(2):317-23. PMID: 534499; PMCID: PMC1161561.
      96. Bowlus RD, Somero G. Solute compatibility with enzyme function and structure: rationales for the selection of osmotic agents and end-products of anaerobic metabolism in marine invertebrates. J Exp Zool. 1979 May; 208(2):137-51. PMID: 469480.
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      97. Siebenaller J, Somero G. Pressure-adaptive differences in lactate dehydrogenases of congeneric fishes living at different depths. Science. 1978 Jul 21; 201(4352):255-7. PMID: 208149.
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      98. Low PS, Hoffmann KH, Swezey R, Somero G. Protein water binding ability correlates with cellular osmolarity. Experientia. 1978 Mar 15; 34(3):314-5. PMID: 631253.
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      99. Somero G, Neubauer M, Low PS. Neutral salt effects on the velocity and activation volume of the lactate dehydrogenase reaction: evidence for enzyme hydration changes during catalysis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1977 Jun; 181(2):438-46. PMID: 900931.
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      100. Somero G, Low PS. Enzyme hydration may explain catalytic efficiency differences among lactate dehydrogenase homologues. Nature. 1977 Mar 17; 266(5599):276-8. PMID: 846575.
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      101. Somero G, Yancey PH, Chow TJ, Snyder CB. Lead effects on tissue and whole organism respiration of the estuarine teleost fish, Gillichthys mirabilis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1977; 6(2-3):349-54. PMID: 901013.
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      102. Somero G, Chow TJ, Yancey PH, Snyder CB. Lead accumulation rates in tissues of the estuarine teleost fish, Gillichthys mirabilis: salinity and temperature effects. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1977; 6(2-3):337-48. PMID: 901012.
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      103. Low PS, Somero G. Adaptation of muscle pyruvate kinases to environmental temperatures and pressures. J Exp Zool. 1976 Oct; 198(1):1-11. PMID: 824400.
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      104. Somero G, Low PS. Temperature: a "shaping force' in protein evolution. Biochem Soc Symp. 1976; (41):33-42. PMID: 788719.
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      105. Somero G. Temperature as a selective factor in protein evolution: the adaptational strategy of "compromise". J Exp Zool. 1975 Oct; 194(1):175-88. PMID: 1104753.
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      106. Low PS, Somero G. Pressure effects on enzyme structure and function in vitro and under simulated in vivo conditions. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1975 Sep 15; 52(1):67-74. PMID: 1183178.
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      107. Low PS, Somero G. Protein hydration changes during catalysis: a new mechanism of enzymic rate-enhancement and ion activation/inhibition of catalysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Sep; 72(9):3305-9. PMID: 1059113; PMCID: PMC432980.
      108. Low PS, Somero G. Activation volumes in enzymic catalysis: their sources and modification by low-molecular-weight solutes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Aug; 72(8):3014-8. PMID: 1059089; PMCID: PMC432909.
      109. Low PS, Somero G. Temperature adaptation of enzymes: a proposed molecular basis for the different catalytic efficiencies of enzymes from ectotherms and endotherms. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1974 Oct 15; 49(2):307-12. PMID: 4420155.
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      110. Somero G, Soulé M. Genetic variation in marine fishes as a test of the niche-variation hypothesis. Nature. 1974 Jun 14; 249(458):670-2. PMID: 4833808.
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      111. Somero G, Doyle D. Temperature and rates of protein degradation in the fish Gillichthys mirabilis. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1973 Nov 15; 46(3):463-74. PMID: 4754763.
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      112. Low PS, Bada JL, Somero G. Temperature adaptation of enzymes: roles of the free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy of activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Feb; 70(2):430-2. PMID: 4510286; PMCID: PMC433275.
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