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    Garland, Cedric Dr.

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentFamily & Preventive Medicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0963
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-0520
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      Dr. Garland is an adjunct professor in the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health. Dr. Garland is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He has a Doctor of Public Health degree from UCSD and studied epidemiology at Johns Hopkins. His goal is to eradicate cancer. Dr. Garland is the author or coauthor of 150 abstracts, book chapters and research publications, mainly about breast and colon cancer and melanoma. With his collaborators, he has developed a novel cancer theory, the Devolution hypothesis, based mainly on their research on the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer and improving healthy survival of cancer patients.

      Research Interests

      • Vitamin D

      • Epidemiology of breast cancer, colon cancer, leukemia, melanoma, multiple sclerosis and ovarian cancer.

      • Acid rain

      • Nutritional Epidemiology




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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Grant WB, Karras SN, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Annweiler C, Boucher BJ, Juzeniene A, Garland CF, Holick MF. Do studies reporting 'U'-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects? Dermatoendocrinol. 2016 Jan-Dec; 8(1):e1187349. PMID: 27489574.
        View in: PubMed
      2. McDonnell SL, Baggerly C, French CB, Baggerly LL, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Lappe JM, Heaney RP. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations =40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0152441. PMID: 27049526.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Cuomo RE, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144308. PMID: 26637119.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Baggerly CA, Cuomo RE, French CB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, McDonnell SL, Pittaway M, Seaton P, Wagner CL, Wunsch A. Sunlight and Vitamin D: Necessary for Public Health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Jul-Aug; 34(4):359-65. PMID: 26098394.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Garland CF, Cuomo RE, Gorham ED, Zeng K, Mohr SB. Cloud cover-adjusted ultraviolet B irradiance and pancreatic cancer incidence in 172 countries. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Jan; 155(Pt B):257-63. PMID: 25864626.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Heaney R, Garland C, Baggerly C, French C, Gorham E. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472-4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472. Nutrients. 2015; 7(3):1688-90. PMID: 25763527.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Gorham ED, Cuomo RE, Mohr SB, Garland CF. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and type 2 diabetes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Jan; 3(1):11. PMID: 25555438.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Kim J, Hofflich H, Cuomo RE, Garland CF. Could vitamin D sufficiency improve the survival of colorectal cancer patients? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Apr; 148:239-44. PMID: 25533386.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland CF, Grant WB, Garland FC, Cuomo RE. Are low ultraviolet B and vitamin D associated with higher incidence of multiple myeloma? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Apr; 148:245-52. PMID: 25500072.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Garland CF, Kim JJ, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Giovannucci EL, Baggerly L, Hofflich H, Ramsdell JW, Zeng K, Heaney RP. Meta-analysis of All-Cause Mortality According to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Public Health. 2014 Aug; 104(8):e43-50. PMID: 24922127.
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      11. Grant WB, Garland CF. Vitamin D has a greater impact on cancer mortality rates than on cancer incidence rates. BMJ. 2014; 348:g2862. PMID: 24780390.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Hofflich HE, Mohr SB. Vitamin D status and ill health. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Apr; 2(4):e10. PMID: 24703054.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Kim J, Hofflich H, Garland CF. Meta-analysis of Vitamin D Sufficiency for Improving Survival of Patients with Breast Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2014 Mar; 34(3):1163-6. PMID: 24596354.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Nguyen S, Baggerly L, French C, Heaney RP, Gorham ED, Garland CF. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in the Range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and Incidence of Kidney Stones. Am J Public Health. 2014 Sep; 104(9):1783-7. PMID: 24134366.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Booth-Kewley S, Schmied EA, Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Garland CF, Ziajko LA. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans. BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13:130. PMID: 23651663.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CI, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Horst R, Garland CF. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer in the military: a case-control study utilizing pre-diagnostic serum. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar; 24(3):495-504. PMID: 23296455.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Cuomo RE, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland CF. What is the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence rates of colorectal cancer? Dermatoendocrinol. 2013 Jan 1; 5(1):181-5. PMID: 24494052.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CI, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Garland CF. Does the evidence for an inverse relationship between serum vitamin D status and breast cancer risk satisfy the Hill criteria? Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Apr 1; 4(2):152-7. PMID: 22928071.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Grant WB, Garland CF. Sun exposure may increase risk of prostate cancer in the high UV environment of New South Wales, Australia: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2012 Nov 1; 131(9):2204-5; author reply 2206-7. PMID: 22322901.
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      20. Baggerly LL, Garland CF. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer risk - no U-shaped curve. Anticancer Res. 2012 Mar; 32(3):981-4. PMID: 22399620.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Burgi AA, Gorham ED, Garland CF, Mohr SB, Garland FC, Zeng K, Thompson K, Lappe JM. High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with a low incidence of stress fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Oct; 26(10):2371-7. PMID: 21698667.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Alcaraz JE, Kane CJ, Macera CA, Parsons JK, Wingard DL, Garland CF. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. Anticancer Res. 2011 Sep; 31(9):2939-48. PMID: 21868542.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B and incidence rates of leukemia worldwide. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Jul; 41(1):68-74. PMID: 21665065.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Gorham ED, Garland CF. Vitamin D and the limits of randomized controlled trials. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Apr; 14(4):741-3. PMID: 21435283.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Garland CF, French CB, Baggerly LL, Heaney RP. Vitamin D supplement doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the range associated with cancer prevention. Anticancer Res. 2011 Feb; 31(2):607-11. PMID: 21378345.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland CF, Grant WB, Garland FC. Low ultraviolet B and increased risk of brain cancer: an ecological study of 175 countries. Neuroepidemiology. 2010; 35(4):281-90. PMID: 20948235.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Booth-Kewley S, Larson GE, Highfill-McRoy RM, Garland CF, Gaskin TA. Factors associated with antisocial behavior in combat veterans. Aggress Behav. 2010 Sep-Oct; 36(5):330-7. PMID: 20626042.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Grant WB, Garland CF. The vitamin D revolution. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Aug; 54(8):1053. PMID: 20698010.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Mohr SB, Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Ricordi C. Is there a role of vitamin D deficiency in type 1 diabetes of children? Am J Prev Med. 2010 Aug; 39(2):189-90. PMID: 20621268.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D status are inversely associated with incidence rates of pancreatic cancer worldwide. Pancreas. 2010 Jul; 39(5):669-74. PMID: 20442683.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Ultraviolet B irradiance and incidence rates of bladder cancer in 174 countries. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Mar; 38(3):296-302. PMID: 20171531.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Booth-Kewley S, Larson GE, Highfill-McRoy RM, Garland CF, Gaskin TA. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Marines back from war. J Trauma Stress. 2010 Feb; 23(1):69-77. PMID: 20104587.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Booth-Kewley S, Highfill-McRoy RM, Larson GE, Garland CF. Psychosocial predictors of military misconduct. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Feb; 198(2):91-8. PMID: 20145482.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Grant WB, Garland CF. Vitamin D deficiency may explain much of the racial disparity in breast cancer survival among older women. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct; 32(5):540. PMID: 23061095.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. Commentary. On the epidemiology of influenza: reply to Radonovich et al. Virol J. 2009; 6:121. PMID: 19671177.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland FC. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19(7):468-83. PMID: 19523595.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Garland CF. Symposium in print on the epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19(7):439-40. PMID: 19342255.
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      38. Grant WB, Cross HS, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Moan J, Peterlik M, Porojnicu AC, Reichrath J, Zittermann A. Estimated benefit of increased vitamin D status in reducing the economic burden of disease in western Europe. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2009 Feb-Apr; 99(2-3):104-13. PMID: 19268496.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Garland CF, Grant WB, Boucher BJ, Cross HS, Garland FC, Gillie O, Gorham ED, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Moan JE, Peterlik M, Reichrath J, Zittermann A. Open letter to IARC Director Christopher P. Wild-Re: IARC Working Group Report 5: Vitamin D and Cancer. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Mar; 1(2):119-20. PMID: 20224695.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Wei MY, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Giovannucci E. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov; 17(11):2958-69. PMID: 18990737.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Baggerly CA, Garland FC. Re: Prospective study of vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4; 100(11):826-7. PMID: 18505971.
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      42. Grant WB, Garland CF. The health benefits of vitamin D greatly outweigh the health risks. Bioessays. 2008 May; 30(5):506-7; author reply 510-1. PMID: 18404735.
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      43. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Relationship between low ultraviolet B irradiance and higher breast cancer risk in 107 countries. Breast J. 2008 May-Jun; 14(3):255-60. PMID: 18422861.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008; 5:29. PMID: 18298852.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Grant WB, Garland CF. The role of vitamin D3 in preventing infections. Age Ageing. 2008 Jan; 37(1):121-2. PMID: 18056725.
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      46. Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland CF, Chaplin G, Garland FC. Do sunscreens increase risk of melanoma in populations residing at higher latitudes? Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Dec; 17(12):956-63. PMID: 18022535.
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      47. Garland CF, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland FC. What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutr Rev. 2007 Aug; 65(8 Pt 2):S91-5. PMID: 17867379.
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      48. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Lipkin M, Newmark HL, Giovannucci E, Wei M, Holick MF. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Mar; 32(3):210-6. PMID: 17296473.
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      49. Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland CF, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Lamberg-Allardt C, McGrath JJ, Norman AW, Scragg R, Whiting SJ, Willett WC, Zittermann A. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85(3):649-50. PMID: 17344484.
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      50. Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Grant WB, Giovannucci EL, Lipkin M, Newmark H, Holick MF, Garland FC. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar; 103(3-5):708-11. PMID: 17368188.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Is ultraviolet B irradiance inversely associated with incidence rates of endometrial cancer: an ecological study of 107 countries. Prev Med. 2007 Nov; 45(5):327-31. PMID: 17395256.
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      52. Grant WB, Garland CF, Gorham ED. An estimate of cancer mortality rate reductions in Europe and the US with 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2007; 174:225-34. PMID: 17302200.
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      53. Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Garland CF, Grant WB, Garland FC. Are low ultraviolet B and high animal protein intake associated with risk of renal cancer? Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 1; 119(11):2705-9. PMID: 16981191.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Garland CF, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC. Role of ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D in prevention of ovarian cancer. Am J Prev Med. 2006 Dec; 31(6):512-4. PMID: 17169713.
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      55. Allison M, Garland C, Chlebowski R, Criqui M, Langer R, Wu L, Roy H, McTiernan A, Kuller L. The association between aspirin use and the incidence of colorectal cancer in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15; 164(6):567-75. PMID: 16847042.
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      56. Grant WB, Garland CF. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26(4A):2687-99. PMID: 16886679.
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      57. Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Brunner RL, O'Sullivan MJ, Margolis KL, Ockene JK, Phillips L, Pottern L, Prentice RL, Robbins J, Rohan TE, Sarto GE, Sharma S, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wallace RB, Whitlock E, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Bonds DE, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, Cochrane B, Garland C, Gass M, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Jackson RD, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kooperberg CL, Kuller LH, LaCroix AZ, Lane DS, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Lewis CE, Limacher MC, Manson JE. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16; 354(7):684-96. PMID: 16481636.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED, Lipkin M, Newmark H, Mohr SB, Holick MF. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. 2006 Feb; 96(2):252-61. PMID: 16380576.
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      59. Garland CF, Garland FC. Commentary: progress of a paradigm. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr; 35(2):220-2. PMID: 16303808.
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      60. Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Apr; 35(2):217-20. PMID: 16303809.
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      61. Grant WB, Garland CF, Holick MF. Comparisons of estimated economic burdens due to insufficient solar ultraviolet irradiance and vitamin D and excess solar UV irradiance for the United States. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec; 81(6):1276-86. PMID: 16159309.
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      62. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, Grant WB, Mohr SB, Lipkin M, Newmark HL, Giovannucci E, Wei M, Holick MF. Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Oct; 97(1-2):179-94. PMID: 16236494.
        View in: PubMed
      63. von Mühlen DG, Greendale GA, Garland CF, Wan L, Barrett-Connor E. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1721-6. PMID: 15928802.
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      64. Grant WB, Garland CF. Air pollution and breast cancer. Epidemiology. 2005 May; 16(3):421. PMID: 15824572.
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      65. Gunderson EK, Garland CF, Gorham ED. Health surveillance for asthma in the US Navy: experience of 9,185,484 person-years. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Apr; 15(4):310-5. PMID: 15780779.
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      66. Gunderson EK, Garland CF, Miller MR, Gorham ED. Career History Archival Medical and Personnel System. Mil Med. 2005 Feb; 170(2):172-5. PMID: 15782842.
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      67. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, Kaiser K, Travis WD, Centeno JA. Trends and occupational associations in incidence of hospitalized pulmonary sarcoidosis and other lung diseases in Navy personnel: a 27-year historical prospective study, 1975-2001. Chest. 2004 Nov; 126(5):1431-8. PMID: 15539709.
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      68. Grant WB, Garland CF. A critical review of studies on vitamin D in relation to colorectal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2004; 48(2):115-23. PMID: 15231446.
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      69. Garland CF. More on preventing skin cancer: sun avoidance will increase incidence of cancers overall. BMJ. 2003 Nov 22; 327(7425):1228. PMID: 14630775.
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      70. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Epidemiologic evidence for different roles of ultraviolet A and B radiation in melanoma mortality rates. Ann Epidemiol. 2003 Jul; 13(6):395-404. PMID: 12875796.
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      71. Grant WB, Garland CF. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer. J Intern Med. 2002 Aug; 252(2):178-9; author reply 179-80. PMID: 12190894.
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      72. Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Calcium and vitamin D. Their potential roles in colon and breast cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 889:107-19. PMID: 10668487.
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