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    Erik Viirre

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentNeurosciences
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0970
    CA La Jolla 92093
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      Dr. Viirre specializes in neurotology (diagnosis and outpatient treatment of vertigo, balance disorders, and tinnitus). He has been with the UCSD Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology since 1998. A member of numerous scientific boards, Dr. Viirre is also an Associate Research Professor in the UCSD Department of Cognitive Science and the Director of the Applied Cognitive Science Laboratory at the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego.

      As a biomedical researcher and neurophysiologist, Dr. Viirre’s interests include investigation of the origin and management of vertigo and tinnitus, including management of vertigo with virtual reality techniques. He has carried out clinical trials on medical assessment and treatment of neurotologic disorders such as benign positional vertigo and migraine, and has been working on development of a tinnitus therapy program for patients. He also collaborates with cognitive scientists and engineers in the development of systems to assess cognitive state during human-computer interactions.

      Dr. Viirre is a teacher, mentor, and advisor to medical students, post-graduate students, otolaryngology residents, and fellows, in clinical work as well as research. He attended the University of Western Ontario, where he earned his PhD in Physiology in 1987 and his MD in 1988. He did post-graduate work at the International Space University at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, followed by clinical and research work in neurotology at the London Ear Clinic in Ontario, Canada.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Sessoms PH, Gottshall KR, Sturdy J, Viirre E. Head Stabilization Measurements as a Potential Evaluation Tool for Comparison of Persons With TBI and Vestibular Dysfunction With Healthy Controls. Mil Med. 2015 Mar; 180(3 Suppl):135-42. PMID: 25747644.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Viirre E. Dynamic assessment of binocular eye movement coordination: norms and functional implications. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2014; 3(1):31-7. PMID: 24804278.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Dougherty AL, MacGregor AJ, Han PP, Viirre E, Heltemes KJ, Galarneau MR. Blast-related ear injuries among U.S. military personnel. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013; 50(6):893-904. PMID: 24030196.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Momen N, Strychacz CP, Viirre E. Perceived stigma and barriers to mental health care in Marines attending the Combat Operational Stress Control program. Mil Med. 2012 Oct; 177(10):1143-8. PMID: 23113439.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Norris JN, Viirre E, Aralis H, Sracic MK, Thomas D, Gertsch JH. High altitude headache and acute mountain sickness at moderate elevations in a military population during battalion-level training exercises. Mil Med. 2012 Aug; 177(8):917-23. PMID: 22934370.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Richard-Vitton T, Viirre E. Unsteadiness and drunkenness sensations as a new sub-type of BPPV. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2011; 132(2):75-80. PMID: 22416485.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Park JH, Viirre E. Vestibular migraine may be an important cause of dizziness/vertigo in perimenopausal period. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Nov; 75(5):409-14. PMID: 20692105.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Gopen Q, Viirre E, Anderson J. Epidemiologic study to explore links between Ménière syndrome and migraine headache. Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Nov; 88(11):1200-4. PMID: 19924661.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Nelson JA, Viirre E. The clinical differentiation of cerebellar infarction from common vertigo syndromes. West J Emerg Med. 2009 Nov; 10(4):273-7. PMID: 20046249.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Viirre E. Migraine-related vertigo: a common and important disorder. Eur J Neurol. 2009 Sep; 16(9):966-7. PMID: 19614960.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Viirre ES. Quantitative electroencephalography for tinnitus--a means for data collection, analysis, and translation. Int Tinnitus J. 2009; 15(2):149-53. PMID: 20420339.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Enriquez A, Sklaar J, Viirre E, Chase B. Effects of caffeine on postural stability. Int Tinnitus J. 2009; 15(2):161-3. PMID: 20420341.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Pineda JA, Moore FR, Viirre E. Tinnitus treatment with customized sounds. Int Tinnitus J. 2008; 14(1):17-25. PMID: 18616082.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Robinson SK, Viirre ES, Bailey KA, Kindermann S, Minassian AL, Goldin PR, Pedrelli P, Harris JP, McQuaid JR. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy for tinnitus. Int Tinnitus J. 2008; 14(2):119-26. PMID: 19205162.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Mackenzie I, Viirre E, Vanderploeg JM, Chilvers ER. Zero G in a patient with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet. 2007 Aug 18; 370(9587):566. PMID: 17707750.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Tsai YF, Viirre E, Strychacz C, Chase B, Jung TP. Task performance and eye activity: predicting behavior relating to cognitive workload. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 May; 78(5 Suppl):B176-85. PMID: 17547318.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Viirre E. Cognitive neuroscience in tinnitus research: a current review. Int Tinnitus J. 2007; 13(2):110-7. PMID: 18229790.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Robinson SK, Viirre ES, Stein MB. Antidepressant therapy in tinnitus. Hear Res. 2007 Apr; 226(1-2):221-31. PMID: 16973315.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Robinson SK, Viirre ES, Bailey KA, Gerke MA, Harris JP, Stein MB. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the treatment of nondepressed tinnitus subjects. Psychosom Med. 2005 Nov-Dec; 67(6):981-8. PMID: 16314604.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Viirre E, Purcell I, Baloh RW. The Dix-Hallpike test and the canalith repositioning maneuver. Laryngoscope. 2005 Jan; 115(1):184-7. PMID: 15630391.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Viirre E, Ellisman M. Vertigo in virtual reality with haptics: case report. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003 Aug; 6(4):429-31. PMID: 14511456.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Robinson SK, McQuaid JR, Viirre ES, Betzig LL, Miller DL, Bailey KA, Harris JP, Perry W. Relationship of tinnitus questionnaires to depressive symptoms, quality of well-being, and internal focus. Int Tinnitus J. 2003; 9(2):97-103. PMID: 15106282.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Zalewski-Zaragoza RA, Viirre ES. Quantitative measurement of vertigo frequency: preliminary results. J Vestib Res. 2003; 13(1):53-6. PMID: 14646024.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Kadner A, Viirre E, Wester DC, Walsh SF, Hestenes J, Vankov A, Pineda JA. Lateral inhibition in the auditory cortex: an EEG index of tinnitus? Neuroreport. 2002 Mar 25; 13(4):443-6. PMID: 11930157.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Viirre E, Sitarz R. Vestibular rehabilitation using visual displays: preliminary study. Laryngoscope. 2002 Mar; 112(3):500-3. PMID: 12148861.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Kleweno CP, Seibel EJ, Viirre ES, Kelly JP, Furness TA. The virtual retinal display as a low-vision computer interface: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001 Jul-Aug; 38(4):431-42. PMID: 11563496.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Gross EM, Ress BD, Viirre ES, Nelson JR, Harris JP. Intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in patients with Meniere's disease. Laryngoscope. 2000 Apr; 110(4):655-9. PMID: 10764014.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Viirre E, Draper M, Gailey C, Miller D, Furness T. Adaptation of the VOR in patients with low VOR gains. J Vestib Res. 1998 Jul-Aug; 8(4):331-4. PMID: 9652483.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Viirre E, Pryor H, Nagata S, Furness TA. The virtual retinal display: a new technology for virtual reality and augmented vision in medicine. Stud Health Technol Inform. 1998; 50:252-7. PMID: 10180549.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Hoffman H, Murray M, Hettinger L, Viirre E. Assessing a VR-based learning environment for anatomy education. Stud Health Technol Inform. 1998; 50:336-40. PMID: 10180563.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Viirre E, Johnston R, Pryor H, Nagata S, Furness TA. Laser safety analysis of a retinal scanning display system. J Laser Appl. 1997 Oct; 9(5):253-60. PMID: 10174266.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Cadera W, Bloom JN, Karlik S, Viirre E. A magnetic resonance imaging study of double elevator palsy. Can J Ophthalmol. 1997 Jun; 32(4):250-3. PMID: 9199832.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Crane BT, Viirre ES, Demer JL. The human horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined linear and angular acceleration. Exp Brain Res. 1997 Apr; 114(2):304-20. PMID: 9166920.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Viirre E, Warner D, Balch D, Nelson JR. Remote medical consultation for vestibular disorders: technological solutions and case report. Telemed J. 1997; 3(1):53-8. PMID: 10166445.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Viirre ES, Demer JL. The human vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex during combined linear and angular acceleration with near-target fixation. Exp Brain Res. 1996 Nov; 112(2):313-24. PMID: 8951399.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Demer JL, Viirre ES. Visual-vestibular interaction during standing, walking, and running. J Vestib Res. 1996 Jul-Aug; 6(4):295-313. PMID: 8839825.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Viirre ES, Demer JL. The vestibulo-ocular reflex during horizontal axis eccentric rotation and near target fixation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Jun 19; 781:706-8. PMID: 8694483.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Viirre E. Vestibular telemedicine and rehabilitation. Applications for virtual reality. Stud Health Technol Inform. 1996; 29:299-305. PMID: 10163763.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Warner D, Sale J, Viirre E. Distributed medical intelligence. A systems approach for developing and integrative health care information distribution infrastructure. Stud Health Technol Inform. 1996; 29:80-3. PMID: 10163797.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Viirre ES, Baloh RW. Migraine as a cause of sudden hearing loss. Headache. 1996 Jan; 36(1):24-8. PMID: 8666532.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Cadera W, Karlik SJ, Viirre E, Bloom JN. Ocular pursuit movement assessment by magnetic resonance imaging. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1994 Jul-Aug; 31(4):265-6. PMID: 7807306.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Cadera W, Viirre E, Karlik S. Cine magnetic resonance imaging of ocular motility. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1992 Mar-Apr; 29(2):120-2. PMID: 1588474.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Viirre E, Cadera W, Vilis T. Monocular adaptation of the saccadic system and vestibulo-ocular reflex. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988 Aug; 29(8):1339-47. PMID: 3417418.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Viirre E, Cadera W, Vilis T. The pattern of changes produced in the saccadic system and vestibuloocular reflex by visually patching one eye. J Neurophysiol. 1987 Jan; 57(1):92-103. PMID: 3559683.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Viirre E, Cain DP, Ossenkopp KP. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters rat brain morphology but does not affect amygdaloid kindling. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1986 Nov-Dec; 8(6):615-20. PMID: 3808176.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Viirre E, Tweed D, Milner K, Vilis T. A reexamination of the gain of the vestibuloocular reflex. J Neurophysiol. 1986 Aug; 56(2):439-50. PMID: 3489820.
        View in: PubMed
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