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    George Koob

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0109
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-784-7062
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      Collapse Research 
      Collapse Research Activities and Funding
      Gene Network Perturbations in Alcohol Dependence - A Systems Biology Approach
      NIH/NIAAA R01AA021667Sep 5, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      The Role of Brain Stress Systems in the Prefrontal Cortex in Compulsive Drinking
      NIH/NIAAA R01AA020608Aug 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Compulsive Drug Intake
      NIH/NIDA R21DA029821Apr 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Central mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement and dependence
      NIH/NIDA R01DA023597Apr 5, 2008 - Jan 31, 2014
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism
      NIH/NIAAA U01AA013517Sep 27, 2001 - Aug 31, 2016
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Dopamine Partial Agonists and Psychostimulant Dependence
      NIH/NIDA R01DA010072Aug 15, 1997 - Mar 31, 2013
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Novel methods to explore mechanisms of cocaine abuse
      NIH/NIDA R01DA008467Sep 1, 1993 - Jun 30, 2014
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Neuropharmacology of Ethanol Reinforcement
      NIH/NIAAA R01AA008459Apr 1, 1990 - Apr 30, 2014
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF ETHANOL REINFORCEMENT
      NIH/NIAAA R37AA008459Apr 1, 1990 - Mar 31, 2004
      Role: Principal Investigator
      BRAIN DIALYSIS AND COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION
      NIH/NIDA R03DA005843Sep 30, 1989 - Aug 31, 1990
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neuronal Substrates of Cocaine Reward
      NIH/NIDA R01DA004398Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 2015
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      Central Mechanisms of Opiate Reinforcement and Dependence
      NIH/NIDA R01DA004043May 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 2010
      Role: Principal Investigator
      Neuropsychopharmacology: Multidisciplinary Training
      NIH/NIAAA T32AA007456Dec 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 2022
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      CNS Effects of Alcohol: Cellular Neurobiology
      NIH/NIAAA P60AA006420Dec 1, 1983 - Dec 31, 2017
      Role: Co-Principal Investigator
      CNS EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL--CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
      NIH/NIAAA P50AA006420Dec 1, 1983 - Feb 28, 2003
      Role: Principal Investigator
      BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF VASOPRESSIN AND OXYTOCIN
      NIH/NINDS R01NS020912Dec 1, 1983 - Jun 30, 1990
      Role: Principal Investigator

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Moore CF, Sabino V, Koob G, Cottone P. Neuroscience of Compulsive Eating Behavior. Front Neurosci. 2017; 11:469. PMID: 28883784.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Vendruscolo JCM, Tunstall BJ, Carmack SA, Schmeichel BE, Lowery-Gionta EG, Cole M, George O, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Compulsive-Like Sufentanil Vapor Self-Administration in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Aug 16. PMID: 28812595.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Harris RA, Koob G. The future is now: A 2020 view of alcoholism research. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 01; 122:1-2. PMID: 28633760.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Aoun EG, Jimenez VA, Vendruscolo LF, Walter NAR, Barbier E, Ferrulli A, Haass-Koffler CL, Darakjian P, Lee MR, Addolorato G, Heilig M, Hitzemann R, Koob G, Grant KA, Leggio L. A relationship between the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway and alcohol drinking: preliminary translational findings across rats, monkeys and humans. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 May 02. PMID: 28461696.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Koob G. The Dark Side of Addiction: The Horsley Gantt to Joseph Brady Connection. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017 Apr; 205(4):270-272. PMID: 27356121.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Galinato MH, Lockner JW, Fannon-Pavlich MJ, Sobieraj JC, Staples MC, Somkuwar SS, Ghofranian A, Chaing S, Navarro AI, Joea A, Luikart BW, Janda KD, Heyser C, Koob G, Mandyam CD. A synthetic small-molecule Isoxazole-9 protects against methamphetamine relapse. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 28. PMID: 28348387.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Kwako LE, Momenan R, Grodin EN, Litten RZ, Koob G, Goldman D. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A reverse translational approach. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 01; 122:254-264. PMID: 28283392.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Koob G. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 May; 234(9-10):1315-1332. PMID: 28050629.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Harris RA, Bajo M, Bell RL, Blednov YA, Varodayan FP, Truitt JM, de Guglielmo G, Lasek AW, Logrip ML, Vendruscolo LF, Roberts AJ, Roberts E, George O, Mayfield J, Billiar TR, Hackam DJ, Mayfield RD, Koob G, Roberto M, Homanics GE. Genetic and Pharmacologic Manipulation of TLR4 Has Minimal Impact on Ethanol Consumption in Rodents. J Neurosci. 2017 Feb 01; 37(5):1139-1155. PMID: 27986929.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Moore CF, Sabino V, Koob G, Cottone P. Pathological Overeating: Emerging Evidence for a Compulsivity Construct. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jun; 42(7):1375-1389. PMID: 27922596.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Wade CL, Kallupi M, Hernandez DO, Breysse E, de Guglielmo G, Crawford E, Koob G, Schweitzer P, Baunez C, George O. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Blocks Compulsive-Like Re-Escalation of Heroin Taking in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Aug; 42(9):1850-1859. PMID: 27917870.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Tunstall BJ, Carmack SA, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Dysregulation of Brain Stress Systems Mediates Compulsive Alcohol Drinking. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2017 Feb; 13:85-90. PMID: 28603755.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Ryan ML, Falk DE, Fertig JB, Rendenbach-Mueller B, Katz DA, Tracy KA, Strain EC, Dunn KE, Kampman K, Mahoney E, Ciraulo DA, Sickles-Colaneri L, Ait-Daoud N, Johnson BA, Ransom J, Scott C, Koob G, Litten RZ. A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial Assessing the Efficacy of ABT-436, a Novel V1b Receptor Antagonist, for Alcohol Dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Apr; 42(5):1012-1023. PMID: 27658483.
        View in: PubMed
      14. de Guglielmo G, Crawford E, Kim S, Vendruscolo LF, Hope BT, Brennan M, Cole M, Koob G, George O. Recruitment of a Neuronal Ensemble in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Is Required for Alcohol Dependence. J Neurosci. 2016 Sep 07; 36(36):9446-53. PMID: 27605618; PMCID: PMC5013191 [Available on 03/07/17].
      15. Koob G. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor From Rodents to Primates: Translational Hope Expresses Itself, Pun Intended. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 01; 80(5):340-2. PMID: 27499011.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Kwako LE, Momenan R, Litten RZ, Koob G, Goldman D. Reply to: Neuroclinical Assessment of Addiction Needs to Incorporate Decision-Making Measures and Ecological Validity. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 01; 81(7):e55. PMID: 27776735.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Priddy BM, Carmack SA, Thomas LC, Vendruscolo JC, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Sex, strain, and estrous cycle influences on alcohol drinking in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2017 Jan; 152:61-67. PMID: 27498303.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Verheij MM, Vendruscolo LF, Caffino L, Giannotti G, Cazorla M, Fumagalli F, Riva MA, Homberg JR, Koob G, Contet C. Systemic Delivery of a Brain-Penetrant TrkB Antagonist Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration and Normalizes TrkB Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens and Prefrontal Cortex. J Neurosci. 2016 Aug 03; 36(31):8149-59. PMID: 27488635; PMCID: PMC4971362 [Available on 02/03/17].
      19. Schmeichel BE, Herman MA, Roberto M, Koob G. Hypocretin Neurotransmission Within the Central Amygdala Mediates Escalated Cocaine Self-administration and Stress-Induced Reinstatement in Rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 01; 81(7):606-615. PMID: 27567312.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Sanna PP, Kawamura T, Chen J, Koob G, Roberts AJ, Vendruscolo LF, Repunte-Canonigo V. 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic target for alcohol abuse. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 15; 6:e760. PMID: 26978742; PMCID: PMC4872439.
      21. Chavkin C, Koob G. Dynorphin, Dysphoria, and Dependence: the Stress of Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Jan; 41(1):373-4. PMID: 26657953; PMCID: PMC4677142 [Available on 01/01/17].
      22. Kwako LE, Momenan R, Litten RZ, Koob G, Goldman D. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 01; 80(3):179-89. PMID: 26772405; PMCID: PMC4870153 [Available on 08/01/17].
      23. Koob G, Mason BJ. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 56:299-322. PMID: 26514207.
        View in: PubMed
      24. You IJ, Wright SR, Garcia-Garcia AL, Tapper AR, Gardner PD, Koob G, David Leonardo E, Bohn LM, Wee S. 5-HT1A Autoreceptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Convey Vulnerability to Compulsive Cocaine Seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Apr; 41(5):1210-22. PMID: 26324408; PMCID: PMC4793105 [Available on 04/01/17].
      25. Saba LM, Flink SC, Vanderlinden LA, Israel Y, Tampier L, Colombo G, Kiianmaa K, Bell RL, Printz MP, Flodman P, Koob G, Richardson HN, Lombardo J, Hoffman PL, Tabakoff B. The sequenced rat brain transcriptome--its use in identifying networks predisposing alcohol consumption. FEBS J. 2015 Sep; 282(18):3556-78. PMID: 26183165; PMCID: PMC4573833.
      26. Vendruscolo LF, Estey D, Goodell V, Macshane LG, Logrip ML, Schlosburg JE, McGinn MA, Zamora-Martinez ER, Belanoff JK, Hunt HJ, Sanna PP, George O, Koob G, Edwards S, Mason BJ. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism decreases alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent individuals. J Clin Invest. 2015 Aug 03; 125(8):3193-7. PMID: 26121746; PMCID: PMC4563748.
      27. Cui C, Noronha A, Warren KR, Koob G, Sinha R, Thakkar M, Matochik J, Crews FT, Chandler LJ, Pfefferbaum A, Becker HC, Lovinger D, Everitt BJ, Egli M, Mandyam CD, Fein G, Potenza MN, Harris RA, Grant KA, Roberto M, Meyerhoff DJ, Sullivan EV. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence. Alcohol. 2015 Aug; 49(5):435-52. PMID: 26074423; PMCID: PMC4468789.
      28. Leão RM, Cruz FC, Vendruscolo LF, de Guglielmo G, Logrip ML, Planeta CS, Hope BT, Koob G, George O. Chronic nicotine activates stress/reward-related brain regions and facilitates the transition to compulsive alcohol drinking. J Neurosci. 2015 Apr 15; 35(15):6241-53. PMID: 25878294; PMCID: PMC4397613.
      29. Volkow ND, Koob G, Baler R. Biomarkers in substance use disorders. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015 Apr 15; 6(4):522-5. PMID: 25734247.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Schmeichel BE, Barbier E, Misra KK, Contet C, Schlosburg JE, Grigoriadis D, Williams JP, Karlsson C, Pitcairn C, Heilig M, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Hypocretin receptor 2 antagonism dose-dependently reduces escalated heroin self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Mar 13; 40(5):1123-9. PMID: 25367502; PMCID: PMC4367454.
      31. Whitfield TW, Schlosburg JE, Wee S, Gould A, George O, Grant Y, Zamora-Martinez ER, Edwards S, Crawford E, Vendruscolo LF, Koob G. ? Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake. J Neurosci. 2015 Mar 11; 35(10):4296-305. PMID: 25762676; PMCID: PMC4355200.
      32. Koob G, Griebel G. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior: the 2015 transition. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Apr; 131:iii. PMID: 25661528.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Repunte-Canonigo V, Shin W, Vendruscolo LF, Lefebvre C, van der Stap L, Kawamura T, Schlosburg JE, Alvarez M, Koob G, Califano A, Sanna PP. Identifying candidate drivers of alcohol dependence-induced excessive drinking by assembly and interrogation of brain-specific regulatory networks. Genome Biol. 2015 Feb 02; 16:68. PMID: 25886852; PMCID: PMC4410476.
      34. Koob G. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 15; 753:73-87. PMID: 25583178; PMCID: PMC4380644.
      35. Grieder TE, Herman MA, Contet C, Tan LA, Vargas-Perez H, Cohen A, Chwalek M, Maal-Bared G, Freiling J, Schlosburg JE, Clarke L, Crawford E, Koebel P, Repunte-Canonigo V, Sanna PP, Tapper AR, Roberto M, Kieffer BL, Sawchenko PE, Koob G, van der Kooy D, George O. VTA CRF neurons mediate the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote intake escalation. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1751-8. PMID: 25402857; PMCID: PMC4241147.
      36. Cohen A, Soleiman MT, Talia R, Koob G, George O, Mandyam CD. Extended access nicotine self-administration with periodic deprivation increases immature neurons in the hippocampus. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jan; 232(2):453-63. PMID: 25059540; PMCID: PMC4297709.
      37. Wade CL, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Hernandez DO, Koob G. Compulsive-like responding for opioid analgesics in rats with extended access. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jan; 40(2):421-8. PMID: 25060491; PMCID: PMC4443956.
      38. Repunte-Canonigo V, Lefebvre C, George O, Kawamura T, Morales M, Koob G, Califano A, Masliah E, Sanna PP. Gene expression changes consistent with neuroAIDS and impaired working memory in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Mol Neurodegener. 2014 Jul 01; 9:26. PMID: 24980976; PMCID: PMC4107468.
      39. Vanderlinden LA, Saba LM, Printz MP, Flodman P, Koob G, Richardson HN, Hoffman PL, Tabakoff B. Is the alcohol deprivation effect genetically mediated? Studies with HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jul; 38(7):2148-57. PMID: 24961585; PMCID: PMC4142977.
      40. George O, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Negative reinforcement via motivational withdrawal is the driving force behind the transition to addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Oct; 231(19):3911-7. PMID: 24923982.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Buck CL, Malavar JC, George O, Koob G, Vendruscolo LF. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Sep 01; 271:171-6. PMID: 24914463; PMCID: PMC4216724.
      42. Cohen A, Whitfield TW, Kreifeldt M, Koebel P, Kieffer BL, Contet C, George O, Koob G. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e97216. PMID: 24816773; PMCID: PMC4016270.
      43. Mazei-Robison MS, Appasani R, Edwards S, Wee S, Taylor SR, Picciotto MR, Koob G, Nestler EJ. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95962. PMID: 24755634; PMCID: PMC3995955.
      44. Logrip ML, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Phosphodiesterase 10A regulates alcohol and saccharin self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Jun; 39(7):1722-31. PMID: 24549104; PMCID: PMC4023146.
      45. Zorrilla EP, Logrip ML, Koob G. Corticotropin releasing factor: a key role in the neurobiology of addiction. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Apr; 35(2):234-44. PMID: 24456850; PMCID: PMC4213066.
      46. Koob G. Neurocircuitry of alcohol addiction: synthesis from animal models. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014; 125:33-54. PMID: 25307567.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Park PE, Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Schulteis G, Edwards S, Koob G. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia. Addict Biol. 2015 Mar; 20(2):275-84. PMID: 24330252; PMCID: PMC4057367.
      48. Schlosburg JE, Whitfield TW, Park PE, Crawford EF, George O, Vendruscolo LF, Koob G. Long-term antagonism of ? opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake. J Neurosci. 2013 Dec 04; 33(49):19384-92. PMID: 24305833; PMCID: PMC3850049.
      49. Buck CL, Vendruscolo LF, Koob G, George O. Dopamine D1 and µ-opioid receptor antagonism blocks anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations induced by palatable food cues in Wistar rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Mar; 231(5):929-37. PMID: 24221826; PMCID: PMC3945412.
      50. Gilpin NW, Roberto M, Koob G, Schweitzer P. Kappa opioid receptor activation decreases inhibitory transmission and antagonizes alcohol effects in rat central amygdala. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Feb; 77:294-302. PMID: 24157490; PMCID: PMC3873141.
      51. Wise RA, Koob G. The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Jan; 39(2):254-62. PMID: 24121188; PMCID: PMC3870778.
      52. Cai X, Whitfield T, Moreno AY, Grant Y, Hixon MS, Koob G, Janda KD. Probing the effects of hapten stability on cocaine vaccine immunogenicity. Mol Pharm. 2013 Nov 04; 10(11):4176-84. PMID: 23927436; PMCID: PMC3946501.
      53. Apkarian AV, Neugebauer V, Koob G, Edwards S, Levine JD, Ferrari L, Egli M, Regunathan S. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Nov; 112:34-41. PMID: 24095683; PMCID: PMC4887744.
      54. Edwards S, Koob G. Escalation of drug self-administration as a hallmark of persistent addiction liability. Behav Pharmacol. 2013 Sep; 24(5-6):356-62. PMID: 23839030; PMCID: PMC3866817.
      55. Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Rivier JE, Koob G. Anxiolytic-like effects of antisauvagine-30 in mice are not mediated by CRF2 receptors. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e63942. PMID: 24015170; PMCID: PMC3756045.
      56. Edwards S, Baynes BB, Carmichael CY, Zamora-Martinez ER, Barrus M, Koob G, Gilpin NW. Traumatic stress reactivity promotes excessive alcohol drinking and alters the balance of prefrontal cortex-amygdala activity. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 27; 3:e296. PMID: 23982628; PMCID: PMC3756295.
      57. Koob G. Addiction is a Reward Deficit and Stress Surfeit Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4:72. PMID: 23914176; PMCID: PMC3730086.
      58. Cohen A, Treweek J, Edwards S, Leão RM, Schulteis G, Koob G, George O. Extended access to nicotine leads to a CRF1 receptor dependent increase in anxiety-like behavior and hyperalgesia in rats. Addict Biol. 2015 Jan; 20(1):56-68. PMID: 23869743; PMCID: PMC3859819.
      59. Kallupi M, Wee S, Edwards S, Whitfield TW, Oleata CS, Luu G, Schmeichel BE, Koob G, Roberto M. Kappa opioid receptor-mediated dysregulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic transmission in the central amygdala in cocaine addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 01; 74(7):520-8. PMID: 23751206; PMCID: PMC3773286.
      60. Koob G, Buck CL, Cohen A, Edwards S, Park PE, Schlosburg JE, Schmeichel B, Vendruscolo LF, Wade CL, Whitfield TW, George O. Addiction as a stress surfeit disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan; 76 Pt B:370-82. PMID: 23747571; PMCID: PMC3830720.
      61. Maoz A, Hicks MJ, Vallabhjosula S, Synan M, Kothari PJ, Dyke JP, Ballon DJ, Kaminsky SM, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Martinez D, Koob G, Janda KD, Crystal RG. Adenovirus capsid-based anti-cocaine vaccine prevents cocaine from binding to the nonhuman primate CNS dopamine transporter. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Oct; 38(11):2170-8. PMID: 23660705; PMCID: PMC3773666.
      62. Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Bremer PT, Lockner JW, Wade CL, Nunes AA, Stowe GN, Edwards S, Janda KD, Koob G. Dynamic vaccine blocks relapse to compulsive intake of heroin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 28; 110(22):9036-41. PMID: 23650354; PMCID: PMC3670323.
      63. Kallupi M, Vendruscolo LF, Carmichael CY, George O, Koob G, Gilpin NW. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats. Addict Biol. 2014 Sep; 19(5):755-7. PMID: 23639035; PMCID: PMC3872251.
      64. Cai X, Whitfield T, Hixon MS, Grant Y, Koob G, Janda KD. Probing active cocaine vaccination performance through catalytic and noncatalytic hapten design. J Med Chem. 2013 May 09; 56(9):3701-9. PMID: 23627877; PMCID: PMC3691275.
      65. Koob G. Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: the darkness within. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Aug; 23(4):559-63. PMID: 23628232.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Park PE, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Edwards S, Schulteis G, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and a 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Sep; 16(8):1867-75. PMID: 23590881; PMCID: PMC3880138.
      67. Robison AJ, Vialou V, Mazei-Robison M, Feng J, Kourrich S, Collins M, Wee S, Koob G, Turecki G, Neve R, Thomas M, Nestler EJ. Behavioral and structural responses to chronic cocaine require a feedforward loop involving ?FosB and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 06; 33(10):4295-307. PMID: 23467346; PMCID: PMC3658178.
      68. George O, Koob G. Control of craving by the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 12; 110(11):4165-6. PMID: 23483010; PMCID: PMC3600441.
      69. Koob G. Theoretical frameworks and mechanistic aspects of alcohol addiction: alcohol addiction as a reward deficit disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013; 13:3-30. PMID: 21744309; PMCID: PMC3448980.
      70. Chen J, Repunte-Canonigo V, Kawamura T, Lefebvre C, Shin W, Howell LL, Hemby SE, Harvey BK, Califano A, Morales M, Koob G, Sanna PP. Hypothalamic proteoglycan syndecan-3 is a novel cocaine addiction resilience factor. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1955. PMID: 23736082; PMCID: PMC3709481.
      71. Deschaux O, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Diaz-Aguilar L, Yuan CJ, Sobieraj JC, George O, Koob G, Mandyam CD. Hippocampal neurogenesis protects against cocaine-primed relapse. Addict Biol. 2014 Jul; 19(4):562-74. PMID: 23278919; PMCID: PMC3620729.
      72. Barbier E, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Edwards S, Juergens N, Park PE, Misra KK, Cheng K, Rice KC, Schank J, Schulteis G, Koob G, Heilig M. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 May; 38(6):976-84. PMID: 23303056; PMCID: PMC3629386.
      73. Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Amygdalostriatal projections in the neurocircuitry for motivation: a neuroanatomical thread through the career of Ann Kelley. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Nov; 37(9 Pt A):1932-45. PMID: 23220696; PMCID: PMC3838492.
      74. Herman MA, Kallupi M, Luu G, Oleata CS, Heilig M, Koob G, Ciccocioppo R, Roberto M. Enhanced GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala of genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian rats: alcohol and CRF effects. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Apr; 67:337-48. PMID: 23220399; PMCID: PMC3562384.
      75. George O, Sanders C, Freiling J, Grigoryan E, Vu S, Allen CD, Crawford E, Mandyam CD, Koob G. Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 30; 109(44):18156-61. PMID: 23071333; PMCID: PMC3497825.
      76. Jang CG, Whitfield T, Schulteis G, Koob G, Wee S. A dysphoric-like state during early withdrawal from extended access to methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Feb; 225(3):753-63. PMID: 23007601; PMCID: PMC3547144.
      77. Egli M, Koob G, Edwards S. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012 Nov; 36(10):2179-92. PMID: 22975446; PMCID: PMC3612891.
      78. Moreno AY, Azar MR, Koob G, Janda KD. Probing the protective effects of a conformationally constrained nicotine vaccine. Vaccine. 2012 Oct 19; 30(47):6665-70. PMID: 22963803.
        View in: PubMed
      79. Wee S, Vendruscolo LF, Misra KK, Schlosburg JE, Koob G. A combination of buprenorphine and naltrexone blocks compulsive cocaine intake in rodents without producing dependence. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Aug 08; 4(146):146ra110. PMID: 22875830; PMCID: PMC3448552.
      80. Vendruscolo LF, Barbier E, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Whitfield TW, Logrip ML, Rivier C, Repunte-Canonigo V, Zorrilla EP, Sanna PP, Heilig M, Koob G. Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats. J Neurosci. 2012 May 30; 32(22):7563-71. PMID: 22649234; PMCID: PMC3375621.
      81. Cohen A, Koob G, George O. Robust escalation of nicotine intake with extended access to nicotine self-administration and intermittent periods of abstinence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Aug; 37(9):2153-60. PMID: 22549121; PMCID: PMC3398720.
      82. Rosenberg JB, Hicks MJ, De BP, Pagovich O, Frenk E, Janda KD, Wee S, Koob G, Hackett NR, Kaminsky SM, Worgall S, Tignor N, Mezey JG, Crystal RG. AAVrh.10-mediated expression of an anti-cocaine antibody mediates persistent passive immunization that suppresses cocaine-induced behavior. Hum Gene Ther. 2012 May; 23(5):451-9. PMID: 22486244; PMCID: PMC3360503.
      83. Tobey KM, Walentiny DM, Wiley JL, Carroll FI, Damaj MI, Azar MR, Koob G, George O, Harris LS, Vann RE. Effects of the specific a4ß2 nAChR antagonist, 2-fluoro-3-(4-nitrophenyl) deschloroepibatidine, on nicotine reward-related behaviors in rats and mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Sep; 223(2):159-68. PMID: 22526534; PMCID: PMC3464481.
      84. Goeders NE, Cohen A, Fox BS, Azar MR, George O, Koob G. Effects of the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam on intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Sep; 223(1):17-25. PMID: 22418732; PMCID: PMC3464482.
      85. Mandyam CD, Koob G. The addicted brain craves new neurons: putative role for adult-born progenitors in promoting recovery. Trends Neurosci. 2012 Apr; 35(4):250-60. PMID: 22265158; PMCID: PMC3321119.
      86. Higley AE, Koob G, Mason BJ. Treatment of alcohol dependence with drug antagonists of the stress response. Alcohol Res. 2012; 34(4):516-21. PMID: 23584117; PMCID: PMC3860394.
      87. Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Update on corticotropin-releasing factor pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders: a revisionist view. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jan; 37(1):308-9. PMID: 22157874; PMCID: PMC3238086.
      88. Koob G. Animal models of psychiatric disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012; 106:137-66. PMID: 22608620.
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      89. Edwards S, Koob G. Experimental psychiatric illness and drug abuse models: from human to animal, an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 829:31-48. PMID: 22231805; PMCID: PMC3285446.
      90. Recinto P, Samant AR, Chavez G, Kim A, Yuan CJ, Soleiman M, Grant Y, Edwards S, Wee S, Koob G, George O, Mandyam CD. Levels of neural progenitors in the hippocampus predict memory impairment and relapse to drug seeking as a function of excessive methamphetamine self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Apr; 37(5):1275-87. PMID: 22205547; PMCID: PMC3306889.
      91. Stowe GN, Schlosburg JE, Vendruscolo LF, Edwards S, Misra KK, Schulteis G, Zakhari JS, Koob G, Janda KD. Developing a vaccine against multiple psychoactive targets: a case study of heroin. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Dec; 10(8):865-75. PMID: 22229311; PMCID: PMC3327724.
      92. Koob G, Hicks MJ, Wee S, Rosenberg JB, De BP, Kaminsky SM, Moreno A, Janda KD, Crystal RG. Anti-cocaine vaccine based on coupling a cocaine analog to a disrupted adenovirus. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Dec; 10(8):899-904. PMID: 22229312; PMCID: PMC3369545.
      93. Fekete EM, Zhao Y, Szücs A, Sabino V, Cottone P, Rivier J, Vale WW, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Systemic urocortin 2, but not urocortin 1 or stressin 1-A, suppresses feeding via CRF2 receptors without malaise and stress. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec; 164(8):1959-75. PMID: 21627635; PMCID: PMC3246660.
      94. Edwards S, Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Wee S, Park PE, Schulteis G, Koob G. Development of mechanical hypersensitivity in rats during heroin and ethanol dependence: alleviation by CRF1 receptor antagonism. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):1142-51. PMID: 22119954; PMCID: PMC3262951.
      95. George O, Le Moal M, Koob G. Allostasis and addiction: role of the dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor systems. Physiol Behav. 2012 Apr 12; 106(1):58-64. PMID: 22108506; PMCID: PMC3288230.
      96. Lenoir M, Guillem K, Koob G, Ahmed SH. Drug specificity in extended access cocaine and heroin self-administration. Addict Biol. 2012 Nov; 17(6):964-76. PMID: 21995515.
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      97. Wee S, Hicks MJ, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Moreno AY, Kaminsky SM, Janda KD, Crystal RG, Koob G. Novel cocaine vaccine linked to a disrupted adenovirus gene transfer vector blocks cocaine psychostimulant and reinforcing effects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Apr; 37(5):1083-91. PMID: 21918504; PMCID: PMC3306868.
      98. Logrip ML, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Stress modulation of drug self-administration: implications for addiction comorbidity with post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Feb; 62(2):552-64. PMID: 21782834; PMCID: PMC3206986.
      99. Zorrilla EP, Wee S, Zhao Y, Specio S, Boutrel B, Koob G, Weiss F. Extended access cocaine self-administration differentially activates dorsal raphe and amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor systems in rats. Addict Biol. 2012 Mar; 17(2):300-8. PMID: 21762287; PMCID: PMC3304464.
      100. Stowe GN, Vendruscolo LF, Edwards S, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Schulteis G, Mayorov AV, Zakhari JS, Koob G, Janda KD. A vaccine strategy that induces protective immunity against heroin. J Med Chem. 2011 Jul 28; 54(14):5195-204. PMID: 21692508; PMCID: PMC3142939.
      101. Mihindou C, Vouillac C, Koob G, Ahmed SH. Preclinical validation of a novel cocaine exposure therapy for relapse prevention. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 15; 70(6):593-8. PMID: 21571256; PMCID: PMC3157564.
      102. Parylak SL, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. The dark side of food addiction. Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 25; 104(1):149-56. PMID: 21557958; PMCID: PMC3304465.
      103. Gilpin NW, Misra K, Herman MA, Cruz MT, Koob G, Roberto M. Neuropeptide Y opposes alcohol effects on gamma-aminobutyric acid release in amygdala and blocks the transition to alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 01; 69(11):1091-9. PMID: 21459365; PMCID: PMC3090491.
      104. Logrip ML, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Role of corticotropin-releasing factor in drug addiction: potential for pharmacological intervention. CNS Drugs. 2011 Apr; 25(4):271-87. PMID: 21425881; PMCID: PMC3273042.
      105. George O, Koob G. Craving, context and the cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Apr; 14(4):409-10. PMID: 21445066; PMCID: PMC3829767.
      106. Vendruscolo LF, Schlosburg JE, Misra KK, Chen SA, Greenwell TN, Koob G. Escalation patterns of varying periods of heroin access. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 Jun; 98(4):570-4. PMID: 21406200; PMCID: PMC3081940.
      107. Sabino V, Cottone P, Blasio A, Iyer MR, Steardo L, Rice KC, Conti B, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Activation of s-receptors induces binge-like drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 May; 36(6):1207-18. PMID: 21346735; PMCID: PMC3079320.
      108. Allen CD, Lee S, Koob G, Rivier C. Immediate and prolonged effects of alcohol exposure on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult and adolescent rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jun; 25 Suppl 1:S50-60. PMID: 21300146; PMCID: PMC3098294.
      109. Blednov YA, Ponomarev I, Geil C, Bergeson S, Koob G, Harris RA. Neuroimmune regulation of alcohol consumption: behavioral validation of genes obtained from genomic studies. Addict Biol. 2012 Jan; 17(1):108-20. PMID: 21309947; PMCID: PMC3117922.
      110. Edwards S, Guerrero M, Ghoneim OM, Roberts E, Koob G. Evidence that vasopressin V1b receptors mediate the transition to excessive drinking in ethanol-dependent rats. Addict Biol. 2012 Jan; 17(1):76-85. PMID: 21309953; PMCID: PMC3178679.
      111. Hicks MJ, De BP, Rosenberg JB, Davidson JT, Moreno AY, Janda KD, Wee S, Koob G, Hackett NR, Kaminsky SM, Worgall S, Toth M, Mezey JG, Crystal RG. Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus: a vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. Mol Ther. 2011 Mar; 19(3):612-9. PMID: 21206484; PMCID: PMC3048190.
      112. Walker BM, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Systemic ?-opioid receptor antagonism by nor-binaltorphimine reduces dependence-induced excessive alcohol self-administration in rats. Addict Biol. 2011 Jan; 16(1):116-9. PMID: 20579007; PMCID: PMC2988980.
      113. George O, Lloyd A, Carroll FI, Damaj MI, Koob G. Varenicline blocks nicotine intake in rats with extended access to nicotine self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Feb; 213(4):715-22. PMID: 20924754; PMCID: PMC3033995.
      114. Gilpin NW, Koob G. Effects of ß-adrenoceptor antagonists on alcohol drinking by alcohol-dependent rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Oct; 212(3):431-9. PMID: 20676608; PMCID: PMC2966867.
      115. Shurman J, Koob G, Gutstein HB. Opioids, pain, the brain, and hyperkatifeia: a framework for the rational use of opioids for pain. Pain Med. 2010 Jul; 11(7):1092-8. PMID: 20545871; PMCID: PMC2907890.
      116. George O, Koob G. Individual differences in prefrontal cortex function and the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010 Nov; 35(2):232-47. PMID: 20493211; PMCID: PMC2955797.
      117. Edwards S, Koob G. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction. Future Neurol. 2010 May 01; 5(3):393-401. PMID: 20563312.
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      118. Orio L, Wee S, Newman AH, Pulvirenti L, Koob G. The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access. Addict Biol. 2010 Jul; 15(3):312-23. PMID: 20456290; PMCID: PMC2903631.
      119. George O, Grieder TE, Cole M, Koob G. Exposure to chronic intermittent nicotine vapor induces nicotine dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jul; 96(1):104-7. PMID: 20420848; PMCID: PMC2878929.
      120. Wee S, Koob G. The role of the dynorphin-kappa opioid system in the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jun; 210(2):121-35. PMID: 20352414; PMCID: PMC2879894.
      121. Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development. Drug Discov Today. 2010 May; 15(9-10):371-83. PMID: 20206287; PMCID: PMC2864802.
      122. Roberto M, Cruz MT, Gilpin NW, Sabino V, Schweitzer P, Bajo M, Cottone P, Madamba SG, Stouffer DG, Zorrilla EP, Koob G, Siggins GR, Parsons LH. Corticotropin releasing factor-induced amygdala gamma-aminobutyric Acid release plays a key role in alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 May 01; 67(9):831-9. PMID: 20060104; PMCID: PMC2883449.
      123. Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Neurobiological mechanisms of addiction: focus on corticotropin-releasing factor. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jan; 11(1):63-71. PMID: 20047160; PMCID: PMC2812895.
      124. Koob G. Focus on: Neuroscience and treatment: the potential of neuroscience to inform treatment. Alcohol Res Health. 2010; 33(1-2):144-51. PMID: 23579944; PMCID: PMC3887491.
      125. Koob G, Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Jan; 35(1):217-38. PMID: 19710631; PMCID: PMC2805560.
      126. Koob G. The role of CRF and CRF-related peptides in the dark side of addiction. Brain Res. 2010 Feb 16; 1314:3-14. PMID: 19912996; PMCID: PMC2819562.
      127. Cottone P, Sabino V, Roberto M, Bajo M, Pockros L, Frihauf JB, Fekete EM, Steardo L, Rice KC, Grigoriadis DE, Conti B, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. CRF system recruitment mediates dark side of compulsive eating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24; 106(47):20016-20. PMID: 19901333; PMCID: PMC2785284.
      128. Tabakoff B, Saba L, Printz M, Flodman P, Hodgkinson C, Goldman D, Koob G, Richardson HN, Kechris K, Bell RL, Hübner N, Heinig M, Pravenec M, Mangion J, Legault L, Dongier M, Conigrave KM, Whitfield JB, Saunders J, Grant B, Hoffman PL. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans. BMC Biol. 2009 Oct 27; 7:70. PMID: 19874574; PMCID: PMC2777866.
      129. Gilpin NW, Smith AD, Cole M, Weiss F, Koob G, Richardson HN. Operant behavior and alcohol levels in blood and brain of alcohol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Dec; 33(12):2113-23. PMID: 19740131; PMCID: PMC2789881.
      130. Francesconi W, Berton F, Koob G, Sanna PP. Intrinsic neuronal plasticity in the juxtacapsular nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (jcBNST). Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Nov 13; 33(8):1347-55. PMID: 19683025; PMCID: PMC2935256.
      131. Richardson HN, Chan SH, Crawford EF, Lee YK, Funk CK, Koob G, Mandyam CD. Permanent impairment of birth and survival of cortical and hippocampal proliferating cells following excessive drinking during alcohol dependence. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):1-10. PMID: 19501165; PMCID: PMC2742572.
      132. Wee S, Orio L, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Koob G. Inhibition of kappa opioid receptors attenuated increased cocaine intake in rats with extended access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Sep; 205(4):565-75. PMID: 19484223; PMCID: PMC2739447.
      133. Sabino V, Cottone P, Zhao Y, Steardo L, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Selective reduction of alcohol drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats by a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Aug; 205(2):327-35. PMID: 19440699; PMCID: PMC2748837.
      134. Koob G. Dynamics of neuronal circuits in addiction: reward, antireward, and emotional memory. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2009 May; 42 Suppl 1:S32-41. PMID: 19434554; PMCID: PMC2739305.
      135. Francesconi W, Berton F, Repunte-Canonigo V, Hagihara K, Thurbon D, Lekic D, Specio SE, Greenwell TN, Chen SA, Rice KC, Richardson HN, O'Dell LE, Zorrilla EP, Morales M, Koob G, Sanna PP. Protracted withdrawal from alcohol and drugs of abuse impairs long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in the juxtacapsular bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 29; 29(17):5389-401. PMID: 19403807; PMCID: PMC2938175.
      136. Orio L, Edwards S, George O, Parsons LH, Koob G. A role for the endocannabinoid system in the increased motivation for cocaine in extended-access conditions. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 15; 29(15):4846-57. PMID: 19369553; PMCID: PMC2688678.
      137. Greenwell TN, Funk CK, Cottone P, Richardson HN, Chen SA, Rice KC, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats. Addict Biol. 2009 Apr; 14(2):130-43. PMID: 19291009; PMCID: PMC2748834.
      138. Koob G. Brain stress systems in the amygdala and addiction. Brain Res. 2009 Oct 13; 1293:61-75. PMID: 19332030; PMCID: PMC2774745.
      139. Koob G. New dimensions in human laboratory models of addiction. Addict Biol. 2009 Jan; 14(1):1-8. PMID: 19133879.
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      140. Sabino V, Cottone P, Zhao Y, Iyer MR, Steardo L, Steardo L, Rice KC, Conti B, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 May; 34(6):1482-93. PMID: 18946467; PMCID: PMC2669694.
      141. Koob G, Le Moal M. Review. Neurobiological mechanisms for opponent motivational processes in addiction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Oct 12; 363(1507):3113-23. PMID: 18653439; PMCID: PMC2607326.
      142. Richardson HN, Lee SY, O'Dell LE, Koob G, Rivier CL. Alcohol self-administration acutely stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but alcohol dependence leads to a dampened neuroendocrine state. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Oct; 28(8):1641-53. PMID: 18979677; PMCID: PMC2748838.
      143. Du X, Schwander M, Moresco EM, Viviani P, Haller C, Hildebrand MS, Pak K, Tarantino L, Roberts A, Richardson H, Koob G, Najmabadi H, Ryan AF, Smith RJ, Müller U, Beutler B. A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38):14609-14. PMID: 18794526; PMCID: PMC2567147.
      144. Koob G. Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2009; 56 Suppl 1:18-31. PMID: 18725236; PMCID: PMC2637927.
      145. Greenwell TN, Walker BM, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. The alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin reduces heroin self-administration in rats with extended access to heroin administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Jan; 91(3):295-302. PMID: 18703080; PMCID: PMC2637926.
      146. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Koob G. Effects of CRF1-receptor and opioid-receptor antagonists on dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Sep; 32(9):1535-42. PMID: 18631323; PMCID: PMC2583093.
      147. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Cole M, Koob G. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2008 Jul; Chapter 9:Unit 9.29. PMID: 18634001; PMCID: PMC2583102.
      148. Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor, neuroplasticity (sensitization), and alcoholism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 01; 105(26):8809-10. PMID: 18583480; PMCID: PMC2449322.
      149. Roberto M, Gilpin NW, O'Dell LE, Cruz MT, Morse AC, Siggins GR, Koob G. Cellular and behavioral interactions of gabapentin with alcohol dependence. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5762-71. PMID: 18509038; PMCID: PMC2493536.
      150. Mandyam CD, Wee S, Crawford EF, Eisch AJ, Richardson HN, Koob G. Varied access to intravenous methamphetamine self-administration differentially alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Dec 01; 64(11):958-65. PMID: 18490002; PMCID: PMC2587157.
      151. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Lumeng L, Koob G. Dependence-induced alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and outbred Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Sep; 32(9):1688-96. PMID: 18482158; PMCID: PMC2583092.
      152. Gilpin NW, Misra K, Koob G. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Sep; 90(3):475-80. PMID: 18501411; PMCID: PMC2480495.
      153. Krystal JH, Carter CS, Geschwind D, Manji HK, March JS, Nestler EJ, Zubieta JK, Charney DS, Goldman D, Gur RE, Lieberman JA, Roy-Byrne P, Rubinow DR, Anderson SA, Barondes S, Berman KF, Blair J, Braff DL, Brown ES, Calabrese JR, Carlezon WA, Cook EH, Davidson RJ, Davis M, Desimone R, Drevets WC, Duman RS, Essock SM, Faraone SV, Freedman R, Friston KJ, Gelernter J, Geller B, Gill M, Gould E, Grace AA, Grillon C, Gueorguieva R, Hariri AR, Innis RB, Jones EG, Kleinman JE, Koob G, Krystal AD, Leibenluft E, Levinson DF, Levitt PR, Lewis DA, Liberzon I, Lipska BK, Marder SR, Markou A, Mason GF, McDougle CJ, McEwen BS, McMahon FJ, Meaney MJ, Meltzer HY, Merikangas KR, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mirnics K, Monteggia LM, Neumeister A, O'Brien CP, Owen MJ, Pine DS, Rapoport JL, Rauch SL, Robbins TW, Rosenbaum JF, Rosenberg DR, Ross CA, Rush AJ, Sackeim HA, Sanacora G, Schatzberg AF, Shaham Y, Siever LJ, Sunderland T, Tecott LH, Thase ME, Todd RD, Weissman MM, Yehuda R, Yoshikawa T, Young EA, McCandless R. It is time to take a stand for medical research and against terrorism targeting medical scientists. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 15; 63(8):725-7. PMID: 18371494.
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      154. Walker BM, Rasmussen DD, Raskind MA, Koob G. alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol. Alcohol. 2008 Mar; 42(2):91-7. PMID: 18358987; PMCID: PMC2587143.
      155. Papaleo F, Ghozland S, Ingallinesi M, Roberts AJ, Koob G, Contarino A. Disruption of the CRF(2) receptor pathway decreases the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Nov; 33(12):2878-87. PMID: 18288089; PMCID: PMC2760329.
      156. Ji D, Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Rivier CL, Koob G. Effects of naltrexone, duloxetine, and a corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor antagonist on binge-like alcohol drinking in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Feb; 19(1):1-12. PMID: 18195589; PMCID: PMC2586833.
      157. Koob G. Alcoholism, corticotropin-releasing factor, and molecular genetic allostasis. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15; 63(2):137-8. PMID: 18164903; PMCID: PMC2386996.
      158. Koob G, Le Moal M. Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008; 59:29-53. PMID: 18154498.
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      159. Gilpin NW, Koob G. Neurobiology of alcohol dependence: focus on motivational mechanisms. Alcohol Res Health. 2008; 31(3):185-95. PMID: 19881886.
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      160. Koob G. Hedonic Homeostatic Dysregulation as a Driver of Drug-Seeking Behavior. Drug Discov Today Dis Models. 2008; 5(4):207-215. PMID: 20054425.
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      161. Caine SB, Thomsen M, Gabriel KI, Berkowitz JS, Gold LH, Koob G, Tonegawa S, Zhang J, Xu M. Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 28; 27(48):13140-50. PMID: 18045908; PMCID: PMC2747091.
      162. George O, Mandyam CD, Wee S, Koob G. Extended access to cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory impairments. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Sep; 33(10):2474-82. PMID: 18033234; PMCID: PMC2760333.
      163. Specio SE, Wee S, O'Dell LE, Boutrel B, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. CRF(1) receptor antagonists attenuate escalated cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Feb; 196(3):473-82. PMID: 17965976; PMCID: PMC2769571.
      164. Wee S, Mandyam CD, Lekic DM, Koob G. Alpha 1-noradrenergic system role in increased motivation for cocaine intake in rats with prolonged access. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Apr; 18(4):303-11. PMID: 17920248; PMCID: PMC2376122.
      165. Richardson HN, Zhao Y, Fekete EM, Funk CK, Wirsching P, Janda KD, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. MPZP: a novel small molecule corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Feb; 88(4):497-510. PMID: 18031798; PMCID: PMC3319109.
      166. Mandyam CD, Wee S, Eisch AJ, Richardson HN, Koob G. Methamphetamine self-administration and voluntary exercise have opposing effects on medial prefrontal cortex gliogenesis. J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 17; 27(42):11442-50. PMID: 17942739; PMCID: PMC2741502.
      167. George O, Ghozland S, Azar MR, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Parsons LH, O'Dell LE, Richardson HN, Koob G. CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23; 104(43):17198-203. PMID: 17921249; PMCID: PMC2040467.
      168. Tabarin A, Diz-Chaves Y, Consoli D, Monsaingeon M, Bale TL, Culler MD, Datta R, Drago F, Vale WW, Koob G, Zorrilla EP, Contarino A. Role of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 in the control of food intake in mice: a meal pattern analysis. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Oct; 26(8):2303-14. PMID: 17953621; PMCID: PMC2741498.
      169. Zhang Z, Morse AC, Koob G, Schulteis G. Dose- and time-dependent expression of anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze during withdrawal from acute and repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Nov; 31(11):1811-9. PMID: 17877783; PMCID: PMC2367334.
      170. Koob G, Kreek MJ. Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Aug; 164(8):1149-59. PMID: 17671276; PMCID: PMC2837343.
      171. Guillem K, Vouillac C, Koob G, Cador M, Stinus L. Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically prolongs the duration of nicotine withdrawal-induced place aversion. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15; 63(2):158-63. PMID: 17643399.
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      172. Heilig M, Koob G. A key role for corticotropin-releasing factor in alcohol dependence. Trends Neurosci. 2007 Aug; 30(8):399-406. PMID: 17629579; PMCID: PMC2747092.
      173. Treweek J, Wee S, Koob G, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. Self-vaccination by methamphetamine glycation products chemically links chronic drug abuse and cardiovascular disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11580-4. PMID: 17592122; PMCID: PMC1913859.
      174. Walker BM, Koob G. Pharmacological evidence for a motivational role of kappa-opioid systems in ethanol dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Feb; 33(3):643-52. PMID: 17473837; PMCID: PMC2739278.
      175. Funk CK, Koob G. A CRF(2) agonist administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Brain Res. 2007 Jun 25; 1155:172-8. PMID: 17512918; PMCID: PMC2741495.
      176. Chu K, Koob G, Cole M, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ. Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Apr; 86(4):813-21. PMID: 17482248; PMCID: PMC2170886.
      177. Thorsell A, Repunte-Canonigo V, O'Dell LE, Chen SA, King AR, Lekic D, Koob G, Sanna PP. Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats. Brain. 2007 May; 130(Pt 5):1330-7. PMID: 17405766; PMCID: PMC2749684.
      178. Brogan AP, Eubanks LM, Koob G, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. Antibody-catalyzed oxidation of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Mar 28; 129(12):3698-702. PMID: 17335216.
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      179. Koob G, Miller SC, Wunsch MJ. Inaugural issue of the journal of addiction medicine. J Addict Med. 2007 Mar; 1(1):1. PMID: 21768924.
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      180. Wee S, Wang Z, Woolverton WL, Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Effect of aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged session duration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Oct; 32(10):2238-47. PMID: 17327886; PMCID: PMC2747088.
      181. O'Dell LE, Koob G. 'Nicotine deprivation effect' in rats with intermittent 23-hour access to intravenous nicotine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007 Feb; 86(2):346-53. PMID: 17292952; PMCID: PMC2386418.
      182. Wee S, Specio SE, Koob G. Effects of dose and session duration on cocaine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Mar; 320(3):1134-43. PMID: 17202405.
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      183. Walker BM, Koob G. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptor agonist baclofen attenuates responding for ethanol in ethanol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Jan; 31(1):11-8. PMID: 17207096; PMCID: PMC2768469.
      184. Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob G, Cador M, Stinus L. Monoamine oxidase A rather than monoamine oxidase B inhibition increases nicotine reinforcement in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Dec; 24(12):3532-40. PMID: 17229101.
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      185. O'Brien CP, Koob G, Mee-Lee D, Rosenthal RN. New developments in addiction treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Nov; 67(11):1801-12. PMID: 17196062.
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      186. Funk CK, O'Dell LE, Crawford EF, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor within the central nucleus of the amygdala mediates enhanced ethanol self-administration in withdrawn, ethanol-dependent rats. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 01; 26(44):11324-32. PMID: 17079660.
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      187. Eubanks LM, Rogers CJ, Beuscher AE, Koob G, Olson AJ, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD. A molecular link between the active component of marijuana and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Mol Pharm. 2006 Nov-Dec; 3(6):773-7. PMID: 17140265; PMCID: PMC2562334.
      188. Solbrig MV, Adrian R, Wechsler SL, Koob G. Activators of potassium M currents have anticonvulsant actions in two rat models of encephalitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 19; 555(1):23-9. PMID: 17126318; PMCID: PMC2981072.
      189. Sabino V, Cottone P, Koob G, Steardo L, Lee MJ, Rice KC, Zorrilla EP. Dissociation between opioid and CRF1 antagonist sensitive drinking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Dec; 189(2):175-86. PMID: 17047935.
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      190. O'Dell LE, Chen SA, Smith RT, Specio SE, Balster RL, Paterson NE, Markou A, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: Circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jan; 320(1):180-93. PMID: 17050784.
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      191. Fekete EM, Inoue K, Zhao Y, Rivier JE, Vale WW, Szücs A, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Delayed satiety-like actions and altered feeding microstructure by a selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist in rats: intra-hypothalamic urocortin 3 administration reduces food intake by prolonging the post-meal interval. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 May; 32(5):1052-68. PMID: 17019404; PMCID: PMC2748839.
      192. Koob G. The neurobiology of addiction: a neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis. Addiction. 2006 Sep; 101 Suppl 1:23-30. PMID: 16930158.
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      193. Crabbe JC, Phillips TJ, Harris RA, Arends MA, Koob G. Alcohol-related genes: contributions from studies with genetically engineered mice. Addict Biol. 2006 Sep; 11(3-4):195-269. PMID: 16961758.
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      194. Funk CK, Zorrilla EP, Lee MJ, Rice KC, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonists selectively reduce ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 01; 61(1):78-86. PMID: 16876134; PMCID: PMC2741496.
      195. Steffensen SC, Stobbs SH, Colago EE, Lee RS, Koob G, Gallegos RA, Henriksen SJ. Contingent and non-contingent effects of heroin on mu-opioid receptor-containing ventral tegmental area GABA neurons. Exp Neurol. 2006 Nov; 202(1):139-51. PMID: 16814775.
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      196. Kenny PJ, Chen SA, Kitamura O, Markou A, Koob G. Conditioned withdrawal drives heroin consumption and decreases reward sensitivity. J Neurosci. 2006 May 31; 26(22):5894-900. PMID: 16738231.
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      197. Hoefer ME, Voskanian SJ, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. Effects of terguride, ropinirole, and acetyl-L-carnitine on methamphetamine withdrawal in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Mar; 83(3):403-9. PMID: 16647107.
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      198. Mulligan MK, Ponomarev I, Hitzemann RJ, Belknap JK, Tabakoff B, Harris RA, Crabbe JC, Blednov YA, Grahame NJ, Phillips TJ, Finn DA, Hoffman PL, Iyer VR, Koob G, Bergeson SE. Toward understanding the genetics of alcohol drinking through transcriptome meta-analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6368-73. PMID: 16618939; PMCID: PMC1458884.
      199. O'Dell LE, Bruijnzeel AW, Smith RT, Parsons LH, Merves ML, Goldberger BA, Richardson HN, Koob G, Markou A. Diminished nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats: implications for vulnerability to addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jul; 186(4):612-9. PMID: 16598454.
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      200. Kitamura O, Wee S, Specio SE, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in rats: a dose-effect function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May; 186(1):48-53. PMID: 16552556.
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      201. Kranzler HR, Koob G, Gastfriend DR, Swift RM, Willenbring ML. Advances in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism: challenging misconceptions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Feb; 30(2):272-81. PMID: 16441276.
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      202. Heinrichs SC, Koob G. Application of experimental stressors in laboratory rodents. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2006 Feb; Chapter 8:Unit8.4. PMID: 18428648.
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      203. Chen SA, O'Dell LE, Hoefer ME, Greenwell TN, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Unlimited access to heroin self-administration: independent motivational markers of opiate dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Dec; 31(12):2692-707. PMID: 16452993.
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      204. Solbrig MV, Adrian R, Baratta J, Lauterborn JC, Koob G. Kappa opioid control of seizures produced by a virus in an animal model. Brain. 2006 Mar; 129(Pt 3):642-54. PMID: 16399805.
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      205. Koob G. A role for GABA in alcohol dependence. Adv Pharmacol. 2006; 54:205-29. PMID: 17175816.
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      206. Boutrel B, Kenny PJ, Specio SE, Martin-Fardon R, Markou A, Koob G, de Lecea L. Role for hypocretin in mediating stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19168-73. PMID: 16357203; PMCID: PMC1323172.
      207. Tabarin A, Diz-Chaves Y, Chaves YD, Carmona Mdel C, Catargi B, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Coscina DV, Rousset S, Redonnet A, Parker GC, Inoue K, Ricquier D, Pénicaud L, Kieffer BL, Koob G. Resistance to diet-induced obesity in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice: evidence for a "thrifty gene". Diabetes. 2005 Dec; 54(12):3510-6. PMID: 16306369.
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      208. Qi L, Yamamoto N, Meijler MM, Altobell LJ, Koob G, Wirsching P, Janda KD. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol immunochemical studies: haptens, monoclonal antibodies, and a convenient synthesis of radiolabeled delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Med Chem. 2005 Nov 17; 48(23):7389-99. PMID: 16279798.
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      209. Koob G, Le Moal M. Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the 'dark side' of drug addiction. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 8(11):1442-4. PMID: 16251985.
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      210. Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob G, Cador M, Stinus L. Monoamine oxidase inhibition dramatically increases the motivation to self-administer nicotine in rats. J Neurosci. 2005 Sep 21; 25(38):8593-600. PMID: 16177026.
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      211. Ahmed SH, Lutjens R, van der Stap LD, Lekic D, Romano-Spica V, Morales M, Koob G, Repunte-Canonigo V, Sanna PP. Gene expression evidence for remodeling of lateral hypothalamic circuitry in cocaine addiction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 09; 102(32):11533-8. PMID: 16076954; PMCID: PMC1183574.
      212. Sanchis-Segura C, Grisel JE, Olive MF, Ghozland S, Koob G, Roberts AJ, Cowen MS. Role of the endogenous opioid system on the neuropsychopharmacological effects of ethanol: new insights about an old question. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Aug; 29(8):1522-7. PMID: 16156049.
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      213. Izzo E, Sanna PP, Koob G. Impairment of dopaminergic system function after chronic treatment with corticotropin-releasing factor. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug; 81(4):701-8. PMID: 16005056.
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      214. O'Dell LE, Purdy RH, Covey DF, Richardson HN, Roberto M, Koob G. Epipregnanolone and a novel synthetic neuroactive steroid reduce alcohol self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Jul; 81(3):543-50. PMID: 15950269.
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      215. Ahmed SH, Koob G. Transition to drug addiction: a negative reinforcement model based on an allostatic decrease in reward function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jul; 180(3):473-90. PMID: 15731896.
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      216. Breese GR, Chu K, Dayas CV, Funk D, Knapp DJ, Koob G, Lê DA, O'Dell LE, Overstreet DH, Roberts AJ, Sinha R, Valdez GR, Weiss F. Stress enhancement of craving during sobriety: a risk for relapse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Feb; 29(2):185-95. PMID: 15714042; PMCID: PMC2868509.
      217. Zorrilla EP, Inoue K, Fekete EM, Tabarin A, Valdez GR, Koob G. Measuring meals: structure of prandial food and water intake of rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jun; 288(6):R1450-67. PMID: 15637168.
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      218. Stinus L, Cador M, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Buprenorphine and a CRF1 antagonist block the acquisition of opiate withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Jan; 30(1):90-8. PMID: 15138444.
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      219. Kenny PJ, Boutrel B, Gasparini F, Koob G, Markou A. Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor blockade may attenuate cocaine self-administration by decreasing brain reward function in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Apr; 179(1):247-54. PMID: 15602687.
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      220. Valdez GR, Koob G. Allostasis and dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y systems: implications for the development of alcoholism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 Dec; 79(4):671-89. PMID: 15582675.
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      221. O'Dell LE, Roberts AJ, Smith RT, Koob G. Enhanced alcohol self-administration after intermittent versus continuous alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Nov; 28(11):1676-82. PMID: 15547454.
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      222. Koob G. A role for GABA mechanisms in the motivational effects of alcohol. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 15; 68(8):1515-25. PMID: 15451394.
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      223. Navarro M, Carrera MR, Del Arco I, Trigo JM, Koob G, Rodríguez de Fonseca F. Cannabinoid receptor antagonist reduces heroin self-administration only in dependent rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct 06; 501(1-3):235-7. PMID: 15464083.
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      224. Boutrel B, Koob G. What keeps us awake: the neuropharmacology of stimulants and wakefulness-promoting medications. Sleep. 2004 Sep 15; 27(6):1181-94. PMID: 15532213.
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      225. Koob G, Greenwell TN. Neuropeptide S: a novel activating anxiolytic? Neuron. 2004 Aug 19; 43(4):441-2. PMID: 15312642.
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      226. Heinrichs SC, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor in brain: a role in activation, arousal, and affect regulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Nov; 311(2):427-40. PMID: 15297468.
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      227. Zorrilla EP, Inoue K, Valdez GR, Tabarin A, Koob G. Leptin and post-prandial satiety: acute central leptin more potently reduces meal frequency than meal size in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jan; 177(3):324-35. PMID: 15609069.
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      228. Martin G, Guadaño-Ferraz A, Morte B, Ahmed S, Koob G, De Lecea L, Siggins GR. Chronic morphine treatment alters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in freshly isolated neurons from nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct; 311(1):265-73. PMID: 15263066.
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      229. Zorrilla EP, Koob G. The therapeutic potential of CRF1 antagonists for anxiety. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Jul; 13(7):799-828. PMID: 15212620.
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      230. Carrera MR, Kaufmann GF, Mee JM, Meijler MM, Koob G, Janda KD. Treating cocaine addiction with viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13; 101(28):10416-21. PMID: 15226496; PMCID: PMC478586.
      231. Inoue K, Zorrilla EP, Tabarin A, Valdez GR, Iwasaki S, Kiriike N, Koob G. Reduction of anxiety after restricted feeding in the rat: implication for eating disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jun 01; 55(11):1075-81. PMID: 15158426.
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      232. Valdez GR, Sabino V, Koob G. Increased anxiety-like behavior and ethanol self-administration in dependent rats: reversal via corticotropin-releasing factor-2 receptor activation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Jun; 28(6):865-72. PMID: 15201629.
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      233. O'Dell LE, Bruijnzeel AW, Ghozland S, Markou A, Koob G. Nicotine withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1021:167-74. PMID: 15251887.
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      234. Azar MR, Ahmed SH, Lintz R, Gutierrez T, Stinus L, Koob G. A non-invasive gating device for continuous drug delivery that allows control over the timing and duration of spontaneous opiate withdrawal. J Neurosci Methods. 2004 May 30; 135(1-2):129-35. PMID: 15020097.
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      235. Zorrilla EP, Reinhardt LE, Valdez GR, Inoue K, Rivier JE, Vale WW, Koob G. Human urocortin 2, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)2 agonist, and ovine CRF, a CRF1 agonist, differentially alter feeding and motor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3):1027-34. PMID: 15115804.
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      236. Sanna PP, Koob G. Cocaine's long run. Nat Med. 2004 Apr; 10(4):340-1. PMID: 15057223.
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      237. Carrera MR, Ashley JA, Hoffman TZ, Isomura S, Wirsching P, Koob G, Janda KD. Investigations using immunization to attenuate the psychoactive effects of nicotine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 Feb 01; 12(3):563-70. PMID: 14738965.
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      238. O'Dell LE, Alomary AA, Vallée M, Koob G, Fitzgerald RL, Purdy RH. Ethanol-induced increases in neuroactive steroids in the rat brain and plasma are absent in adrenalectomized and gonadectomized rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26; 484(2-3):241-7. PMID: 14744609.
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      239. Ben-Shahar O, Ahmed SH, Koob G, Ettenberg A. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use is associated with a loss of sensitization. Brain Res. 2004 Jan 02; 995(1):46-54. PMID: 14644470.
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      240. Weed MR, Gold LH, Polis I, Koob G, Fox HS, Taffe MA. Impaired performance on a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery following simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Jan; 20(1):77-89. PMID: 15000701.
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      241. Koob G, Ahmed SH, Boutrel B, Chen SA, Kenny PJ, Markou A, O'Dell LE, Parsons LH, Sanna PP. Neurobiological mechanisms in the transition from drug use to drug dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004 Jan; 27(8):739-49. PMID: 15019424.
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      242. Koob G. Neuroadaptive mechanisms of addiction: studies on the extended amygdala. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 Dec; 13(6):442-52. PMID: 14636960.
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      243. Ahmed SH, Koob G. Changes in response to a dopamine receptor antagonist in rats with escalating cocaine intake. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Apr; 172(4):450-4. PMID: 14647962.
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      244. Kenny PJ, Paterson NE, Boutrel B, Semenova S, Harrison AA, Gasparini F, Koob G, Skoubis PD, Markou A. Metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor antagonist MPEP decreased nicotine and cocaine self-administration but not nicotine and cocaine-induced facilitation of brain reward function in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:415-8. PMID: 14684476.
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      245. Kenny PJ, Koob G, Markou A. Conditioned facilitation of brain reward function after repeated cocaine administration. Behav Neurosci. 2003 Oct; 117(5):1103-7. PMID: 14570559.
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      246. Valdez GR, Zorrilla EP, Rivier J, Vale WW, Koob G. Locomotor suppressive and anxiolytic-like effects of urocortin 3, a highly selective type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor agonist. Brain Res. 2003 Aug 08; 980(2):206-12. PMID: 12867260.
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      247. Zorrilla EP, Taché Y, Koob G. Nibbling at CRF receptor control of feeding and gastrocolonic motility. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Aug; 24(8):421-7. PMID: 12915052.
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      248. Ahmed SH, Lin D, Koob G, Parsons LH. Escalation of cocaine self-administration does not depend on altered cocaine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine levels. J Neurochem. 2003 Jul; 86(1):102-13. PMID: 12807430.
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      249. Walker JR, Chen SA, Moffitt H, Inturrisi CE, Koob G. Chronic opioid exposure produces increased heroin self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 May; 75(2):349-54. PMID: 12873626.
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      250. Heyser CJ, Moc K, Koob G. Effects of naltrexone alone and in combination with acamprosate on the alcohol deprivation effect in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Aug; 28(8):1463-71. PMID: 12700689.
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      251. Inoue K, Valdez GR, Reyes TM, Reinhardt LE, Tabarin A, Rivier J, Vale WW, Sawchenko PE, Koob G, Zorrilla EP. Human urocortin II, a selective agonist for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor, decreases feeding and drinking in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr; 305(1):385-93. PMID: 12649393.
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      252. Solbrig MV, Koob G. Neuropharmacological sequelae of persistent CNS viral infections: lessons from Borna disease virus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Mar; 74(4):777-87. PMID: 12667891.
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      253. Koob G. Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Feb; 27(2):232-43. PMID: 12605072.
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      254. Valdez GR, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ, Koob G. Antagonism of corticotropin-releasing factor attenuates the enhanced responsiveness to stress observed during protracted ethanol abstinence. Alcohol. 2003 Feb; 29(2):55-60. PMID: 12782246.
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      255. Koob G, Roberts AJ, Kieffer BL, Heyser CJ, Katner SN, Ciccocioppo R, Weiss F. Animal models of motivation for drinking in rodents with a focus on opioid receptor neuropharmacology. Recent Dev Alcohol. 2003; 16:263-81. PMID: 12638642.
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      256. Kenny PJ, Polis I, Koob G, Markou A. Low dose cocaine self-administration transiently increases but high dose cocaine persistently decreases brain reward function in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Jan; 17(1):191-5. PMID: 12534985.
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      257. Alomary AA, Vallée M, O'Dell LE, Koob G, Purdy RH, Fitzgerald RL. Acutely administered ethanol participates in testosterone synthesis and increases testosterone in rat brain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Jan; 27(1):38-43. PMID: 12544003.
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      258. Izzo E, Martin-Fardon R, Koob G, Weiss F, Sanna PP. Neural plasticity and addiction: PI3-kinase and cocaine behavioral sensitization. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Dec; 5(12):1263-4. PMID: 12436114.
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      259. Zorrilla EP, Valdez GR, Nozulak J, Koob G, Markou A. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF type 1 receptor antagonist, on anxiety-like behavior and motor activation in the rat. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 18; 952(2):188-99. PMID: 12376179.
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      260. Zorrilla EP, Schulteis G, Ormsby A, Klaassen A, Ling N, McCarthy JR, Koob G, De Souza EB. Urocortin shares the memory modulating effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF): mediation by CRF1 receptors. Brain Res. 2002 Oct 18; 952(2):200-10. PMID: 12376180.
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      261. Valdez GR, Roberts AJ, Chan K, Davis H, Brennan M, Zorrilla EP, Koob G. Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute ethanol withdrawal and protracted abstinence: regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Oct; 26(10):1494-501. PMID: 12394282.
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      262. Sanna PP, Simpson C, Lutjens R, Koob G. ERK regulation in chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Brain Res. 2002 Sep 06; 948(1-2):186-91. PMID: 12383974.
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      263. Walker JR, Terenius L, Koob G. Conditioned opioid withdrawal decreases nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in the frontal cortex and olfactory tubercle. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug; 27(2):203-11. PMID: 12093594.
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      264. Caillé S, Stinus L, Espejo EF, De Deurwaerdère P, Spampinato U, Koob G. Inhibition of 5-HT neurotransmission increases clonidine protective effects on naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion in morphine-dependent rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb; 28(2):276-83. PMID: 12589380.
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      265. Valdez GR, Inoue K, Koob G, Rivier J, Vale W, Zorrilla EP. Human urocortin II: mild locomotor suppressive and delayed anxiolytic-like effects of a novel corticotropin-releasing factor related peptide. Brain Res. 2002 Jul 05; 943(1):142-50. PMID: 12088848.
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      266. Ahmed SH, Kenny PJ, Koob G, Markou A. Neurobiological evidence for hedonic allostasis associated with escalating cocaine use. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Jul; 5(7):625-6. PMID: 12055635.
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      267. Caillé S, Espejo EF, Koob G, Stinus L. Dorsal and median raphe serotonergic system lesion does not alter the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Jul; 72(4):979-86. PMID: 12062589.
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      268. Vetter DE, Li C, Zhao L, Contarino A, Liberman MC, Smith GW, Marchuk Y, Koob G, Heinemann SF, Vale W, Lee KF. Urocortin-deficient mice show hearing impairment and increased anxiety-like behavior. Nat Genet. 2002 Aug; 31(4):363-9. PMID: 12091910.
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      269. Contarino A, Picetti R, Matthes HW, Koob G, Kieffer BL, Gold LH. Lack of reward and locomotor stimulation induced by heroin in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Jun 20; 446(1-3):103-9. PMID: 12098591.
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      270. Smith AD, Amalric M, Koob G, Zigmond MJ. Effect of bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle on reaction time. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Jun; 26(6):756-64. PMID: 12007746.
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      271. Ryabinin AE, Bachtell RK, Heinrichs SC, Lee S, Rivier C, Olive MF, Mehmert KK, Camarini R, Kim JA, Koenig HN, Nannini MA, Hodge CW, Roberts AJ, Koob G. The corticotropin-releasing factor/urocortin system and alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 May; 26(5):714-22. PMID: 12045481.
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      272. Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Being partial to psychostimulant addiction therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002 Apr; 23(4):151-3. PMID: 11931978.
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      273. Koob G, Mason BJ, De Witte P, Littleton J, Siggins GR. Potential neuroprotective effects of acamprosate. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Apr; 26(4):586-92. PMID: 11981137.
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      274. Orsini C, Izzo E, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. Blockade of nitric oxide synthesis reduces responding for cocaine self-administration during extinction and reinstatement. Brain Res. 2002 Jan 25; 925(2):133-40. PMID: 11792361.
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      275. Bale TL, Picetti R, Contarino A, Koob G, Vale WW, Lee KF. Mice deficient for both corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and CRFR2 have an impaired stress response and display sexually dichotomous anxiety-like behavior. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 01; 22(1):193-9. PMID: 11756502.
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      276. Spina MG, Merlo-Pich E, Akwa Y, Balducci C, Basso AM, Zorrilla EP, Britton KT, Rivier J, Vale WW, Koob G. Time-dependent induction of anxiogenic-like effects after central infusion of urocortin or corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Mar; 160(2):113-21. PMID: 11875628.
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      277. Vallée M, Shen W, Heinrichs SC, Zorumski CF, Covey DF, Koob G, Purdy RH. Steroid structure and pharmacological properties determine the anti-amnesic effects of pregnenolone sulphate in the passive avoidance task in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Dec; 14(12):2003-10. PMID: 11860495.
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      278. Orsini C, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. Dopamine partial agonist reverses amphetamine withdrawal in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Nov; 25(5):789-92. PMID: 11682262.
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      279. Currie PJ, Coscina DV, Bishop C, Coiro CD, Koob G, Rivier J, Vale W. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus injections of urocortin alter food intake and respiratory quotient. Brain Res. 2001 Oct 19; 916(1-2):222-8. PMID: 11597609.
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      280. Roberts AJ, Gold LH, Polis I, McDonald JS, Filliol D, Kieffer BL, Koob G. Increased ethanol self-administration in delta-opioid receptor knockout mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Sep; 25(9):1249-56. PMID: 11584142.
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      281. Navarro M, Carrera MR, Fratta W, Valverde O, Cossu G, Fattore L, Chowen JA, Gomez R, del Arco I, Villanua MA, Maldonado R, Koob G, Rodriguez de Fonseca F. Functional interaction between opioid and cannabinoid receptors in drug self-administration. J Neurosci. 2001 Jul 15; 21(14):5344-50. PMID: 11438610.
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      282. Zorrilla EP, Schulteis G, Ling N, Koob G, De Souza EB. Performance-enhancing effects of CRF-BP ligand inhibitors. Neuroreport. 2001 May 08; 12(6):1231-4. PMID: 11338197.
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      283. Lê AD, Kiianmaa K, Cunningham CL, Engel JA, Ericson M, Söderpalm B, Koob G, Roberts AJ, Weiss F, Hyytiä P, Janhunen S, Mikkola J, Bäckström P, Ponomarev I, Crabbe JC. Neurobiological processes in alcohol addiction. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 May; 25(5 Suppl ISBRA):144S-151S. PMID: 11391064.
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      284. Macey DJ, Froestl W, Koob G, Markou A. Both GABA(B) receptor agonist and antagonists decreased brain stimulation reward in the rat. Neuropharmacology. 2001 Apr; 40(5):676-85. PMID: 11311895.
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      285. Izzo E, Orsini C, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. A dopamine partial agonist and antagonist block amphetamine self-administration in a progressive ratio schedule. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001 Apr; 68(4):701-8. PMID: 11526967.
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      286. David V, Gold LH, Koob G, Cazala P. Anxiogenic-like effects limit rewarding effects of cocaine in balb/cbyj mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Mar; 24(3):300-18. PMID: 11166520.
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      287. Carrera MR, Ashley JA, Wirsching P, Koob G, Janda KD. A second-generation vaccine protects against the psychoactive effects of cocaine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13; 98(4):1988-92. PMID: 11172063; PMCID: PMC29369.
      288. Koob G, Le Moal M. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Feb; 24(2):97-129. PMID: 11120394.
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      289. Gracy KN, Dankiewicz LA, Koob G. Opiate withdrawal-induced fos immunoreactivity in the rat extended amygdala parallels the development of conditioned place aversion. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Feb; 24(2):152-60. PMID: 11120397.
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      290. Weiss F, Koob G. Drug addiction: functional neurotoxicity of the brain reward systems. Neurotox Res. 2001 Jan; 3(1):145-56. PMID: 15111266.
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      291. Richter RM, Zorrilla EP, Basso AM, Koob G, Weiss F. Altered amygdalar CRF release and increased anxiety-like behavior in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats: a microdialysis and behavioral study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Dec; 24(12):1765-72. PMID: 11141034.
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      292. Vallée M, Rivera JD, Koob G, Purdy RH, Fitzgerald RL. Quantification of neurosteroids in rat plasma and brain following swim stress and allopregnanolone administration using negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2000 Dec 01; 287(1):153-66. PMID: 11078595.
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      293. Solbrig MV, Koob G, Parsons LH, Kadota T, Horscroft N, Briese T, Lipkin WI. Neurotrophic factor expression after CNS viral injury produces enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants: potential mechanism for addiction vulnerability. J Neurosci. 2000 Nov 01; 20(21):RC104. PMID: 11050146.
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      294. Koob G. Drug addiction. Neurobiol Dis. 2000 Oct; 7(5):543-5. PMID: 11042073.
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      295. Koob G. Animal models of craving for ethanol. Addiction. 2000 Aug; 95 Suppl 2:S73-81. PMID: 11002904.
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      296. Morse AC, Schulteis G, Holloway FA, Koob G. Conditioned place aversion to the "hangover" phase of acute ethanol administration in the rat. Alcohol. 2000 Aug; 22(1):19-24. PMID: 11109024.
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      297. Contarino A, Dellu F, Koob G, Smith GW, Lee KF, Vale WW, Gold LH. Dissociation of locomotor activation and suppression of food intake induced by CRF in CRFR1-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2000 Jul; 141(7):2698-702. PMID: 10875276.
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      298. Contarino A, Dellu FO, Koob G, Smith GW, Lee K, Vale WW, Gold LH. Dissociation of Locomotor Activation and Suppression of Food Intake Induced by CRF in CRFR1-Deficient Mice. Endocrinology. 2000 Jul 01; 141(7):2698-2702. PMID: 28200977.
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      299. Schulteis G, Ahmed SH, Morse AC, Koob G, Everitt BJ. Conditioning and opiate withdrawal. Nature. 2000 Jun 29; 405(6790):1013-4. PMID: 10890431.
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      300. Macey DJ, Koob G, Markou A. CRF and urocortin decreased brain stimulation reward in the rat: reversal by a CRF receptor antagonist. Brain Res. 2000 Jun 02; 866(1-2):82-91. PMID: 10825483.
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      301. Roberts AJ, Heyser CJ, Cole M, Griffin P, Koob G. Excessive ethanol drinking following a history of dependence: animal model of allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Jun; 22(6):581-94. PMID: 10788758.
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      302. Roberts AJ, McDonald JS, Heyser CJ, Kieffer BL, Matthes HW, Koob G, Gold LH. mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice do not self-administer alcohol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jun; 293(3):1002-8. PMID: 10869404.
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      303. Carrera MR, Ashley JA, Zhou B, Wirsching P, Koob G, Janda KD. Cocaine vaccines: antibody protection against relapse in a rat model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 May 23; 97(11):6202-6. PMID: 10823960; PMCID: PMC18582.
      304. Stinus L, Caille S, Koob G. Opiate withdrawal-induced place aversion lasts for up to 16 weeks. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Apr; 149(2):115-20. PMID: 10805605.
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      305. Ahmed SH, Walker JR, Koob G. Persistent increase in the motivation to take heroin in rats with a history of drug escalation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Apr; 22(4):413-21. PMID: 10700660.
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      306. Bale TL, Contarino A, Smith GW, Chan R, Gold LH, Sawchenko PE, Koob G, Vale WW, Lee KF. Mice deficient for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2 display anxiety-like behaviour and are hypersensitive to stress. Nat Genet. 2000 Apr; 24(4):410-4. PMID: 10742108.
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      307. Smith AD, Smith DL, Zigmond MJ, Amalric M, Koob G. Differential effects of dopamine receptor subtype blockade on performance of rats in a reaction-time paradigm. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Mar; 148(4):355-60. PMID: 10928307.
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      308. Watkins SS, Stinus L, Koob G, Markou A. Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Mar; 292(3):1053-64. PMID: 10688623.
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      309. Lin D, Koob G, Markou A. Time-dependent alterations in ICSS thresholds associated with repeated amphetamine administrations. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Mar; 65(3):407-17. PMID: 10683480.
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      310. Gracy KN, Dankiewicz LA, Weiss F, Koob G. Heroin-specific stimuli reinstate operant heroin-seeking behavior in rats after prolonged extinction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Mar; 65(3):489-94. PMID: 10683489.
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      311. Spina MG, Basso AM, Zorrilla EP, Heyser CJ, Rivier J, Vale W, Merlo-Pich E, Koob G. Behavioral effects of central administration of the novel CRF antagonist astressin in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Mar; 22(3):230-9. PMID: 10693150.
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      312. Watkins SS, Koob G, Markou A. Neural mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction: acute positive reinforcement and withdrawal. Nicotine Tob Res. 2000 Feb; 2(1):19-37. PMID: 11072438.
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      313. Walker JR, Ahmed SH, Gracy KN, Koob G. Microinjections of an opiate receptor antagonist into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suppress heroin self-administration in dependent rats. Brain Res. 2000 Jan 31; 854(1-2):85-92. PMID: 10784110.
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      314. Dellu F, Contarino A, Simon H, Koob G, Gold LH. Genetic differences in response to novelty and spatial memory using a two-trial recognition task in mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2000 Jan; 73(1):31-48. PMID: 10686122.
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      315. Koob G. Neurobiology of addiction. Toward the development of new therapies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 909:170-85. PMID: 10911930.
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      316. Britton KT, Akwa Y, Spina MG, Koob G. Neuropeptide Y blocks anxiogenic-like behavioral action of corticotropin-releasing factor in an operant conflict test and elevated plus maze. Peptides. 2000 Jan; 21(1):37-44. PMID: 10704717.
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      317. Baldo BA, Koob G, Markou A. Role of adenosine A2 receptors in brain stimulation reward under baseline conditions and during cocaine withdrawal in rats. J Neurosci. 1999 Dec 15; 19(24):11017-26. PMID: 10594082.
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      318. Akwa Y, Purdy RH, Koob G, Britton KT. The amygdala mediates the anxiolytic-like effect of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone in rat. Behav Brain Res. 1999 Dec; 106(1-2):119-25. PMID: 10595427.
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      319. Koob G. Cocaine reward and dopamine receptors: love at first site. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Dec; 56(12):1107-8. PMID: 10591287.
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      320. Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Roberts AJ, Bilbao A, Koob G, Navarro M. Cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A decreases operant ethanol self administration in rats exposed to ethanol-vapor chambers. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Dec; 20(12):1109-14. PMID: 11189201.
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      321. Koob G, Heinrichs SC. A role for corticotropin releasing factor and urocortin in behavioral responses to stressors. Brain Res. 1999 Nov 27; 848(1-2):141-52. PMID: 10612706.
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      322. Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor, norepinephrine, and stress. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Nov 01; 46(9):1167-80. PMID: 10560023.
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      323. Walker JR, King M, Izzo E, Koob G, Pasternak GW. Antagonism of heroin and morphine self-administration in rats by the morphine-6beta-glucuronide antagonist 3-O-methylnaltrexone. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Oct 27; 383(2):115-9. PMID: 10585524.
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      324. Weed MR, Taffe MA, Polis I, Roberts AC, Robbins TW, Koob G, Bloom FE, Gold LH. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 1999 Oct 25; 8(3):185-201. PMID: 10556598.
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      325. Martin G, Ahmed SH, Blank T, Spiess J, Koob G, Siggins GR. Chronic morphine treatment alters NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 15; 19(20):9081-9. PMID: 10516325.
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      326. Ahmed SH, Koob G. Long-lasting increase in the set point for cocaine self-administration after escalation in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Oct; 146(3):303-12. PMID: 10541731.
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      327. Heyser CJ, Roberts AJ, Schulteis G, Koob G. Central administration of an opiate antagonist decreases oral ethanol self-administration in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999 Sep; 23(9):1468-76. PMID: 10512312.
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      328. Lin D, Koob G, Markou A. Differential effects of withdrawal from chronic amphetamine or fluoxetine administration on brain stimulation reward in the rat--interactions between the two drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Aug; 145(3):283-94. PMID: 10494577.
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      329. Caillé S, Espejo EF, Reneric JP, Cador M, Koob G, Stinus L. Total neurochemical lesion of noradrenergic neurons of the locus ceruleus does not alter either naloxone-precipitated or spontaneous opiate withdrawal nor does it influence ability of clonidine to reverse opiate withdrawal. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug; 290(2):881-92. PMID: 10411605.
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      330. Contarino A, Dellu F, Koob G, Smith GW, Lee KF, Vale W, Gold LH. Reduced anxiety-like and cognitive performance in mice lacking the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Brain Res. 1999 Jul 17; 835(1):1-9. PMID: 10448190.
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      331. Roberts AJ, Heyser CJ, Koob G. Operant self-administration of sweetened versus unsweetened ethanol: effects on blood alcohol levels. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999 Jul; 23(7):1151-7. PMID: 10443980.
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      332. Basso AM, Spina M, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist attenuates the "anxiogenic-like" effect in the defensive burying paradigm but not in the elevated plus-maze following chronic cocaine in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Jul; 145(1):21-30. PMID: 10445369.
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      333. Lee RS, Criado JR, Koob G, Henriksen SJ. Cellular responses of nucleus accumbens neurons to opiate-seeking behavior: I. Sustained responding during heroin self-administration. Synapse. 1999 Jul; 33(1):49-58. PMID: 10380850.
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      334. Koob G. The role of the striatopallidal and extended amygdala systems in drug addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Jun 29; 877:445-60. PMID: 10415664.
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      335. Criado JR, Li H, Jiang X, Spina M, Huitrón-Reséndiz S, Liapakis G, Calbet M, Siehler S, Henriksen SJ, Koob G, Hoyer D, Sutcliffe JG, Goodman M, de Lecea L. Structural and compositional determinants of cortistatin activity. J Neurosci Res. 1999 Jun 15; 56(6):611-9. PMID: 10374816.
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      336. Carrera MR, Schulteis G, Koob G. Heroin self-administration in dependent Wistar rats: increased sensitivity to naloxone. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 May; 144(2):111-20. PMID: 10394991.
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      337. Parsons LH, Koob G, Weiss F. RU 24969, a 5-HT1B/1A receptor agonist, potentiates cocaine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine. Synapse. 1999 May; 32(2):132-5. PMID: 10231132.
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      338. Schulteis G, Heyser CJ, Koob G. Differential expression of response-disruptive and somatic indices of opiate withdrawal during the initiation and development of opiate dependence. Behav Pharmacol. 1999 May; 10(3):235-42. PMID: 10780239.
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      339. Baldo BA, Jain K, Veraldi L, Koob G, Markou A. A dopamine D1 agonist elevates self-stimulation thresholds: comparison to other dopamine-selective drugs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Apr; 62(4):659-72. PMID: 10208371.
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      340. Watkins SS, Epping-Jordan MP, Koob G, Markou A. Blockade of nicotine self-administration with nicotinic antagonists in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Apr; 62(4):743-51. PMID: 10208381.
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      341. Baldo BA, Markou A, Koob G. Increased sensitivity to the locomotor depressant effect of a dopamine receptor antagonist during cocaine withdrawal in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Jan; 141(2):135-44. PMID: 9952037.
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      342. Harrison AA, Parsons LH, Koob G, Markou A. RU 24969, a 5-HT1A/1B agonist, elevates brain stimulation reward thresholds: an effect reversed by GR 127935, a 5-HT1B/1D antagonist. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Jan; 141(3):242-50. PMID: 10027505.
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      343. Koob G. Stress, corticotropin-releasing factor, and drug addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 897:27-45. PMID: 10676433.
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      344. Koob G, Weiss F, Tiffany ST, Zieglgansberger W, Spanagel R. Animal models of craving: a roundtable discussion. Alcohol Res Health. 1999; 23(3):233-6. PMID: 10890819.
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      345. Kimes AS, Maldonado R, Ambrosio E, Koob G, London ED. Cerebral glucose metabolism during opioid withdrawal following methylnaloxonium injection into the locus coeruleus. Brain Res. 1998 Dec 14; 814(1-2):1-12. PMID: 9838021.
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      346. Parsons LH, Weiss F, Koob G. Serotonin1B receptor stimulation enhances cocaine reinforcement. J Neurosci. 1998 Dec 01; 18(23):10078-89. PMID: 9822762.
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      347. Kosten TR, Markou A, Koob G. Depression and stimulant dependence: neurobiology and pharmacotherapy. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998 Dec; 186(12):737-45. PMID: 9865811.
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      348. Schulteis G, Stinus L, Risbrough VB, Koob G. Clonidine blocks acquisition but not expression of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998 Nov; 19(5):406-16. PMID: 9778662.
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      349. Navarro M, Chowen J, Rocío A Carrera M, del Arco I, Villanúa MA, Martin Y, Roberts AJ, Koob G, de Fonseca FR. CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist-induced opiate withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. Neuroreport. 1998 Oct 26; 9(15):3397-402. PMID: 9855288.
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      350. Ahmed SH, Koob G. Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: change in hedonic set point. Science. 1998 Oct 09; 282(5387):298-300. PMID: 9765157.
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      351. Roberts AJ, Smith AD, Weiss F, Rivier C, Koob G. Estrous cycle effects on operant responding for ethanol in female rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Oct; 22(7):1564-9. PMID: 9802543.
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      352. Koob G, Sanna PP, Bloom FE. Neuroscience of addiction. Neuron. 1998 Sep; 21(3):467-76. PMID: 9768834.
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      353. Pulvirenti L, Balducci C, Piercy M, Koob G. Characterization of the effects of the partial dopamine agonist terguride on cocaine self-administration in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep; 286(3):1231-8. PMID: 9732383.
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      354. Lee RS, Koob G, Henriksen SJ. Electrophysiological responses of nucleus accumbens neurons to novelty stimuli and exploratory behavior in the awake, unrestrained rat. Brain Res. 1998 Jul 20; 799(2):317-22. PMID: 9675326.
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      355. Walker JR, Spina M, Terenius L, Koob G. Nociceptin fails to affect heroin self-administration in the rat. Neuroreport. 1998 Jul 13; 9(10):2243-7. PMID: 9694207.
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      356. Schulteis G, Yackey M, Risbrough V, Koob G. Anxiogenic-like effects of spontaneous and naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in the elevated plus-maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Jul; 60(3):727-31. PMID: 9678657.
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      357. Kreek MJ, Koob G. Drug dependence: stress and dysregulation of brain reward pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Jun-Jul; 51(1-2):23-47. PMID: 9716928.
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      358. Smith GW, Aubry JM, Dellu F, Contarino A, Bilezikjian LM, Gold LH, Chen R, Marchuk Y, Hauser C, Bentley CA, Sawchenko PE, Koob G, Vale W, Lee KF. Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1-deficient mice display decreased anxiety, impaired stress response, and aberrant neuroendocrine development. Neuron. 1998 Jun; 20(6):1093-102. PMID: 9655498.
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      359. Epping-Jordan MP, Watkins SS, Koob G, Markou A. Dramatic decreases in brain reward function during nicotine withdrawal. Nature. 1998 May 07; 393(6680):76-9. PMID: 9590692.
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      360. Roberts AJ, McArthur RA, Hull EE, Post C, Koob G. Effects of amperozide, 8-OH-DPAT, and FG 5974 on operant responding for ethanol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 May; 137(1):25-32. PMID: 9631953.
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      361. Raber J, Sorg O, Horn TF, Yu N, Koob G, Campbell IL, Bloom FE. Inflammatory cytokines: putative regulators of neuronal and neuro-endocrine function. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 May; 26(2-3):320-6. PMID: 9651548.
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      362. Britton KT, Koob G. Neuropharmacology. Premenstrual steroids? Nature. 1998 Apr 30; 392(6679):869-70. PMID: 9582066.
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      363. Heinrichs SC, Klaassen A, Koob G, Schulteis G, Ahmed S, De Souza EB. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor blockade enhances conditioned aversive properties of cocaine in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Apr; 136(3):247-55. PMID: 9566810.
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      364. Solbrig MV, Koob G, Lipkin WI. Cocaine sensitivity in Borna disease virus-infected rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Apr; 59(4):1047-52. PMID: 9586866.
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      365. Markou A, Kosten TR, Koob G. Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998 Mar; 18(3):135-74. PMID: 9471114.
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      366. Epping-Jordan MP, Markou A, Koob G. The dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 injected into the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis decreased cocaine reinforcement in the rat. Brain Res. 1998 Feb 16; 784(1-2):105-15. PMID: 9518570.
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      367. Koob G, Roberts AJ, Schulteis G, Parsons LH, Heyser CJ, Hyytiä P, Merlo-Pich E, Weiss F. Neurocircuitry targets in ethanol reward and dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Feb; 22(1):3-9. PMID: 9514280.
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      368. Heyser CJ, Schulteis G, Durbin P, Koob G. Chronic acamprosate eliminates the alcohol deprivation effect while having limited effects on baseline responding for ethanol in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998 Feb; 18(2):125-33. PMID: 9430136.
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      369. Koob G, Rocio M, Carrera A, Gold LH, Heyser CJ, Maldonado-Irizarry C, Markou A, Parsons LH, Roberts AJ, Schulteis G, Stinus L, Walker JR, Weissenborn R, Weiss F. Substance dependence as a compulsive behavior. J Psychopharmacol. 1998; 12(1):39-48. PMID: 9584967.
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      370. Koob G. Drug abuse and alcoholism. Overview. Adv Pharmacol. 1998; 42:969-77. PMID: 9328060.
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      371. Koob G. Circuits, drugs, and drug addiction. Adv Pharmacol. 1998; 42:978-82. PMID: 9328061.
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      372. Walker JR, Koob G. Orphan anxiety. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Dec 23; 94(26):14217-9. PMID: 9405592; PMCID: PMC33793.
      373. Koob G, Le Moal M. Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science. 1997 Oct 03; 278(5335):52-8. PMID: 9311926.
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      374. Heyser CJ, Schulteis G, Koob G. Increased ethanol self-administration after a period of imposed ethanol deprivation in rats trained in a limited access paradigm. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997 Aug; 21(5):784-91. PMID: 9267526.
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      375. Brot MD, Rall GF, Oldstone MB, Koob G, Gold LH. Deficits in discriminated learning remain despite clearance of long-term persistent viral infection in mice. J Neurovirol. 1997 Aug; 3(4):265-73. PMID: 9291234.
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      376. Ahmed SH, Koob G. Cocaine- but not food-seeking behavior is reinstated by stress after extinction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Aug; 132(3):289-95. PMID: 9292629.
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      377. Caine SB, Koob G, Parsons LH, Everitt BJ, Schwartz JC, Sokoloff P. D3 receptor test in vitro predicts decreased cocaine self-administration in rats. Neuroreport. 1997 Jul 07; 8(9-10):2373-7. PMID: 9243643.
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      378. Heyser CJ, McDonald JS, Beauchamp V, Koob G, Gold LH. The effects of cocaine on operant responding for food in several strains of mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jul; 132(2):202-8. PMID: 9266618.
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      379. Britton KT, Southerland S, Van Uden E, Kirby D, Rivier J, Koob G. Anxiolytic activity of NPY receptor agonists in the conflict test. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jul; 132(1):6-13. PMID: 9272753.
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      380. Koob G, Caine SB, Parsons L, Markou A, Weiss F. Opponent process model and psychostimulant addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Jul; 57(3):513-21. PMID: 9218276.
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      381. Deroche V, Caine SB, Heyser CJ, Polis I, Koob G, Gold LH. Differences in the liability to self-administer intravenous cocaine between C57BL/6 x SJL and BALB/cByJ mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Jul; 57(3):429-40. PMID: 9218267.
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      382. Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Carrera MR, Navarro M, Koob G, Weiss F. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal. Science. 1997 Jun 27; 276(5321):2050-4. PMID: 9197270.
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      383. Brot MD, Akwa Y, Purdy RH, Koob G, Britton KT. The anxiolytic-like effects of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone: interactions with GABA(A) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Apr 23; 325(1):1-7. PMID: 9151931.
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      384. Raber J, Koob G, Bloom FE. Interferon-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta 1 regulate corticotropin-releasing factor release from the amygdala: comparison with the hypothalamic response. Neurochem Int. 1997 Apr-May; 30(4-5):455-63. PMID: 9106261.
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      385. Pulvirenti L, Balducci C, Koob G. Dextromethorphan reduces intravenous cocaine self-administration in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Mar 05; 321(3):279-83. PMID: 9085038.
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      386. Koob G, Nestler EJ. The neurobiology of drug addiction. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997; 9(3):482-97. PMID: 9276849.
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      387. Schulteis G, Heyser CJ, Koob G. Opiate withdrawal signs precipitated by naloxone following a single exposure to morphine: potentiation with a second morphine exposure. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jan; 129(1):56-65. PMID: 9122364.
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      388. Roberts AJ, Koob G. The neurobiology of addiction: an overview. Alcohol Health Res World. 1997; 21(2):101-6. PMID: 15704343.
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      389. Prospéro-García O, Gold LH, Fox HS, Polis I, Koob G, Bloom FE, Henriksen SJ. Microglia-passaged simian immunodeficiency virus induces neurophysiological abnormalities in monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 26; 93(24):14158-63. PMID: 8943077; PMCID: PMC19510.
      390. Schulteis G, Koob G. Reinforcement processes in opiate addiction: a homeostatic model. Neurochem Res. 1996 Nov; 21(11):1437-54. PMID: 8947934.
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      391. Parsons LH, Weiss F, Koob G. Serotonin1b receptor stimulation enhances dopamine-mediated reinforcement. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Nov; 128(2):150-60. PMID: 8956376.
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      392. Roberts AJ, Cole M, Koob G. Intra-amygdala muscimol decreases operant ethanol self-administration in dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Oct; 20(7):1289-98. PMID: 8904984.
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      393. Solbrig MV, Koob G, Fallon JH, Reid S, Lipkin WI. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction in Borna disease virus (BDV)--infected rats. Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Oct 01; 40(7):629-36. PMID: 8886296.
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      394. Spina M, Merlo-Pich E, Chan RK, Basso AM, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Appetite-suppressing effects of urocortin, a CRF-related neuropeptide. Science. 1996 Sep 13; 273(5281):1561-4. PMID: 8703220.
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      395. Parsons LH, Caine SB, Sokoloff P, Schwartz JC, Koob G, Weiss F. Neurochemical evidence that postsynaptic nucleus accumbens D3 receptor stimulation enhances cocaine reinforcement. J Neurochem. 1996 Sep; 67(3):1078-89. PMID: 8752115.
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      396. Vankova ME, Weinger MB, Chen DY, Bronson JB, Motis V, Koob G. Role of central mu, delta-1, and kappa-1 opioid receptors in opioid-induced muscle rigidity in the rat. Anesthesiology. 1996 Sep; 85(3):574-83. PMID: 8853088.
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      397. Heinrichs SC, Stenzel-Poore MP, Gold LH, Battenberg E, Bloom FE, Koob G, Vale WW, Pich EM. Learning impairment in transgenic mice with central overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor. Neuroscience. 1996 Sep; 74(2):303-11. PMID: 8865183.
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      398. Solbrig MV, Koob G, Joyce JN, Lipkin WI. A neural substrate of hyperactivity in borna disease: changes in brain dopamine receptors. Virology. 1996 Aug 15; 222(2):332-8. PMID: 8806517.
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      399. Menzaghi F, Heinrichs SC, Vargas-Cortes M, Goldstein G, Koob G. IRI-514, a synthetic peptide analogue of thymopentin, reduces the behavioral response to social stress in rats. Physiol Behav. 1996 Aug; 60(2):397-401. PMID: 8840897.
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      400. Weissenborn R, Deroche V, Koob G, Weiss F. Effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on cocaine-induced operant responding for a cocaine-associated stimulus. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Aug; 126(4):311-22. PMID: 8878347.
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      401. Koob G. Hedonic valence, dopamine and motivation. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Jul; 1(3):186-9. PMID: 9118342.
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      402. de la Torre JC, Mallory M, Brot M, Gold L, Koob G, Oldstone MB, Masliah E. Viral persistence in neurons alters synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions without destruction of brain cells. Virology. 1996 Jun 15; 220(2):508-15. PMID: 8661403.
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      403. Hyytiä P, Schulteis G, Koob G. Intravenous heroin and ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Jun; 125(3):248-54. PMID: 8815960.
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      404. Matthews K, Baldo BA, Markou A, Lown O, Overstreet DH, Koob G. Rewarding electrical brain stimulation: similar thresholds for Flinders Sensitive Line Hypercholinergic and Flinders Resistant Line Hypocholinergic rats. Physiol Behav. 1996 Jun; 59(6):1155-62. PMID: 8737906.
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      405. Weiss F, Parsons LH, Schulteis G, Hyytiä P, Lorang MT, Bloom FE, Koob G. Ethanol self-administration restores withdrawal-associated deficiencies in accumbal dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release in dependent rats. J Neurosci. 1996 May 15; 16(10):3474-85. PMID: 8627380.
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      406. Koob G. Drug addiction: the yin and yang of hedonic homeostasis. Neuron. 1996 May; 16(5):893-6. PMID: 8630244.
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      407. Korte SM, Korte-Bouws GA, Koob G, De Kloet ER, Bohus B. Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiety. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 May; 54(1):261-7. PMID: 8728567.
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      408. Macey DJ, Schulteis G, Heinrichs SC, Koob G. Time-dependent quantifiable withdrawal from ethanol in the rat: effect of method of dependence induction. Alcohol. 1996 Mar-Apr; 13(2):163-70. PMID: 8814651.
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      409. Glassman AH, Koob G. Neuropharmacology. Psychoactive smoke. Nature. 1996 Feb 22; 379(6567):677-8. PMID: 8602211.
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      410. Bono G, Balducci C, Richelmi P, Koob G, Pulvirenti L. Dopamine partial receptor agonists reduce ethanol intake in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Feb 05; 296(3):233-8. PMID: 8904074.
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      411. Schulteis G, Hyytiä P, Heinrichs SC, Koob G. Effects of chronic ethanol exposure on oral self-administration of ethanol or saccharin by Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Feb; 20(1):164-71. PMID: 8651448.
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      412. Parsons LH, Koob G, Weiss F. Extracellular serotonin is decreased in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. Behav Brain Res. 1996; 73(1-2):225-8. PMID: 8788507.
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      413. Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Rubio P, Menzaghi F, Merlo-Pich E, Rivier J, Koob G, Navarro M. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist [D-Phe12,Nle21,38,C alpha MeLeu37]CRF attenuates the acute actions of the highly potent cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-210 on defensive-withdrawal behavior in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jan; 276(1):56-64. PMID: 8558457.
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      414. Pulvirenti L, Balducci C, Koob G. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis reduces intravenous cocaine self-administration in the rat. Neuropharmacology. 1996; 35(12):1811-4. PMID: 9076761.
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      415. Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Merlo Pich E, Britton KT, Koob G. The role of CRF in behavioral aspects of stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29; 771:92-104. PMID: 8597448.
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      416. Carrera MR, Ashley JA, Parsons LH, Wirsching P, Koob G, Janda KD. Suppression of psychoactive effects of cocaine by active immunization. Nature. 1995 Dec 14; 378(6558):727-30. PMID: 7501020.
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      417. Caine SB, Heinrichs SC, Coffin VL, Koob G. Effects of the dopamine D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 microinjected into the accumbens, amygdala or striatum on cocaine self-administration in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Sep 18; 692(1-2):47-56. PMID: 8548319.
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      418. Hyytiä P, Koob G. GABAA receptor antagonism in the extended amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Sep 05; 283(1-3):151-9. PMID: 7498304.
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      419. Parsons LH, Koob G, Weiss F. Serotonin dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens of rats during withdrawal after unlimited access to intravenous cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Sep; 274(3):1182-91. PMID: 7562486.
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      420. Merlo Pich E, Lorang M, Yeganeh M, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Raber J, Koob G, Weiss F. Increase of extracellular corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity levels in the amygdala of awake rats during restraint stress and ethanol withdrawal as measured by microdialysis. J Neurosci. 1995 Aug; 15(8):5439-47. PMID: 7643193.
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      421. Schulteis G, Markou A, Cole M, Koob G. Decreased brain reward produced by ethanol withdrawal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 20; 92(13):5880-4. PMID: 7597046; PMCID: PMC41605.
      422. Weissenborn R, Yackey M, Koob G, Weiss F. Measures of cocaine-seeking behavior using a multiple schedule of food and drug self-administration in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1995 Jun; 38(3):237-46. PMID: 7555624.
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      423. Caine SB, Koob G. Pretreatment with the dopamine agonist 7-OH-DPAT shifts the cocaine self-administration dose-effect function to the left under different schedules in the rat. Behav Pharmacol. 1995 Jun; 6(4):333-347. PMID: 11224342.
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      424. Richter RM, Pich EM, Koob G, Weiss F. Sensitization of cocaine-stimulated increase in extracellular levels of corticotropin-releasing factor from the rat amygdala after repeated administration as determined by intracranial microdialysis. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Mar 10; 187(3):169-72. PMID: 7624019.
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      425. Rodríguez De Fonseca F, Rubio P, Martín-Calderón JL, Caine SB, Koob G, Navarro M. The dopamine receptor agonist 7-OH-DPAT modulates the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Feb 14; 274(1-3):47-55. PMID: 7768280.
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      426. Raber J, Koob G, Bloom FE. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) induces corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release from the amygdala and involves a nitric oxide-mediated signaling; comparison with the hypothalamic response. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Feb; 272(2):815-24. PMID: 7853199.
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      427. Withers NW, Pulvirenti L, Koob G, Gillin JC. Cocaine abuse and dependence. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995 Feb; 15(1):63-78. PMID: 7714230.
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      428. Weinger MB, Chen DY, Lin T, Lau C, Koob G, Smith NT. A role for CNS alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in opiate-induced muscle rigidity in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Jan 09; 669(1):10-8. PMID: 7712151.
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      429. Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Schulteis G, Koob G, Stinus L. Suppression of corticotropin-releasing factor in the amygdala attenuates aversive consequences of morphine withdrawal. Behav Pharmacol. 1995 Jan; 6(1):74-80. PMID: 11224314.
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      430. Brot MD, Koob G, Britton KT. Anxiolytic effects of steroid hormones during the estrous cycle. Interactions with ethanol. Recent Dev Alcohol. 1995; 12:243-59. PMID: 7624546.
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      431. Schulteis G, Markou A, Gold LH, Stinus L, Koob G. Relative sensitivity to naloxone of multiple indices of opiate withdrawal: a quantitative dose-response analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Dec; 271(3):1391-8. PMID: 7996451.
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      432. Solbrig MV, Koob G, Fallon JH, Lipkin WI. Tardive dyskinetic syndrome in rats infected with Borna disease virus. Neurobiol Dis. 1994 Dec; 1(3):111-9. PMID: 9173990.
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      433. Pulvirenti L, Berrier R, Kreifeldt M, Koob G. Modulation of locomotor activity by NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell regions of the rat. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 21; 664(1-2):231-6. PMID: 7895034.
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      434. Xu M, Moratalla R, Gold LH, Hiroi N, Koob G, Graybiel AM, Tonegawa S. Dopamine D1 receptor mutant mice are deficient in striatal expression of dynorphin and in dopamine-mediated behavioral responses. Cell. 1994 Nov 18; 79(4):729-42. PMID: 7954836.
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      435. Markou A, Matthews K, Overstreet DH, Koob G, Geyer MA. Flinders resistant hypocholinergic rats exhibit startle sensitization and reduced startle thresholds. Biol Psychiatry. 1994 Nov 15; 36(10):680-8. PMID: 7880937.
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      436. Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Pich EM, Baldwin HA, Rassnick S, Britton KT, Koob G. Anti-stress action of a corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist on behavioral reactivity to stressors of varying type and intensity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1994 Nov; 11(3):179-86. PMID: 7865099.
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      437. Menzaghi F, Rassnick S, Heinrichs S, Baldwin H, Pich EM, Weiss F, Koob G. The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in the anxiogenic effects of ethanol withdrawal. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Oct 31; 739:176-84. PMID: 7832471.
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      438. Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Dopamine receptor agonists, partial agonists and psychostimulant addiction. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1994 Oct; 15(10):374-9. PMID: 7809953.
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      439. Schulteis G, Koob G. Neuropharmacology. Dark side of drug dependence. Nature. 1994 Sep 08; 371(6493):108-9. PMID: 8072539.
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      440. Gold LH, Brot MD, Polis I, Schroeder R, Tishon A, de la Torre JC, Oldstone MB, Koob G. Behavioral effects of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. Behav Neural Biol. 1994 Sep; 62(2):100-9. PMID: 7993301.
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      441. Caine SB, Koob G. Effects of dopamine D-1 and D-2 antagonists on cocaine self-administration under different schedules of reinforcement in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jul; 270(1):209-18. PMID: 8035317.
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      442. Korte SM, Korte-Bouws GA, Bohus B, Koob G. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist on behavioral and neuroendocrine responses during exposure to defensive burying paradigm in rats. Physiol Behav. 1994 Jul; 56(1):115-20. PMID: 8084889.
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      443. Gillin JC, Pulvirenti L, Withers N, Golshan S, Koob G. The effects of lisuride on mood and sleep during acute withdrawal in stimulant abusers: a preliminary report. Biol Psychiatry. 1994 Jun 01; 35(11):843-9. PMID: 8054406.
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      444. Mitler MM, Aldrich MS, Koob G, Zarcone VP. Narcolepsy and its treatment with stimulants. ASDA standards of practice. Sleep. 1994 Jun; 17(4):352-71. PMID: 7973321.
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      445. Stenzel-Poore MP, Heinrichs SC, Rivest S, Koob G, Vale WW. Overproduction of corticotropin-releasing factor in transgenic mice: a genetic model of anxiogenic behavior. J Neurosci. 1994 May; 14(5 Pt 1):2579-84. PMID: 8182429.
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      446. Menzaghi F, Howard RL, Heinrichs SC, Vale W, Rivier J, Koob G. Characterization of a novel and potent corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 May; 269(2):564-72. PMID: 8182523.
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      447. Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Lisuride reduces intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Apr; 47(4):819-22. PMID: 8029249.
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      448. Raber J, Pich EM, Koob G, Bloom FE. IL-1 beta potentiates the acetylcholine-induced release of vasopressin from the hypothalamus in vitro, but not from the amygdala. Neuroendocrinology. 1994 Mar; 59(3):208-17. PMID: 8159270.
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      449. Caine SB, Koob G. Effects of mesolimbic dopamine depletion on responding maintained by cocaine and food. J Exp Anal Behav. 1994 Mar; 61(2):213-21. PMID: 8169570; PMCID: PMC1334409.
      450. Cole BJ, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor and schedule-induced polydipsia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Mar; 47(3):393-8. PMID: 8208756.
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      451. Menzaghi F, Heinrichs SC, Merlo-Pich E, Tilders FJ, Koob G. Involvement of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons in behavioral responses to novelty in rats. Neurosci Lett. 1994 Feb 28; 168(1-2):139-42. PMID: 8028766.
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      452. Gold LH, Stinus L, Inturrisi CE, Koob G. Prolonged tolerance, dependence and abstinence following subcutaneous morphine pellet implantation in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Feb 21; 253(1-2):45-51. PMID: 8013548.
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      453. Heilig M, Koob G, Ekman R, Britton KT. Corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y: role in emotional integration. Trends Neurosci. 1994 Feb; 17(2):80-5. PMID: 7512773.
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      454. Koob G, Caine B, Markou A, Pulvirenti L, Weiss F. Role for the mesocortical dopamine system in the motivating effects of cocaine. NIDA Res Monogr. 1994; 145:1-18. PMID: 8742805.
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      455. Koob G, Rassnick S, Heinrichs S, Weiss F. Alcohol, the reward system and dependence. EXS. 1994; 71:103-14. PMID: 7913351.
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      456. Pulvirenti L, Smith D, Koob G. SDZ 208-911, an amino-ergoline with partial dopamine agonist properties, dose dependently increases cocaine self-administration in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 Jan; 113(3-4):518-20. PMID: 7862868.
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      457. Menzaghi F, Heinrichs SC, Pich EM, Weiss F, Koob G. The role of limbic and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor in behavioral responses to stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Oct 29; 697:142-54. PMID: 8257007.
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      458. Weiss F, Lorang MT, Bloom FE, Koob G. Oral alcohol self-administration stimulates dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens: genetic and motivational determinants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Oct; 267(1):250-8. PMID: 8229752.
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      459. Rassnick S, Stinus L, Koob G. The effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens and the mesolimbic dopamine system on oral self-administration of ethanol in the rat. Brain Res. 1993 Sep 24; 623(1):16-24. PMID: 8221085.
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      460. Robledo P, Maldonado R, Koob G. Neurotensin injected into the nucleus accumbens blocks the psychostimulant effects of cocaine but does not attenuate cocaine self-administration in the rat. Brain Res. 1993 Sep 17; 622(1-2):105-12. PMID: 8242350.
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      461. Pich EM, Koob G, Heilig M, Menzaghi F, Vale W, Weiss F. Corticotropin-releasing factor release from the mediobasal hypothalamus of the rat as measured by microdialysis. Neuroscience. 1993 Aug; 55(3):695-707. PMID: 8413932.
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      462. Menzaghi F, Heinrichs SC, Pich EM, Tilders FJ, Koob G. Functional impairment of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons with immunotargeted toxins enhances food intake induced by neuropeptide Y. Brain Res. 1993 Jul 30; 618(1):76-82. PMID: 8402180.
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      463. Swerdlow NR, Koob G, Cador M, Lorang M, Hauger RL. Pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute amphetamine in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Jul; 45(3):629-37. PMID: 8392732.
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      464. Robledo P, Koob G. Two discrete nucleus accumbens projection areas differentially mediate cocaine self-administration in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 1993 Jun 30; 55(2):159-66. PMID: 8395179.
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      465. Caine SB, Koob G. Modulation of cocaine self-administration in the rat through D-3 dopamine receptors. Science. 1993 Jun 18; 260(5115):1814-6. PMID: 8099761.
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      466. Heilig M, McLeod S, Brot M, Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Koob G, Britton KT. Anxiolytic-like action of neuropeptide Y: mediation by Y1 receptors in amygdala, and dissociation from food intake effects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 Jun; 8(4):357-63. PMID: 8099792.
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      467. Negus SS, Henriksen SJ, Mattox A, Pasternak GW, Portoghese PS, Takemori AE, Weinger MB, Koob G. Effect of antagonists selective for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors on the reinforcing effects of heroin in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun; 265(3):1245-52. PMID: 8389859.
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      468. Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Pich EM, Hauger RL, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the paraventricular nucleus modulates feeding induced by neuropeptide Y. Brain Res. 1993 May 14; 611(1):18-24. PMID: 8518948.
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      469. Hammer RP, Pires WS, Markou A, Koob G. Withdrawal following cocaine self-administration decreases regional cerebral metabolic rate in critical brain reward regions. Synapse. 1993 May; 14(1):73-80. PMID: 8511720.
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      470. Maldonado R, Robledo P, Chover AJ, Caine SB, Koob G. D1 dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens modulate cocaine self-administration in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 May; 45(1):239-42. PMID: 8516365.
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      471. Amalric M, Berhow M, Polis I, Koob G. Selective effects of low-dose D2 dopamine receptor antagonism in a reaction-time task in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 May; 8(3):195-200. PMID: 8507347.
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      472. Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Lisuride reduces psychomotor retardation during withdrawal from chronic intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 May; 8(3):213-8. PMID: 8507348.
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      473. Rassnick S, Krechman J, Koob G. Chronic ethanol produces a decreased sensitivity to the response-disruptive effects of GABA receptor complex antagonists. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Apr; 44(4):943-50. PMID: 8385785.
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      474. Cador M, Cole BJ, Koob G, Stinus L, Le Moal M. Central administration of corticotropin releasing factor induces long-term sensitization to D-amphetamine. Brain Res. 1993 Mar 26; 606(2):181-6. PMID: 8490714.
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      475. Maldonado R, Koob G. Destruction of the locus coeruleus decreases physical signs of opiate withdrawal. Brain Res. 1993 Mar 05; 605(1):128-38. PMID: 8467382.
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      476. Rassnick S, Heinrichs SC, Britton KT, Koob G. Microinjection of a corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist into the central nucleus of the amygdala reverses anxiogenic-like effects of ethanol withdrawal. Brain Res. 1993 Mar 05; 605(1):25-32. PMID: 8467387.
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      477. Rassnick S, Pulvirenti L, Koob G. SDZ-205,152, a novel dopamine receptor agonist, reduces oral ethanol self-administration in rats. Alcohol. 1993 Mar-Apr; 10(2):127-32. PMID: 8095143.
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      478. Rassnick S, D'Amico E, Riley E, Koob G. GABA antagonist and benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist reduce motivated responding for ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993 Feb; 17(1):124-30. PMID: 8383923.
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      479. Negus SS, Pasternak GW, Koob G, Weinger MB. Antagonist effects of beta-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine on alfentanil-induced antinociception and muscle rigidity in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Feb; 264(2):739-45. PMID: 8437122.
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      480. Wahlestedt C, Pich EM, Koob G, Yee F, Heilig M. Modulation of anxiety and neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Science. 1993 Jan 22; 259(5094):528-31. PMID: 8380941.
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      481. Koob G, Heinrichs SC, Pich EM, Menzaghi F, Baldwin H, Miczek K, Britton KT. The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in behavioural responses to stress. Ciba Found Symp. 1993; 172:277-89; discussion 290-5. PMID: 8491090.
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      482. Baldwin HA, Koob G. Rapid induction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 Jan; 8(1):15-21. PMID: 8424845.
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      483. Pich EM, Heinrichs SC, Rivier C, Miczek KA, Fisher DA, Koob G. Blockade of pituitary-adrenal axis activation induced by peripheral immunoneutralization of corticotropin-releasing factor does not affect the behavioral response to social defeat stress in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1993; 18(7):495-507. PMID: 8265737.
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      484. Markou A, Weiss F, Gold LH, Caine SB, Schulteis G, Koob G. Animal models of drug craving. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1993; 112(2-3):163-82. PMID: 7871016.
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      485. Koob G, Cador M. Psychomotor stimulant sensitization: the corticotropin-releasing factor-steroid connection. Commentary on Wise and Leeb "Psychomotor-stimulant sensitization: a unitary phenomenon?" Behav Pharmacol. 1993; 4(4):351-354. PMID: 11224203.
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      486. Amalric M, Koob G. Functionally selective neurochemical afferents and efferents of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine system. Prog Brain Res. 1993; 99:209-26. PMID: 8108549.
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      487. Cador M, Ahmed SH, Koob G, Le Moal M, Stinus L. Corticotropin-releasing factor induces a place aversion independent of its neuroendocrine role. Brain Res. 1992 Dec 04; 597(2):304-9. PMID: 1473001.
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      488. Maldonado R, Negus S, Koob G. Precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats by administration of mu-, delta- and kappa-selective opioid antagonists. Neuropharmacology. 1992 Dec; 31(12):1231-41. PMID: 1335131.
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      489. Markou A, Koob G. Bromocriptine reverses the elevation in intracranial self-stimulation thresholds observed in a rat model of cocaine withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1992 Nov; 7(3):213-24. PMID: 1388645.
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      490. Weiss F, Paulus MP, Lorang MT, Koob G. Increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by cocaine are inversely related to basal levels: effects of acute and repeated administration. J Neurosci. 1992 Nov; 12(11):4372-80. PMID: 1432099.
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      491. Pulvirenti L, Maldonado-Lopez R, Koob G. NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens modulate intravenous cocaine but not heroin self-administration in the rat. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 30; 594(2):327-30. PMID: 1360323.
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      492. Weiss F, Markou A, Lorang MT, Koob G. Basal extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens are decreased during cocaine withdrawal after unlimited-access self-administration. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 16; 593(2):314-8. PMID: 1450939.
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      493. Heinrichs SC, Cole BJ, Pich EM, Menzaghi F, Koob G, Hauger RL. Endogenous corticotropin-releasing factor modulates feeding induced by neuropeptide Y or a tail-pinch stressor. Peptides. 1992 Sep-Oct; 13(5):879-84. PMID: 1480513.
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      494. Cador M, Dumas S, Cole BJ, Mallet J, Koob G, Le Moal M, Stinus L. Behavioral sensitization induced by psychostimulants or stress: search for a molecular basis and evidence for a CRF-dependent phenomenon. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:416-20. PMID: 1352953.
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      495. Rassnick S, D'Amico E, Riley E, Pulvirenti L, Zieglgänsberger W, Koob G. GABA and nucleus accumbens glutamate neurotransmission modulate ethanol self-administration in rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:502-5. PMID: 1352956.
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      496. Robledo P, Maldonado-Lopez R, Koob G. Role of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens in the rewarding properties of cocaine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:509-12. PMID: 1385935.
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      497. Koob G. Neural mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:171-91. PMID: 1632582.
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      498. Weiss F, Hurd YL, Ungerstedt U, Markou A, Plotsky PM, Koob G. Neurochemical correlates of cocaine and ethanol self-administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:220-41. PMID: 1632585.
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      499. Heinrichs SC, Pich EM, Miczek KA, Britton KT, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist reduces emotionality in socially defeated rats via direct neurotropic action. Brain Res. 1992 May 29; 581(2):190-7. PMID: 1327398.
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      500. Koob G, Maldonado R, Stinus L. Neural substrates of opiate withdrawal. Trends Neurosci. 1992 May; 15(5):186-91. PMID: 1377426.
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      501. Maldonado R, Stinus L, Gold LH, Koob G. Role of different brain structures in the expression of the physical morphine withdrawal syndrome. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):669-77. PMID: 1578378.
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      502. Koob G. Drugs of abuse: anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1992 May; 13(5):177-84. PMID: 1604710.
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      503. Britton KT, McLeod S, Koob G, Hauger R. Pregnane steroid alphaxalone attenuates anxiogenic behavioral effects of corticotropin releasing factor and stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 Feb; 41(2):399-403. PMID: 1315440.
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      504. Koob G. Neurobiological mechanisms in cocaine and opiate dependence. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1992; 70:79-92. PMID: 1311123.
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      505. Markou A, Hauger RL, Koob G. Desmethylimipramine attenuates cocaine withdrawal in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 109(3):305-14. PMID: 1365631.
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      506. Heinrichs SC, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor modulates dietary preference in nutritionally and physically stressed rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 109(1-2):177-84. PMID: 1365653.
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      507. Rassnick S, Pulvirenti L, Koob G. Oral ethanol self-administration in rats is reduced by the administration of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonists into the nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 109(1-2):92-8. PMID: 1365677.
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      508. Rassnick S, Koob G, Geyer MA. Responding to acoustic startle during chronic ethanol intoxication and withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 106(3):351-8. PMID: 1570382.
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      509. Markou A, Koob G. Construct validity of a self-stimulation threshold paradigm: effects of reward and performance manipulations. Physiol Behav. 1992 Jan; 51(1):111-9. PMID: 1741436.
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      510. Koob G, Weiss F. Neuropharmacology of cocaine and ethanol dependence. Recent Dev Alcohol. 1992; 10:201-33. PMID: 1350359.
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      511. Heinrichs SC, Britton KT, Koob G. Both conditioned taste preference and aversion induced by corticotropin-releasing factor. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Dec; 40(4):717-21. PMID: 1667823.
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      512. Bluthé RM, Koob G, Dantzer R. Hypertonic saline mimics the effects of vasopressin and social recognition in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1991 Dec; 2(6):513-516. PMID: 11224093.
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      513. Pulvirenti L, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Nucleus accumbens NMDA antagonist decreases locomotor activity produced by cocaine, heroin or accumbens dopamine, but not caffeine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Dec; 40(4):841-5. PMID: 1687766.
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      514. Swerdlow NR, Hauger R, Irwin M, Koob G, Britton KT, Pulvirenti L. Endocrine, immune, and neurochemical changes in rats during withdrawal from chronic amphetamine intoxication. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991 Aug; 5(1):23-31. PMID: 1657016.
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      515. Baldwin HA, Wall TL, Schuckit MA, Koob G. Differential effects of ethanol on punished responding in the P and NP rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991 Aug; 15(4):700-4. PMID: 1928646.
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      516. Britton KT, Page M, Baldwin H, Koob G. Anxiolytic activity of steroid anesthetic alphaxalone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Jul 01; 258(1):124-9. PMID: 1677035.
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      517. Weinger MB, Smith NT, Blasco TA, Koob G. Brain sites mediating opiate-induced muscle rigidity in the rat: methylnaloxonium mapping study. Brain Res. 1991 Mar 29; 544(2):181-90. PMID: 2039935.
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      518. Schroeder RL, Weinger MB, Vakassian L, Koob G. Methylnaloxonium diffuses out of the rat brain more slowly than naloxone after direct intracerebral injection. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Jan 02; 121(1-2):173-7. PMID: 2020373.
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      519. Baldwin HA, Rassnick S, Rivier J, Koob G, Britton KT. CRF antagonist reverses the "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1991; 103(2):227-32. PMID: 2027923.
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      520. Markou A, Koob G. Postcocaine anhedonia. An animal model of cocaine withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991 Jan; 4(1):17-26. PMID: 2003866.
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      521. Koob G, Swerdlow NR, Vaccarino F, Hubner C, Pulvirenti L, Weiss F. Functional output of the basal forebrain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 295:291-305. PMID: 1776573.
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      522. Ehlers CL, Chaplin RI, Koob G. EEG effects of Ro 15-4513 and FG 7142 alone and in combination with ethanol. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1990 Jul; 36(3):607-11. PMID: 2165619.
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      523. Koob G, Weiss F. Pharmacology of drug self-administration. Alcohol. 1990 May-Jun; 7(3):193-7. PMID: 1970479.
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      524. Cole BJ, Cador M, Stinus L, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G, Le Moal M. Central administration of a CRF antagonist blocks the development of stress-induced behavioral sensitization. Brain Res. 1990 Apr 02; 512(2):343-6. PMID: 2354366.
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      525. Hubner CB, Koob G. Bromocriptine produces decreases in cocaine self-administration in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1990 Apr; 3(2):101-8. PMID: 2317262.
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      526. Weinger MB, Koob G. What constitutes adequate anesthesia in animals? In neonates? Anesthesiology. 1990 Apr; 72(4):767-9. PMID: 2321793.
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      527. Pulvirenti L, Koob G. The neural substrates of drug addiction and dependence. Funct Neurol. 1990 Apr-Jun; 5(2):109-19. PMID: 2172102.
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      528. Weinger MB, Schreiber JF, Koob G. Effects of two benzodiazepine inverse agonists, RO 15-4513 and FG 7142, on recovery from pentobarbital and halothane anesthesia in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1990 Apr; 35(4):889-95. PMID: 2111915.
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      529. Hurd YL, Weiss F, Koob G, Ungerstedt U. The influence of cocaine self-administration on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine neurotransmission in rat caudate-putamen. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Feb 05; 109(1-2):227-33. PMID: 2314639.
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      530. Hubner CB, Koob G. The ventral pallidum plays a role in mediating cocaine and heroin self-administration in the rat. Brain Res. 1990 Jan 29; 508(1):20-9. PMID: 2337788.
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      531. Weiss F, Mitchiner M, Bloom FE, Koob G. Free-choice responding for ethanol versus water in alcohol preferring (P) and unselected Wistar rats is differentially modified by naloxone, bromocriptine, and methysergide. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990; 101(2):178-86. PMID: 2349359.
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      532. Swerdlow NR, Mansbach RS, Geyer MA, Pulvirenti L, Koob G, Braff DL. Amphetamine disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle is reversed by depletion of mesolimbic dopamine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990; 100(3):413-6. PMID: 2315438.
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      533. Stinus L, Le Moal M, Koob G. Nucleus accumbens and amygdala are possible substrates for the aversive stimulus effects of opiate withdrawal. Neuroscience. 1990; 37(3):767-73. PMID: 2247222.
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      534. Cole BJ, Cador M, Stinus L, Rivier C, Rivier J, Vale W, Le Moal M, Koob G. Critical role of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in amphetamine-induced sensitization of behavior. Life Sci. 1990; 47(19):1715-20. PMID: 2250584.
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      535. Melia KF, Koob G, Ehlers CL. Ethanol effects on delayed spatial matching as modeled by a negative exponential forgetting function. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990; 102(3):391-8. PMID: 2251335.
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      536. Koob G, Cole BJ, Swerdlow NR, Le Moal M, Britton KT. Stress, performance, and arousal: focus on CRF. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 97:163-76. PMID: 2174122.
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      537. Unterwald EM, Tempel A, Koob G, Zukin RS. Characterization of opioid receptors in rat nucleus accumbens following mesolimbic dopaminergic lesions. Brain Res. 1989 Dec 25; 505(1):111-8. PMID: 2558779.
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      538. Swerdlow NR, Britton KT, Koob G. Potentiation of acoustic startle by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and by fear are both reversed by alpha-helical CRF (9-41). Neuropsychopharmacology. 1989 Dec; 2(4):285-92. PMID: 2610824.
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      539. Koob G, Lebrun C, Bluthé RM, Dantzer R, Le Moal M. Role of neuropeptides in learning versus performance: focus on vasopressin. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Oct-Nov; 23(4-5):359-64. PMID: 2686806.
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      540. Hurd YL, Weiss F, Koob G, And NE, Ungerstedt U. Cocaine reinforcement and extracellular dopamine overflow in rat nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study. Brain Res. 1989 Sep 25; 498(1):199-203. PMID: 2790475.
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      541. Pulvirenti L, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Microinjection of a glutamate antagonist into the nucleus accumbens reduces psychostimulant locomotion in rats. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Aug 28; 103(2):213-8. PMID: 2771183.
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      542. Koob G, Stinus L, Le Moal M, Bloom FE. Opponent process theory of motivation: neurobiological evidence from studies of opiate dependence. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1989 Summer-Fall; 13(2-3):135-40. PMID: 2682399.
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      543. Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Norepinephrine stimulates behavioral activation in rats following depletion of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Jul; 33(3):595-9. PMID: 2511575.
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      544. Amalric M, Koob G. Dorsal pallidum as a functional motor output of the corpus striatum. Brain Res. 1989 Apr 03; 483(2):389-94. PMID: 2706530.
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      545. Britton KT, Koob G. Effects of corticotropin releasing factor, desipramine and haloperidol on a DRL schedule of reinforcement. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Apr; 32(4):967-70. PMID: 2798545.
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      546. Gold LH, Koob G. MDMA produces stimulant-like conditioned locomotor activity. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(3):352-6. PMID: 2574478.
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      547. Weiss F, Ettenberg A, Koob G. CCK-8 injected into the nucleus accumbens attenuates the supersensitive locomotor response to apomorphine in 6-OHDA and chronic-neuroleptic treated rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(3):409-15. PMID: 2574480.
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      548. Gold LH, Geyer MA, Koob G. Psychostimulant properties of MDMA. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:345-6. PMID: 2577038.
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      549. Gold LH, Geyer MA, Koob G. Neurochemical mechanisms involved in behavioral effects of amphetamines and related designer drugs. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 94:101-26. PMID: 2514360.
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      550. Koob G, Wall TL, Bloom FE. Nucleus accumbens as a substrate for the aversive stimulus effects of opiate withdrawal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 98(4):530-4. PMID: 2505294.
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      551. Cole BJ, Koob G. Low doses of corticotropin-releasing factor potentiate amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(1):27-33. PMID: 2506602.
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      552. Gold LH, Koob G, Geyer MA. Spatial pattern analysis reveals similarities between amphetamine conditioned and unconditioned locomotion. Behav Pharmacol. 1989; 1(3):209-220. PMID: 11224032.
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      553. Gold LH, Hubner CB, Koob G. A role for the mesolimbic dopamine system in the psychostimulant actions of MDMA. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(1):40-7. PMID: 2571175.
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      554. Hand TH, Koob G, Stinus L, Le Moal M. Aversive properties of opiate receptor blockade: evidence for exclusively central mediation in naive and morphine-dependent rats. Brain Res. 1988 Dec 06; 474(2):364-8. PMID: 2463060.
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      555. Cole BJ, Koob G. Propranolol antagonizes the enhanced conditioned fear produced by corticotropin releasing factor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Dec; 247(3):902-10. PMID: 2849675.
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      556. Koob G, Bloom FE. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence. Science. 1988 Nov 04; 242(4879):715-23. PMID: 2903550.
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      557. Gold LH, Koob G, Geyer MA. Stimulant and hallucinogenic behavioral profiles of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Nov; 247(2):547-55. PMID: 2903234.
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      558. Koob G, Percy L, Britton KT. The effects of Ro 15-4513 on the behavioral actions of ethanol in an operant reaction time task and a conflict test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Nov; 31(3):757-60. PMID: 3251257.
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      559. Koob G, Mendelson WB, Schafer J, Wall TL, Britton KT, Bloom FE. Picrotoxinin receptor ligand blocks anti-punishment effects of alcohol. Alcohol. 1988 Nov-Dec; 5(6):437-43. PMID: 2854473.
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      560. Dantzer R, Koob G, Bluthé RM, Le Moal M. Septal vasopressin modulates social memory in male rats. Brain Res. 1988 Aug 02; 457(1):143-7. PMID: 3167559.
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      561. Gold LH, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. The role of mesolimbic dopamine in conditioned locomotion produced by amphetamine. Behav Neurosci. 1988 Aug; 102(4):544-52. PMID: 3139012.
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      562. Weinger MB, Cline EJ, Smith NT, Blasco TA, Koob G. Localization of brainstem sites which mediate alfentanil-induced muscle rigidity in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Mar; 29(3):573-80. PMID: 3129743.
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      563. Gold LH, Koob G. Methysergide potentiates the hyperactivity produced by MDMA in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Mar; 29(3):645-8. PMID: 2896363.
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      564. Britton KT, Ehlers CL, Koob G. Is ethanol antagonist Ro15-4513 selective for ethanol? Science. 1988 Feb 05; 239(4840):648-50. PMID: 3340849.
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      565. Koob G, Hubner CB. Reinforcement pathways for cocaine. NIDA Res Monogr. 1988; 88:137-59. PMID: 3145446.
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      566. Dantzer R, Terlouw C, Tazi A, Koolhaas JM, Bohus B, Koob G, Le Moal M. The propensity for schedule-induced polydipsia is related to differences in conditioned avoidance behaviour and in defense reactions in a defeat test. Physiol Behav. 1988; 43(3):269-73. PMID: 3174839.
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      567. Koob G, Swerdlow NR. The functional output of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 537:216-27. PMID: 3059925.
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      568. Koob G, Thatcher-Briton K, Tazi A, Le Moal M. Behavioral pharmacology of stress: Focus on CNS corticotropin-releasing factor. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 245:25-34. PMID: 3067556.
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      569. Britton KT, Lee G, Koob G. Corticotropin releasing factor and amphetamine exaggerate partial agonist properties of benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 in the conflict test. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988; 94(3):306-11. PMID: 3128805.
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      570. Vaccarino FJ, Feifel D, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Centrally administered hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates food intake in free-feeding rats. Peptides. 1988; 9 Suppl 1:35-8. PMID: 2856650.
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      571. Koob G, Wall TL, Schafer J. Rapid induction of tolerance to the antipunishment effects of ethanol. Alcohol. 1987 Nov-Dec; 4(6):481-4. PMID: 3435637.
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      572. Weinger MB, Cline EJ, Smith NT, Koob G. Ketanserin pretreatment reverses alfentanil-induced muscle rigidity. Anesthesiology. 1987 Sep; 67(3):348-54. PMID: 3115150.
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      573. Koob G, Le HT, Creese I. The D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 increases cocaine self-administration in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Aug 31; 79(3):315-20. PMID: 2958724.
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      574. Tazi A, Swerdlow NR, LeMoal M, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Behavioral activation by CRF: evidence for the involvement of the ventral forebrain. Life Sci. 1987 Jul 06; 41(1):41-9. PMID: 3496511.
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      575. Tazi A, Dantzer R, Le Moal M, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist blocks stress-induced fighting in rats. Regul Pept. 1987 Jul; 18(1):37-42. PMID: 3498188.
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      576. Amalric M, Koob G. Depletion of dopamine in the caudate nucleus but not in nucleus accumbens impairs reaction-time performance in rats. J Neurosci. 1987 Jul; 7(7):2129-34. PMID: 3112323.
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      577. Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Lesions of the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus: effects on locomotor activity mediated by nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidal circuitry. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 02; 412(2):233-43. PMID: 3607466.
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      578. Swerdlow NR, Amalric M, Koob G. Nucleus accumbens opiate-dopamine interactions and locomotor activation in the rat: evidence for a pre-synaptic locus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1987 Apr; 26(4):765-9. PMID: 3110795.
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      579. Dantzer R, Bluthe RM, Koob G, Le Moal M. Modulation of social memory in male rats by neurohypophyseal peptides. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987; 91(3):363-8. PMID: 3104959.
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      580. Koob G. Neural substrates of opioid tolerance and dependence. NIDA Res Monogr. 1987; 76:46-52. PMID: 3125470.
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      581. Amalric M, Cline EJ, Martinez JL, Bloom FE, Koob G. Rewarding properties of beta-endorphin as measured by conditioned place preference. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987; 91(1):14-9. PMID: 2950541.
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      582. Thatcher-Britton K, Koob G. Alcohol reverses the proconflict effect of corticotropin-releasing factor. Regul Pept. 1986 Dec 30; 16(3-4):315-20. PMID: 3031744.
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      583. Amalric M, Koob G, Creese I, Swerdlow NR. "Selective" D-1 and D-2 receptor antagonists fail to differentially alter supersensitive locomotor behavior in the rat. Life Sci. 1986 Nov 24; 39(21):1985-93. PMID: 2946915.
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      584. Blasco TA, Lee D, Amalric M, Swerdlow NR, Smith NT, Koob G. The role of the nucleus raphe pontis and the caudate nucleus in alfentanil rigidity in the rat. Brain Res. 1986 Oct 29; 386(1-2):280-6. PMID: 3096494.
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      585. Amalric M, Blasco TA, Smith NT, Lee DE, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. 'Catatonia' produced by alfentanil is reversed by methylnaloxonium microinjections into the brain. Brain Res. 1986 Oct 29; 386(1-2):287-95. PMID: 3022882.
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      586. Britton KT, Lee G, Dana R, Risch SC, Koob G. Activating and 'anxiogenic' effects of corticotropin releasing factor are not inhibited by blockade of the pituitary-adrenal system with dexamethasone. Life Sci. 1986 Oct 06; 39(14):1281-6. PMID: 3489874.
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      587. Downs NS, Britton KT, Gibbs DM, Koob G, Swerdlow NR. Supersensitive endocrine response to physostigmine in dopamine-depleted rats: a model of depression? Biol Psychiatry. 1986 Jul; 21(8-9):775-86. PMID: 3015269.
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      588. Swerdlow NR, Vaccarino FJ, Amalric M, Koob G. The neural substrates for the motor-activating properties of psychostimulants: a review of recent findings. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Jul; 25(1):233-48. PMID: 2875470.
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      589. Melia KF, Ehlers CL, LeBrun CJ, Koob G. Post-learning ethanol effects on a water-finding task in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Jun; 24(6):1813-5. PMID: 3737649.
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      590. Britton KT, Lee G, Vale W, Rivier J, Koob G. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist blocks activating and 'anxiogenic' actions of CRF in the rat. Brain Res. 1986 Mar 26; 369(1-2):303-6. PMID: 3008937.
        View in: PubMed
      591. Koob G, Dantzer R, Bluthé RM, Lebrun C, Bloom FE, Le Moal M. Central injections of arginine vasopressin prolong extinction of active avoidance. Peptides. 1986 Mar-Apr; 7(2):213-8. PMID: 3737445.
        View in: PubMed
      592. Swerdlow NR, Koob G, Aldenhoff JB. The effects of verapamil on the locomotor-activating properties of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1986; 11(2):237-40. PMID: 3489244.
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      593. Koob G, Vaccarino FJ, Amalric M, Bloom FE. Neurochemical substrates for opiate reinforcement. NIDA Res Monogr. 1986; 71:146-64. PMID: 3025733.
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      594. Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Vale WW, Koob G. Corticotropin-releasing factor potentiates acoustic startle in rats: blockade by chlordiazepoxide. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986; 88(2):147-52. PMID: 3081925.
        View in: PubMed
      595. Swerdlow NR, Braff DL, Geyer MA, Koob G. Central dopamine hyperactivity in rats mimics abnormal acoustic startle response in schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry. 1986 Jan; 21(1):23-33. PMID: 3080033.
        View in: PubMed
      596. Vaccarino FJ, Amalric M, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Blockade of amphetamine but not opiate-induced locomotion following antagonism of dopamine function in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Jan; 24(1):61-5. PMID: 3080760.
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      597. Koob G, Braestrup C, Thatcher Britton K. The effects of FG 7142 and RO 15-1788 on the release of punished responding produced by chlordiazepoxide and ethanol in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1986; 90(2):173-8. PMID: 3097697.
        View in: PubMed
      598. Swerdlow NR, Lee D, Koob G, Vaccarino FJ. Effects of chronic dietary lithium on behavioral indices of dopamine denervation supersensitivity in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Nov; 235(2):324-9. PMID: 3932641.
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      599. Eaves M, Thatcher-Britton K, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Effects of corticotropin releasing factor on locomotor activity in hypophysectomized rats. Peptides. 1985 Sep-Oct; 6(5):923-6. PMID: 3878503.
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      600. Amalric M, Koob G. Low doses of methylnaloxonium in the nucleus accumbens antagonize hyperactivity induced by heroin in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Sep; 23(3):411-5. PMID: 4048236.
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      601. Vaccarino FJ, Pettit HO, Bloom FE, Koob G. Effects of intracerebroventricular administration of methyl naloxonium chloride on heroin self-administration in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Sep; 23(3):495-8. PMID: 4048243.
        View in: PubMed
      602. Swerdlow NR, Vaccarino FJ, Koob G. Effects of naloxone on heroin-, amphetamine- and caffeine-stimulated locomotor activity in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Sep; 23(3):499-501. PMID: 4048244.
        View in: PubMed
      603. Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Separate neural substrates of the locomotor-activating properties of amphetamine, heroin, caffeine and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1985 Aug; 23(2):303-7. PMID: 3877311.
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      604. Lebrun C, Le Moal M, Koob G, Bloom FE. Vasopressin pressor antagonist injected centrally reverses behavioral effects of peripheral injection of vasopressin, but only at doses that reverse increase in blood pressure. Regul Pept. 1985 Jun; 11(2):173-81. PMID: 4035008.
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      605. Koob G, Dantzer R, Rodriguez F, Bloom FE, Le Moal M. Osmotic stress mimics effects of vasopressin on learned behaviour. Nature. 1985 Jun 27-Jul 3; 315(6022):750-2. PMID: 4010780.
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      606. Vaccarino FJ, Bloom FE, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Stimulation of food intake in rats by centrally administered hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor. Nature. 1985 Mar 14-20; 314(6007):167-8. PMID: 3919314.
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      607. Ehlers CL, Koob G. Locomotor behavior following kindling in three different brain sites. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 04; 326(1):71-9. PMID: 3971150.
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      608. Ehlers CL, Koob G. The effects of chronic lithium on the EEG and locomotor response to drug challenge in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1985; 9(2):133-42. PMID: 4001429.
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      609. Britton KT, Morgan J, Rivier J, Vale W, Koob G. Chlordiazepoxide attenuates response suppression induced by corticotropin-releasing factor in the conflict test. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985; 86(1-2):170-4. PMID: 3927353.
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      610. Koob G, Thatcher-Britton K. Stimulant and anxiogenic effects of corticotropin releasing factor. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1985; 192:499-506. PMID: 3878524.
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      611. Ehlers CL, Reed TK, Wang M, Lebrun CJ, Koob G. EEG effects of subcutaneous and intracerebroventricular injections of arginine vasopressin in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985; 87(4):430-3. PMID: 3936102.
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      612. Koob G, Bloom FE. Corticotropin-releasing factor and behavior. Fed Proc. 1985 Jan; 44(1 Pt 2):259-63. PMID: 3871412.
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      613. Vaccarino FJ, Bloom FE, Koob G. Blockade of nucleus accumbens opiate receptors attenuates intravenous heroin reward in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985; 86(1-2):37-42. PMID: 2991967.
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      614. Swerdlow NR, Koob G. The neural substrates of apomorphine-stimulated locomotor activity following denervation of the nucleus accumbens. Life Sci. 1984 Dec 17; 35(25):2537-44. PMID: 6096659.
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      615. Vaccarino FJ, Koob G. Microinjections of nanogram amounts of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide into the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates brain stimulation reward. Neurosci Lett. 1984 Nov 23; 52(1-2):61-6. PMID: 6098878.
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      616. Koob G, Swerdlow N, Seeligson M, Eaves M, Sutton R, Rivier J, Vale W. Effects of alpha-flupenthixol and naloxone on CRF-induced locomotor activation. Neuroendocrinology. 1984 Nov; 39(5):459-64. PMID: 6096752.
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      617. Moss DE, Koob G, McMaster SB, Janowsky DS. Comparative effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on psychostimulant-induced behaviors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1984 Oct; 21(4):641-4. PMID: 6150497.
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      618. LeBrun CJ, Rigter H, Martinez JL, Koob G, Le Moal M, Bloom FE. Antagonism of effects of vasopressin (AVP) on inhibitory avoidance by a vasopressin antagonist peptide [dPtyr(Me)AVP]. Life Sci. 1984 Oct 01; 35(14):1505-12. PMID: 6482669.
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      619. Swerdlow NR, Swanson LW, Koob G. Substantia innominata: critical link in the behavioral expression of mesolimbic dopamine stimulation in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1984 Sep 07; 50(1-3):19-24. PMID: 6493625.
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      620. Koob G, Thatcher-Britton K, Britton DR, Roberts DC, Bloom FE. Destruction of the locus coeruleus or the dorsal NE bundle does not alter the release of punished responding by ethanol and chlordiazepoxide. Physiol Behav. 1984 Sep; 33(3):479-85. PMID: 6542682.
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      621. Britton DR, Ksir C, Britton KT, Young D, Koob G. Brain norepinephrine depleting lesions selectively enhance behavioral responsiveness to novelty. Physiol Behav. 1984 Sep; 33(3):473-8. PMID: 6440160.
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      622. Swerdlow NR, Swanson LW, Koob G. Electrolytic lesions of the substantia innominata and lateral preoptic area attenuate the 'supersensitive' locomotor response to apomorphine resulting from denervation of the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1984 Jul 23; 306(1-2):141-8. PMID: 6087974.
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      623. Koob G, Simon H, Herman JP, Le Moal M. Neuroleptic-like disruption of the conditioned avoidance response requires destruction of both the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 15; 303(2):319-29. PMID: 6430466.
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      624. Koob G, Pettit HO, Ettenberg A, Bloom FE. Effects of opiate antagonists and their quaternary derivatives on heroin self-administration in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 May; 229(2):481-6. PMID: 6716270.
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      625. Britton KT, Svensson T, Schwartz J, Bloom FE, Koob G. Dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesions fail to alter opiate withdrawal or suppression of opiate withdrawal by clonidine. Life Sci. 1984 Jan 09; 34(2):133-9. PMID: 6537983.
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      626. Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Restrained rats learn amphetamine-conditioned locomotion, but not place preference. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1984; 84(2):163-6. PMID: 6438675.
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      627. Pettit HO, Ettenberg A, Bloom FE, Koob G. Destruction of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens selectively attenuates cocaine but not heroin self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1984; 84(2):167-73. PMID: 6438676.
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      628. Ettenberg A, Koob G. Different effects of cholecystokinin and satiety on lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation. Physiol Behav. 1984 Jan; 32(1):127-30. PMID: 6718524.
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      629. Aston-Jones S, Aston-Jones G, Koob G. Cocaine antagonizes anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1984; 84(1):28-31. PMID: 6149593.
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      630. Swerdlow NR, van der Kooy D, Koob G, Wenger JR. Cholecystokinin produces conditioned place-aversions, not place-preferences, in food-deprived rats: evidence against involvement in satiety. Life Sci. 1983 May 02; 32(18):2087-93. PMID: 6843283.
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      631. Ettenberg A, Le Moal M, Koob G, Bloom FE. Vasopressin potentiation in the performance of a learned appetitive task: reversal by a pressor antagonist analog of vasopressin. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1983 Apr; 18(4):645-7. PMID: 6867069.
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      632. Ettenberg A, van der Kooy D, Le Moal M, Koob G, Bloom FE. Can aversive properties of (peripherally-injected) vasopressin account for its putative role in memory? Behav Brain Res. 1983 Mar; 7(3):331-50. PMID: 6838716.
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      633. Robbins TW, Roberts DC, Koob G. Effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine upon operant behavior and schedule-induced licking in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Mar; 224(3):662-73. PMID: 6402587.
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      634. van der Kooy D, Swerdlow NR, Koob G. Paradoxical reinforcing properties of apomorphine: effects of nucleus accumbens and area postrema lesions. Brain Res. 1983 Jan 17; 259(1):111-8. PMID: 6824923.
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      635. Ehlers CL, Indik JH, Koob G, Bloom FE. The effect of single and repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on locomotor activity in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1983; 7(2-3):217-22. PMID: 6684316.
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      636. Vale W, Rivier C, Brown MR, Spiess J, Koob G, Swanson L, Bilezikjian L, Bloom F, Rivier J. Chemical and biological characterization of corticotropin releasing factor. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1983; 39:245-70. PMID: 6314446.
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      637. Strecker RE, Roberts DC, Koob G. Apomorphine-induced facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation following dopamine denervation of the nucleus accumbens. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Nov; 17(5):1015-8. PMID: 6817349.
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      638. Roberts DC, Koob G. Disruption of cocaine self-administration following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the ventral tegmental area in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Nov; 17(5):901-4. PMID: 6817350.
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      639. Ehlers CL, Koob G, Bloom FE. Post-ictal locomotor activity in three different rat models of epilepsy. Brain Res. 1982 Oct 28; 250(1):178-82. PMID: 7139314.
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      640. Schwartz JM, Ksir C, Koob G, Bloom FE. Changes in locomotor response to beta-endorphin microinfusion during and after opiate abstinence syndrome--a proposal for a model of the onset of mania. Psychiatry Res. 1982 Oct; 7(2):153-61. PMID: 6292980.
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      641. Staunton DA, Magistretti PJ, Koob G, Shoemaker WJ, Bloom FE. Dopaminergic supersensitivity induced by denervation and chronic receptor blockade is additive. Nature. 1982 Sep 02; 299(5878):72-4. PMID: 7110328.
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      642. Britton DR, Koob G, Rivier J, Vale W. Intraventricular corticotropin-releasing factor enhances behavioral effects of novelty. Life Sci. 1982 Jul 26; 31(4):363-7. PMID: 6983018.
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      643. Sutton RE, Koob G, Le Moal M, Rivier J, Vale W. Corticotropin releasing factor produces behavioural activation in rats. Nature. 1982 May 27; 297(5864):331-3. PMID: 6978997.
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      644. Ettenberg A, Pettit HO, Bloom FE, Koob G. Heroin and cocaine intravenous self-administration in rats: mediation by separate neural systems. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1982; 78(3):204-9. PMID: 6296898.
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      645. Koob G, Stinus L, Le Moal M. Hyperactivity and hypoactivity produced by lesions to the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behav Brain Res. 1981 Nov; 3(3):341-59. PMID: 6796098.
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      646. Joyce EM, Koob G, Strecker R, Iversen SD, Bloom FE. The behavioural effects of enkephalin analogues injected into the ventral tegmental area and globus pallidus. Brain Res. 1981 Sep 28; 221(2):359-70. PMID: 7025963.
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      647. Ettenberg A, Koob G, Bloom FE. Response artifact in the measurement of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. Science. 1981 Jul 17; 213(4505):357-9. PMID: 7244622.
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      648. Le Moal M, Koob G, Koda LY, Bloom FE, Manning M, Sawyer WH, Rivier J. Vasopressor receptor antagonist prevents behavioural effects of vasopressin. Nature. 1981 Jun 11; 291(5815):491-3. PMID: 7231561.
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      649. Koob G, Le Moal M, Gaffori O, Manning M, Sawyer WH, Rivier J, Bloom FE. Arginine vasopressin and a vasopressin antagonist peptide: opposite effects on extinction of active avoidance in rats. Regul Pept. 1981 Jun; 2(3):153-63. PMID: 7255768.
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      650. Joyce EM, Koob G. Amphetamine-, scopolamine- and caffeine-induced locomotor activity following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1981; 73(4):311-3. PMID: 6789349.
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      651. Robbins TW, Koob G. Selective disruption of displacement behaviour by lesions of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Nature. 1980 Jun 05; 285(5764):409-12. PMID: 6104303.
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      652. Roberts DC, Koob G, Klonoff P, Fibiger HC. Extinction and recovery of cocaine self-administration following 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1980 May; 12(5):781-7. PMID: 7393973.
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      653. Sessions GR, Meyerhoff JL, Kant GJ, Koob G. Effects of lesions of the ventral medial tegmentum on locomotor activity, biogenic amines and responses to amphetamine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1980 Apr; 12(4):603-8. PMID: 7393956.
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      654. Stinus L, Koob G, Ling N, Bloom FE, Le Moal M. Locomotor activation induced by infusion of endorphins into the ventral tegmental area: evidence for opiate-dopamine interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Apr; 77(4):2323-7. PMID: 6929553; PMCID: PMC348707.
      655. Koob G, Strecker RE, Bloom FE. Effects of naloxone on the anticonflict properties of alcohol and chlordiazepoxide. Subst Alcohol Actions Misuse. 1980; 1(5-6):447-57. PMID: 7302793.
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      656. Fray PJ, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW, Koob G, Iversen SD. An observational method for quantifying the behavioural effects of dopamine agonists: contrasting effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1980; 69(3):253-9. PMID: 6774363.
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      657. Le Moal M, Koob G, Bloom FE. Endorphins and extinction: differential actions on appetitive and adversive tasks. Life Sci. 1979 Apr 30; 24(18):1631-6. PMID: 481097.
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      658. Koda LY, Koob G, Shier WT, Bloom FE. Tetrahydropapaveroline induces small granular vesicles in brain dopamine fibres. Nature. 1978 Nov 16; 276(5685):281-3. PMID: 714160.
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      659. Koob G, Riley SJ, Smith SC, Robbins TW. Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens septi and olfactory tubercle on feeding, locomotor activity, and amphetamine anorexia in the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1978 Oct; 92(5):917-27. PMID: 282297.
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      660. Koob G, Kelley AE, Mason ST. Locus coeruleus lesions: learning and extinction. Physiol Behav. 1978 Jun; 20(6):709-16. PMID: 684108.
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      661. Sahakian BJ, Koob G. The relationship between pipradrol-induced responding for electrical brain stimulation, stereotyped behaviour and locomotor activity. Neuropharmacology. 1978 Jun; 17(6):363-6. PMID: 27732.
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      662. Koob G, Del Fiacco M, Iversen SD. Spontaneous and amphetamine-induced behavior after bilateral injection of ethanolamine-O-sulfate into the substantia nigra. Brain Res. 1978 May 12; 146(2):313-23. PMID: 565665.
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      663. Koob G, Fray PJ, Iversen SD. Self-stimulation at the lateral hypothalamus and locus coeruleus after specific unilateral lesions of the dopamine system. Brain Res. 1978 May 05; 146(1):123-40. PMID: 647383.
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      664. Robbins TW, Koob G. Pipradrol enhances reinforcing properties of stimuli paired with brain stimulation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1978 Mar; 8(3):219-22. PMID: 26063.
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      665. Emson PC, Koob G. The origin and distribution of dopamine-containing afferents to the rat frontal cortex. Brain Res. 1978 Feb 24; 142(2):249-67. PMID: 24492.
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      666. Koob G, Winger GD, Meyerhoff JL, Annau Z. Effects of D-amphetamine on concurrent self-stimulation of forebrain and brain stem loci. Brain Res. 1977 Nov 25; 137(1):109-26. PMID: 303535.
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      667. Emson PC, Koob G, Iversen LL. Origin of dopaminergic afferents to the rat frontal cortex [proceedings]. Br J Pharmacol. 1977 Jun; 60(2):270P-271P. PMID: 880439; PMCID: PMC1667450.
      668. Koob G, Del Fiacco M, Iversen SD. Dissociable properties of dopamine neurons im the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine systems. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1977; 16:589-95. PMID: 560793.
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      669. Koob G. Incentive shifts in intracranial self-stimulation produced by different series of stimulus intensity presentations. Physiol Behav. 1977 Jan; 18(1):131-5. PMID: 410045.
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      670. Iversen SD, Koob G. Behavioral implications of dopaminergic neurons in the mesolimbic system. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol. 1977; 16:209-14. PMID: 560790.
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      671. Koob G, Sessions GR, Kant GJ, Meyerhoff JL. Dissociation of hyperdipsia from the destruction of the locus coeruleus in rats. Brain Res. 1976 Nov 05; 116(2):339-45. PMID: 974779.
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      672. Sessions GR, Kant GJ, Koob G. Locus coeruleus lesions and learning in the rat. Physiol Behav. 1976 Nov; 17(5):853-9. PMID: 1026995.
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      673. Koob G, Balcom GJ, Meyerhoff JL. Increases in intracranial self-stimulation in the posterior hypothalamus following unilateral lesions in the locus coeruleus. Brain Res. 1976 Jan 23; 101(3):554-60. PMID: 942689.
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      674. Koob G, Balcom GJ, Meyerhoff JL. Dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and corpus striatum following lesions in the ventral tegmentalarea. Brain Res. 1975 Aug 22; 94(1):45-55. PMID: 1148866.
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      675. Annau Z, Heffner R, Koob G. Electrical self-stimulation of single and multiple loci: long term observations. Physiol Behav. 1974 Aug; 13(2):281-90. PMID: 4413200.
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      676. Koob G, Annau Z, Rubin RJ, Montgomery MR. Effect of hypoxic hypoxia and carbon monoxide on food intake, water intake, and body weight in two strains of rats. Life Sci. 1974 Apr 16; 14(8):1511-20. PMID: 4829542.
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      677. Koob G, Annau Z. Effect of hypoxia on hypothalamic mechanisms. Am J Physiol. 1973 Jun; 224(6):1403-8. PMID: 4576261.
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