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    Allen Ryan

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentSurgery
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0666
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-534-4594
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      Research Overview

      Biology of the inner and middle ears, including hair cell gene and fate regulation, drug and noise damage to hearing, inner ear neuronal targeting, pathogenesis and recovery mechanisms in otitis media, and drug delivery to the middle and inner ears.

      Research Topics

      • Cell Biology

      • Development

      • Drug Delivery

      • Genomics

      • Immunology

      • Infectious Disease

      • Inflammation

      • Injury

      • Innate Immunity

      • Molecular Biology

      • Neuroscience

      • Regeneration/Stem Cells

      • Structural Biology

      • Translational Research


      Current Project Titles

      • Recovery from blast-induced hearing loss (DoD)

      • A biological interface for the cochlear implant (VA)

      • Middle ear responses in otitis media (NIH)

      • Mechanisms of persistence and recovery in otitis media (NIH)

      • New methods for the treatment of hearing and balance disorders (Pending)



      Profile

      My laboratory studies the basic biology of hearing. A major focus of the group is the sensory hair cells of the cochlea. This includes studies of gene regulation in these cells, as well as fate determination by combinatorial transcription factor coding. We also study cellular mechanisms of hair cell damage and death induced by ototoxic drugs, noise trauma and excitotoxicity. A second area of interest is the two types of afferent neurons in the cochlea. In particular the type II neurons that innervate outer hair cells are poorly understood with respect to their function and the regulation of their complex pathfinding to their target hair cells. We also study pathogenesis and recovery of the middle ear mucosa during otitis media, with a focus on cell phenotype determination and innate immunity. Finally, we are interested in novel methods for drug delivery to the middle and inner ears.


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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Chan P, Ho K, Ryan AF. Impulse Noise Injury Model. Mil Med. 2016 May; 181(5 Suppl):59-69. PMID: 27168554.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Taura A, Taura K, Koyama Y, Yamamoto N, Nakagawa T, Ito J, Ryan AF. Hair cell stereociliary bundle regeneration by espin gene transduction after aminoglycoside damage and hair cell induction by Notch inhibition. Gene Ther. 2016 May; 23(5):415-23. PMID: 26886463.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Kurabi A, Pak KK, Bernhardt M, Baird A, Ryan AF. Discovery of a Biological Mechanism of Active Transport through the Tympanic Membrane to the Middle Ear. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22663. PMID: 26946957.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Kurabi A, Pak K, Ryan AF, Wasserman SI. Innate Immunity: Orchestrating Inflammation and Resolution of Otitis Media. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Jan; 16(1):6. PMID: 26732809.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Ryan AF, Dobie RA, Dubno JR, Lonsbury-Martin BL. Tinnitus: Research supported by the Tinnitus Research Consortium. Hear Res. 2016 Apr; 334:1. PMID: 26739791.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Harrop-Jones A, Wang X, Fernandez R, Dellamary L, Ryan AF, LeBel C, Piu F. The Sustained-Exposure Dexamethasone Formulation OTO-104 Offers Effective Protection against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Audiol Neurootol. 2016; 21(1):12-21. PMID: 26655654.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Morton-Jones RT, Vlajkovic SM, Thorne PR, Cockayne DA, Ryan AF, Housley GD. Properties of ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 subunits in mouse cochlear Reissner's membrane epithelial cells. Purinergic Signal. 2015 Dec; 11(4):551-60. PMID: 26424615.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Froud KE, Wong AC, Cederholm JM, Klugmann M, Sandow SL, Julien JP, Ryan AF, Housley GD. Type II spiral ganglion afferent neurons drive medial olivocochlear reflex suppression of the cochlear amplifier. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7115. PMID: 25965946.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Wong AC, Ryan AF. Mechanisms of sensorineural cell damage, death and survival in the cochlea. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015; 7:58. PMID: 25954196.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hernandez M, Leichtle A, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. The transcriptome of a complete episode of acute otitis media. BMC Genomics. 2015; 16(1):259. PMID: 25888408.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Leichtle A, Klenke C, Ebmeyer J, Daerr M, Bruchhage KL, Hoffmann AS, Ryan AF, Wollenberg B, Sudhoff H. NOD-Like Receptor Signaling in Cholesteatoma. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:408169. PMID: 25922834.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Ikeda R, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan AF. Transcription factors with conserved binding sites near ATOH1 on the POU4F3 gene enhance the induction of cochlear hair cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Apr; 51(2):672-84. PMID: 25015561.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Brand Y, Levano S, Radojevic V, Naldi AM, Setz C, Ryan AF, Pak K, Hemmings BA, Bodmer D. All akt isoforms (akt1, akt2, akt3) are involved in normal hearing, but only akt2 and akt3 are involved in auditory hair cell survival in the Mammalian inner ear. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121599. PMID: 25811375.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Ryan AF, Ikeda R, Masuda M. The regulation of gene expression in hair cells. Hear Res. 2015 Nov; 329:33-40. PMID: 25616095.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Brand Y, Sung M, Pak K, Chavez E, Wei E, Radojevic V, Bodmer D, Ryan AF. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Is Expressed in the Mammalian Inner Ear and Modulates Spiral Ganglion Neurite Outgrowth in an In Vitro Alternate Choice Assay. J Mol Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 55(4):836-44. PMID: 25407819.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Palmisano MG, Bremner SN, Hornberger TA, Meyer GA, Domenighetti AA, Shah SB, Kiss B, Kellermayer M, Ryan AF, Lieber RL. Skeletal muscle intermediate filaments form a stress-transmitting and stress-signaling network. J Cell Sci. 2015 Jan 15; 128(2):219-24. PMID: 25413344.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Yao W, Frie M, Pan J, Pak K, Webster N, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) isoforms play differing roles in otitis media. BMC Immunol. 2014; 15(1):46. PMID: 25311344.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Suzukawa K, Tomlin J, Pak K, Chavez E, Kurabi A, Baird A, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. A Mouse Model of Otitis Media Identifies HB-EGF as a Mediator of Inflammation-Induced Mucosal Proliferation. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102739. PMID: 25033458.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Sung M, Wei E, Chavez E, Jain N, Levano S, Binkert L, Ramseier A, Setz C, Bodmer D, Ryan AF, Brand Y. Inhibition of MMP-2 but not MMP-9 Influences Inner Ear Spiral Ganglion Neurons In Vitro. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Oct; 34(7):1011-21. PMID: 24935409.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Kurabi A, Lee J, Wong C, Pak K, Hoffman HM, Ryan AF, Wasserman SI. The inflammasome adaptor ASC contributes to multiple innate immune processes in the resolution of otitis media. Innate Immun. 2015 Feb; 21(2):203-14. PMID: 24652041.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Brand Y, Sung M, Chavez E, Wei E, Pak KK, Housley GD, Bodmer D, Ryan AF. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 modulates type I but not type II inner ear spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay. J Mol Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 51(3):663-70. PMID: 23760987.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Kurabi A, Pak K, Dang X, Coimbra R, Eliceiri BP, Ryan AF, Baird A. Ecrg4 attenuates the inflammatory proliferative response of mucosal epithelial cells to infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61394. PMID: 23626679.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Housley GD, Morton-Jones R, Vlajkovic SM, Telang RS, Paramananthasivam V, Tadros SF, Wong AC, Froud KE, Cederholm JM, Sivakumaran Y, Snguanwongchai P, Khakh BS, Cockayne DA, Thorne PR, Ryan AF. ATP-gated ion channels mediate adaptation to elevated sound levels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 30; 110(18):7494-9. PMID: 23592720.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Li JD, Hermansson A, Ryan AF, Bakaletz LO, Brown SD, Cheeseman MT, Juhn SK, Jung TT, Lim DJ, Lim JH, Lin J, Moon SK, Post JC. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Apr; 148(4 Suppl):E52-63. PMID: 23536532.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Kondo K, Pak K, Chavez E, Mullen L, Euteneuer S, Ryan AF. Changes in responsiveness of rat spiral ganglion neurons to neurotrophins across age: differential regulation of survival and neuritogenesis. Int J Neurosci. 2013 Jul; 123(7):465-75. PMID: 23301942.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Yan D, Zhu Y, Walsh T, Xie D, Yuan H, Sirmaci A, Fujikawa T, Wong AC, Loh TL, Du L, Grati M, Vlajkovic SM, Blanton S, Ryan AF, Chen ZY, Thorne PR, Kachar B, Tekin M, Zhao HB, Housley GD, King MC, Liu XZ. Mutation of the ATP-gated P2X(2) receptor leads to progressive hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 5; 110(6):2228-33. PMID: 23345450.
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      27. Euteneuer S, Yang KH, Chavez E, Leichtle A, Loers G, Olshansky A, Pak K, Schachner M, Ryan AF. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induces neuritogenesis in the cochlear spiral ganglion via neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013 May; 54:30-43. PMID: 23262364.
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      28. Jin Y, Kondo K, Ushio M, Kaga K, Ryan AF, Yamasoba T. Developmental changes in the responsiveness of rat spiral ganglion neurons to neurotrophic factors in dissociated culture: differential responses for survival, neuritogenesis and neuronal morphology. Cell Tissue Res. 2013 Jan; 351(1):15-27. PMID: 23149719.
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      29. Fukui H, Wong HT, Beyer LA, Case BG, Swiderski DL, Di Polo A, Ryan AF, Raphael Y. BDNF gene therapy induces auditory nerve survival and fiber sprouting in deaf Pou4f3 mutant mice. Sci Rep. 2012; 2:838. PMID: 23150788.
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      30. Masuda M, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan AF. TFE2 and GATA3 enhance induction of POU4F3 and myosin VIIa positive cells in nonsensory cochlear epithelium by ATOH1. Dev Biol. 2012 Dec 1; 372(1):68-80. PMID: 22985730.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Cederholm JM, Froud KE, Wong AC, Ko M, Ryan AF, Housley GD. Differential actions of isoflurane and ketamine-based anaesthetics on cochlear function in the mouse. Hear Res. 2012 Oct; 292(1-2):71-9. PMID: 22960466.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Souter M, Eastwood H, Marovic P, Kel G, Wongprasartsuk S, Ryan AF, O'Leary SJ. Systemic immunity influences hearing preservation in cochlear implantation. Otol Neurotol. 2012 Jun; 33(4):532-8. PMID: 22470051.
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      33. Husseman J, Palacios SD, Rivkin AZ, Oehl H, Ryan AF. The role of vascular endothelial growth factors and fibroblast growth factors in angiogenesis during otitis media. Audiol Neurootol. 2012; 17(3):148-54. PMID: 22104377.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Brand Y, Setz C, Levano S, Listyo A, Chavez E, Pak K, Sung M, Radojevic V, Ryan AF, Bodmer D. Simvastatin protects auditory hair cells from gentamicin-induced toxicity and activates Akt signaling in vitro. BMC Neurosci. 2011; 12:114. PMID: 22082490.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Mullen LM, Pak KK, Chavez E, Kondo K, Brand Y, Ryan AF. Ras/p38 and PI3K/Akt but not Mek/Erk signaling mediate BDNF-induced neurite formation on neonatal cochlear spiral ganglion explants. Brain Res. 2012 Jan 9; 1430:25-34. PMID: 22119396.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Barclay M, Ryan AF, Housley GD. Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development. Neural Dev. 2011; 6:33. PMID: 21989106.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Masuda M, Dulon D, Pak K, Mullen LM, Li Y, Erkman L, Ryan AF. Regulation of POU4F3 gene expression in hair cells by 5' DNA in mice. Neuroscience. 2011 Dec 1; 197:48-64. PMID: 21958861.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Ahmad ZK, Brown CM, Cueva RA, Ryan AF, Doherty JK. ErbB expression, activation, and inhibition with lapatinib and tyrphostin (AG825) in human vestibular schwannomas. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jul; 32(5):841-7. PMID: 21659924.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Leichtle A, Lai Y, Wollenberg B, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. Innate signaling in otitis media: pathogenesis and recovery. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011 Feb; 11(1):78-84. PMID: 21049294.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Ebmeyer J, Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer U, Husseman J, Pak K, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. TNFA deletion alters apoptosis as well as caspase 3 and 4 expression during otitis media. BMC Immunol. 2011; 12:12. PMID: 21269505.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Lee J, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wollenberg B, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media. Innate Immun. 2012 Feb; 18(1):3-13. PMID: 21239460.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Brown CM, Ahmad ZK, Ryan AF, Doherty JK. Estrogen receptor expression in sporadic vestibular schwannomas. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jan; 32(1):158-62. PMID: 21099731.
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      43. Lai Y, Cogen AL, Radek KA, Park HJ, Macleod DT, Leichtle A, Ryan AF, Di Nardo A, Gallo RL. Activation of TLR2 by a small molecule produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis increases antimicrobial defense against bacterial skin infections. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Sep; 130(9):2211-21. PMID: 20463690.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Ahmad Z, Brown CM, Patel AK, Ryan AF, Ongkeko R, Doherty JK. Merlin knockdown in human Schwann cells: clues to vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Apr; 31(3):460-6. PMID: 20195187.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Ebmeyer J, Yamasaki K, Lai Y, Radek K, Choung YH, Euteneuer S, Pak K, Gallo R, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. CC chemokine ligand 3 overcomes the bacteriocidal and phagocytic defect of macrophages and hastens recovery from experimental otitis media in TNF-/- mice. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 15; 184(6):3087-97. PMID: 20164426.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Barclay M, Julien JP, Ryan AF, Housley GD. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jul 5; 478(2):51-5. PMID: 20132868.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Taura A, Taura K, Choung YH, Masuda M, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan AF. Histone deacetylase inhibition enhances adenoviral vector transduction in inner ear tissue. Neuroscience. 2010 Apr 14; 166(4):1185-93. PMID: 20060033.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Ebmeyer J, Ebmeyer U, Pak K, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Ryan AF, Wasserman S. Reconstitution of the mast cell population in W/Wv mice. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jan; 31(1):42-7. PMID: 19752767.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Lai Y, Di Nardo A, Nakatsuji T, Leichtle A, Yang Y, Cogen AL, Wu ZR, Hooper LV, Schmidt RR, von Aulock S, Radek KA, Huang CM, Ryan AF, Gallo RL. Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury. Nat Med. 2009 Dec; 15(12):1377-82. PMID: 19966777.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Pak K, Webster NJ, Wasserman SI, Ryan AF. The toll-Like receptor adaptor TRIF contributes to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery. BMC Immunol. 2009; 10:45. PMID: 19656404.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Pak K, Yamasaki K, Cheng CF, Webster NJ, Ryan AF, Wasserman SI. TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media. Innate Immun. 2009 Aug; 15(4):205-15. PMID: 19586996.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Ryan AF, Dazert S. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2009; 66:1-12. PMID: 19494569.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Ryan AF, Mullen LM, Doherty JK. Cellular targeting for cochlear gene therapy. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2009; 66:99-115. PMID: 19494575.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Choung YH, Taura A, Pak K, Choi SJ, Masuda M, Ryan AF. Generation of highly-reactive oxygen species is closely related to hair cell damage in rat organ of Corti treated with gentamicin. Neuroscience. 2009 Jun 16; 161(1):214-26. PMID: 19318119.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hernandez M, Leichtle A, Pak K, Ebmeyer J, Euteneuer S, Obonyo M, Guiney DG, Webster NJ, Broide DH, Ryan AF, Wasserman SI. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 is required for the resolution of otitis media. J Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 15; 198(12):1862-9. PMID: 18986247.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Du X, Schwander M, Moresco EM, Viviani P, Haller C, Hildebrand MS, Pak K, Tarantino L, Roberts A, Richardson H, Koob G, Najmabadi H, Ryan AF, Smith RJ, Müller U, Beutler B. A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38):14609-14. PMID: 18794526.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Patel AK, Alexander TH, Andalibi A, Ryan AF, Doherty JK. Vestibular schwannoma quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Laryngoscope. 2008 Aug; 118(8):1458-63. PMID: 18670322.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Brors D, Hansen S, Mlynski R, Volkenstein S, Aletsee C, Sendtner M, Ryan AF, Dazert S. Spiral ganglion outgrowth and hearing development in p75-deficient mice. Audiol Neurootol. 2008; 13(6):388-95. PMID: 18663291.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Euteneuer S, Hansen S, Ryan AF. [The role of the spiral ganglion neurons in cochlear implants. Today and in future regenerative inner ear treatment]. HNO. 2008 Apr; 56(4):457-60. PMID: 18351308.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Doherty JK, Ongkeko W, Crawley B, Andalibi A, Ryan AF. ErbB and Nrg: potential molecular targets for vestibular schwannoma pharmacotherapy. Otol Neurotol. 2008 Jan; 29(1):50-7. PMID: 18199957.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Evans AR, Euteneuer S, Chavez E, Mullen LM, Hui EE, Bhatia SN, Ryan AF. Laminin and fibronectin modulate inner ear spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth in an in vitro alternate choice assay. Dev Neurobiol. 2007 Nov; 67(13):1721-30. PMID: 17600813.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Barclay M, Noakes PG, Ryan AF, Julien JP, Housley GD. Neuronal expression of peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, in the mouse hindbrain. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007 Dec; 128(6):541-50. PMID: 17899157.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Tabuchi K, Pak K, Chavez E, Ryan AF. Role of inhibitor of apoptosis protein in gentamicin-induced cochlear hair cell damage. Neuroscience. 2007 Oct 12; 149(1):213-22. PMID: 17869439.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Cheatham MA, Zheng J, Huynh KH, Du GG, Edge RM, Anderson CT, Zuo J, Ryan AF, Dallos P. Evaluation of an independent prestin mouse model derived from the 129S1 strain. Audiol Neurootol. 2007; 12(6):378-90. PMID: 17664869.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Dazert S, Schick B, Hartensuer R, Volkenstein S, Aletsee C, Hansen S, Shehata-Dieler WE, Eigenthaler M, Walter U, Ryan AF, Brors D. Hearing development and spiral ganglion neurite growth in VASP deficient mice. Brain Res. 2007 Oct 31; 1178:73-82. PMID: 17920567.
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      66. Hedlund M, Tangvoranuntakul P, Takematsu H, Long JM, Housley GD, Kozutsumi Y, Suzuki A, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ryan AF, Gallo RL, Varki N, Varki A. N-glycolylneuraminic acid deficiency in mice: implications for human biology and evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jun; 27(12):4340-6. PMID: 17420276.
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      67. Greenwood D, Jagger DJ, Huang LC, Hoya N, Thorne PR, Wildman SS, King BF, Pak K, Ryan AF, Housley GD. P2X receptor signaling inhibits BDNF-mediated spiral ganglion neuron development in the neonatal rat cochlea. Development. 2007 Apr; 134(7):1407-17. PMID: 17329369.
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      68. Schwander M, Sczaniecka A, Grillet N, Bailey JS, Avenarius M, Najmabadi H, Steffy BM, Federe GC, Lagler EA, Banan R, Hice R, Grabowski-Boase L, Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Housley GD, Wiltshire T, Smith RJ, Tarantino LM, Müller U. A forward genetics screen in mice identifies recessive deafness traits and reveals that pejvakin is essential for outer hair cell function. J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 28; 27(9):2163-75. PMID: 17329413.
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      69. Furukawa M, Ebmeyer J, Pak K, Austin DA, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan AF. Jun N-terminal protein kinase enhances middle ear mucosal proliferation during bacterial otitis media. Infect Immun. 2007 May; 75(5):2562-71. PMID: 17325051.
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      70. Chung WH, Pak K, Lin B, Webster N, Ryan AF. A PI3K pathway mediates hair cell survival and opposes gentamicin toxicity in neonatal rat organ of Corti. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2006 Dec; 7(4):373-82. PMID: 17053865.
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      71. Ryan AF, Ebmeyer J, Furukawa M, Pak K, Melhus A, Wasserman SI, Chung WH. Mouse models of induced otitis media. Brain Res. 2006 May 26; 1091(1):3-8. PMID: 16764829.
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      72. Ryan AF, Wittig J, Evans A, Dazert S, Mullen L. Environmental micro-patterning for the study of spiral ganglion neurite guidance. Audiol Neurootol. 2006; 11(2):134-43. PMID: 16439836.
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      73. Huang LC, Ryan AF, Cockayne DA, Housley GD. Developmentally regulated expression of the P2X3 receptor in the mouse cochlea. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006 Jun; 125(6):681-92. PMID: 16341871.
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      74. Ebmeyer J, Furukawa M, Pak K, Ebmeyer U, Sudhoff H, Broide D, Ryan AF, Wasserman S. Role of mast cells in otitis media. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Nov; 116(5):1129-35. PMID: 16275387.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Rivkin AZ, Palacios SD, Pak K, Bennett T, Ryan AF. The role of Fas-mediated apoptosis in otitis media: observations in the lpr/lpr mouse. Hear Res. 2005 Sep; 207(1-2):110-6. PMID: 15978756.
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      76. Ryan AF, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4A. Molecular biology. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:42-9. PMID: 15700934.
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      77. Ryan AF, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4B. Biochemistry. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:50-5. PMID: 15700935.
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      78. Ryan AF, Jung TT, Juhn SK, Li JD, Andalibi A, Lin J, Bakaletz LO, Post CJ, Ehrlich GD. Recent advances in otitis media. 4C. Interaction between middle ear and inner ear in otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 2005 Jan; 194:56-9. PMID: 15700936.
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      79. Wittig JH, Ryan AF, Asbeck PM. A reusable microfluidic plate with alternate-choice architecture for assessing growth preference in tissue culture. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 May 15; 144(1):79-89. PMID: 15848242.
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      80. Palacios SD, Pak K, Rivkin AZ, Kayali AG, Austen D, Aletsee C, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan AF. Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosa hyperplasia during bacterial otitis media. Infect Immun. 2004 Aug; 72(8):4662-7. PMID: 15271927.
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      81. Melhus A, Ryan AF. Effects of amoxicillin on cytokine and osteocalcin expression in bone tissue during experimental acute otitis media. Cytokine. 2004 Mar 21; 25(6):254-9. PMID: 15036240.
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      82. Barash IA, Mathew L, Ryan AF, Chen J, Lieber RL. Rapid muscle-specific gene expression changes after a single bout of eccentric contractions in the mouse. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004 Feb; 286(2):C355-64. PMID: 14561590.
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      83. Melhus A, Ryan AF. A mouse model for acute otitis media. APMIS. 2003 Oct; 111(10):989-94. PMID: 14616553.
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      84. Dazert S, Aletsee C, Brors D, Sudhoff H, Ryan AF, Müller AM. Regeneration of inner ear cells from stem cell precursors--a future concept of hearing rehabilitation? DNA Cell Biol. 2003 Sep; 22(9):565-70. PMID: 14577909.
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      85. Bodmer D, Brors D, Bodmer M, Pak K, Ryan AF. Fas ligand expression in the organ of Corti. Audiol Neurootol. 2003 Sep-Oct; 8(5):243-9. PMID: 12904679.
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      86. Brors D, Bodmer D, Pak K, Aletsee C, Schäfers M, Dazert S, Ryan AF. EphA4 provides repulsive signals to developing cochlear ganglion neurites mediated through ephrin-B2 and -B3. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Jul 14; 462(1):90-100. PMID: 12761826.
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      87. Wang JC, Raybould NP, Luo L, Ryan AF, Cannell MB, Thorne PR, Housley GD. Noise induces up-regulation of P2X2 receptor subunit of ATP-gated ion channels in the rat cochlea. Neuroreport. 2003 May 6; 14(6):817-23. PMID: 12858039.
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      88. Aletsee C, Brors D, Mlynski R, Ryan AF, Dazert S. Branching of spiral ganglion neurites is induced by focal application of fibroblast growth factor-1. Laryngoscope. 2003 May; 113(5):791-6. PMID: 12792312.
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      89. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Bodmer M, Ryan AF. Gentamicin-induced hair cell death is not dependent on the apoptosis receptor Fas. Laryngoscope. 2003 Mar; 113(3):452-5. PMID: 12616196.
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      90. Skinner LJ, Enée V, Beurg M, Jung HH, Ryan AF, Hafidi A, Aran JM, Dulon D. Contribution of BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels to auditory neurotransmission in the Guinea pig cochlea. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Jul; 90(1):320-32. PMID: 12611976.
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      91. Battaglia A, Pak K, Brors D, Bodmer D, Frangos JA, Ryan AF. Involvement of ras activation in toxic hair cell damage of the mammalian cochlea. Neuroscience. 2003; 122(4):1025-35. PMID: 14643769.
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      92. Ryan AF. The cell cycle and the development and regeneration of hair cells. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2003; 57:449-66. PMID: 14674489.
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      93. Brors D, Aletsee C, Dazert S, Huverstuhl J, Ryan AF, Bodmer D. Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho, Rac and Cdc42, influences spiral ganglion neurite outgrowth. Acta Otolaryngol. 2003 Jan; 123(1):20-5. PMID: 12625568.
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      94. Bodmer D, Brors D, Bodmer M, Ryan AF. [Rescue of auditory hair cells from ototoxicity by CEP-11 004, an inhibitor of the JNK signaling pathway]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2002 Dec; 81(12):853-6. PMID: 12486621.
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      95. Palacios SD, Pak K, Kayali AG, Rivkin AZ, Aletsee C, Melhus A, Webster NJ, Ryan AF. Participation of Ras and extracellular regulated kinase in the hyperplastic response of middle-ear mucosa during bacterial otitis media. J Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15; 186(12):1761-9. PMID: 12447762.
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      96. Gloddek B, Bodmer D, Brors D, Keithley EM, Ryan AF. Induction of MHC class II antigens on cells of the inner ear. Audiol Neurootol. 2002 Nov-Dec; 7(6):317-23. PMID: 12463193.
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      97. Bodmer D, Gloddek B, Ryan AF, Huverstuhl J, Brors D. Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway influences neurite outgrowth of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Laryngoscope. 2002 Nov; 112(11):2057-61. PMID: 12439181.
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      98. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Gloddek B, Ryan A. Rescue of auditory hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity by Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor of the small GTPases Rho/Rac/Cdc42. Hear Res. 2002 Oct; 172(1-2):81-6. PMID: 12361869.
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      99. Bodmer D, Brors D, Pak K, Keithley EM, Mullen L, Ryan AF, Gloddek B. Inflammatory signals increase Fas ligand expression by inner ear cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2002 Aug; 129(1-2):10-7. PMID: 12161015.
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      100. Brors D, Aletsee C, Schwager K, Mlynski R, Hansen S, Schäfers M, Ryan AF, Dazert S. Interaction of spiral ganglion neuron processes with alloplastic materials in vitro(1). Hear Res. 2002 May; 167(1-2):110-21. PMID: 12117535.
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      101. Ryan AF. Molecular studies of hair cell development and survival. Audiol Neurootol. 2002 May-Jun; 7(3):138-40. PMID: 12053133.
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      102. Palacios SD, Pak K, Rivkin AZ, Bennett T, Ryan AF. Growth factors and their receptors in the middle ear mucosa during otitis media. Laryngoscope. 2002 Mar; 112(3):420-3. PMID: 12148846.
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      103. Aletsee C, Brors D, Mlynski R, Ryan AF, Dazert S. [Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase influences neurotrophin-induced spiral ganglion neurite growth]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2002 Mar; 81(3):189-95. PMID: 11967771.
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      104. Aletsee C, Brors D, Palacios S, Pak K, Mullen L, Dazert S, Ryan AF. The effects of laminin-1 on spiral ganglion neurons are dependent on the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and are partially independent of Ras. Hear Res. 2002 Feb; 164(1-2):1-11. PMID: 11950519.
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      105. Ryan AF, Pak K, Low W, Battaglia A, Mullen L, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Immunological damage to the inner ear: current and future therapeutic strategies. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2002; 59:66-74. PMID: 11885663.
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      106. Ryan AF, Harris JP, Keithley EM. Immune-mediated hearing loss: basic mechanisms and options for therapy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2002; (548):38-43. PMID: 12211356.
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      107. Aletsee C, Beros A, Mullen L, Palacios S, Pak K, Dazert S, Ryan AF. Ras/MEK but not p38 signaling mediates NT-3-induced neurite extension from spiral ganglion neurons. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2001 Dec; 2(4):377-87. PMID: 11833610.
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      108. Palacios SD, Oehl HJ, Rivkin AZ, Aletsee C, Pak K, Ryan AF. Growth factors influence growth and differentiation of the middle ear mucosa. Laryngoscope. 2001 May; 111(5):874-80. PMID: 11359169.
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      109. Aletsee C, Mullen L, Kim D, Pak K, Brors D, Dazert S, Ryan AF. The disintegrin kistrin inhibits neurite extension from spiral ganglion explants cultured on laminin. Audiol Neurootol. 2001 Mar-Apr; 6(2):57-65. PMID: 11385179.
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      110. Melhus A, Ryan AF. Expression of molecular markers for bone formation increases during experimental acute otitis media. Microb Pathog. 2001 Mar; 30(3):111-20. PMID: 11273736.
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      111. Nikolic P, Housley GD, Luo L, Ryan AF, Thorne PR. Transient expression of P2X(1) receptor subunits of ATP-gated ion channels in the developing rat cochlea. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2001 Feb 28; 126(2):173-82. PMID: 11248351.
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      112. Wayne S, Robertson NG, DeClau F, Chen N, Verhoeven K, Prasad S, Tranebjärg L, Morton CC, Ryan AF, Van Camp G, Smith RJ. Mutations in the transcriptional activator EYA4 cause late-onset deafness at the DFNA10 locus. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Feb 1; 10(3):195-200. PMID: 11159937.
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      113. Ryan AF, Keithley EM, Harris JP. Autoimmune inner ear disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2001 Feb; 14(1):35-40. PMID: 11176215.
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      114. Forséni M, Melhus A, Ryan AF, Bagger-Sjöbäck D, Hultcrantz M. Detection and localization of interleukin-6 in the rat middle ear during experimental acute otitis media, using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Feb; 57(2):115-21. PMID: 11165648.
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      115. Ryan AF, Bennett T. Nitric oxide contributes to control of effusion in experimental otitis media. Laryngoscope. 2001 Feb; 111(2):301-5. PMID: 11210879.
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      116. Sudhoff H, Dazert S, Gonzales AM, Borkowski G, Park SY, Baird A, Hildmann H, Ryan AF. Angiogenesis and angiogenic growth factors in middle ear cholesteatoma. Am J Otol. 2000 Nov; 21(6):793-8. PMID: 11078065.
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      117. Melhus A, Ryan AF. Expression of cytokine genes during pneumococcal and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae acute otitis media in the rat. Infect Immun. 2000 Jul; 68(7):4024-31. PMID: 10858218.
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      118. Ryan AF. Protection of auditory receptors and neurons: evidence for interactive damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 20; 97(13):6939-40. PMID: 10860952.
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      119. Aletsee C, Völter C, Brors D, Ryan AF, Dazert S. [Effect of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) on spiral ganglion cells of the mammalian cochlea]. HNO. 2000 Jun; 48(6):457-61. PMID: 10929227.
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      120. Friedman RA, Adir Y, Crenshaw EB, Ryan AF, Rosenfeld MG. A transgenic insertional inner ear mutation on mouse chromosome 1. Laryngoscope. 2000 Apr; 110(4):489-96. PMID: 10763993.
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      121. Housley GD, Kanjhan R, Raybould NP, Greenwood D, Salih SG, Järlebark L, Burton LD, Setz VC, Cannell MB, Soeller C, Christie DL, Usami S, Matsubara A, Yoshie H, Ryan AF, Thorne PR. Expression of the P2X(2) receptor subunit of the ATP-gated ion channel in the cochlea: implications for sound transduction and auditory neurotransmission. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 1; 19(19):8377-88. PMID: 10493739.
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      122. Keithley EM, Erkman L, Bennett T, Lou L, Ryan AF. Effects of a hair cell transcription factor, Brn-3.1, gene deletion on homozygous and heterozygous mouse cochleas in adulthood and aging. Hear Res. 1999 Aug; 134(1-2):71-6. PMID: 10452377.
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      123. Kanjhan R, Housley GD, Burton LD, Christie DL, Kippenberger A, Thorne PR, Luo L, Ryan AF. Distribution of the P2X2 receptor subunit of the ATP-gated ion channels in the rat central nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Apr 28; 407(1):11-32. PMID: 10213185.
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      124. Dulon D, Ryan AF. The bacterial Neo gene confers neomycin resistance to mammalian cochlear hair cells. Neuroreport. 1999 Apr 26; 10(6):1189-93. PMID: 10363922.
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      125. Saint Marie RL, Luo L, Ryan AF. Effects of stimulus frequency and intensity on c-fos mRNA expression in the adult rat auditory brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Feb 8; 404(2):258-70. PMID: 9934998.
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      126. Luo L, Ryan AF, Saint Marie RL. Cochlear ablation alters acoustically induced c-fos mRNA expression in the adult rat auditory brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Feb 8; 404(2):271-83. PMID: 9934999.
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      127. Saint Marie RL, Luo L, Ryan AF. Spatial representation of frequency in the rat dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus as revealed by acoustically induced c-fos mRNA expression. Hear Res. 1999 Feb; 128(1-2):70-4. PMID: 10082285.
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      128. Nathan CO, Kim TS, Harris JP, Koutnouyan HA, Ryan AF. Absence of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor in the rat cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999; 119(8):853-7. PMID: 10728922.
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      129. Shoemaker SD, Ryan AF, Lieber RL. Transcript-specific mRNA trafficking based on the distribution of coexpressed myosin isoforms. Cells Tissues Organs. 1999; 165(1):10-5. PMID: 10460968.
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      130. Canlon B, Ryan AF, Boettcher FA. On the factors required for obtaining protection against noise trauma by prior acoustic experience. Hear Res. 1999 Jan; 127(1-2):158-61. PMID: 9925028.
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      131. Dazert S, Kim D, Luo L, Aletsee C, Garfunkel S, Maciag T, Baird A, Ryan AF. Focal delivery of fibroblast growth factor-1 by transfected cells induces spiral ganglion neurite targeting in vitro. J Cell Physiol. 1998 Oct; 177(1):123-9. PMID: 9731752.
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      132. Furuta H, Luo L, Hepler K, Ryan AF. Evidence for differential regulation of calcium by outer versus inner hair cells: plasma membrane Ca-ATPase gene expression. Hear Res. 1998 Sep; 123(1-2):10-26. PMID: 9745951.
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      133. Keithley EM, Ma CL, Ryan AF, Louis JC, Magal E. GDNF protects the cochlea against noise damage. Neuroreport. 1998 Jul 13; 9(10):2183-7. PMID: 9694197.
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      134. Jung HH, Lieber RL, Ryan AF. Quantification of myosin heavy chain mRNA in somatic and branchial arch muscles using competitive PCR. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 1):C68-74. PMID: 9688836.
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      135. Lutz GJ, Cuizon DB, Ryan AF, Lieber RL. Four novel myosin heavy chain transcripts define a molecular basis for muscle fibre types in Rana pipiens. J Physiol. 1998 May 1; 508 ( Pt 3):667-80. PMID: 9518724.
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      136. Housley GD, Luo L, Ryan AF. Localization of mRNA encoding the P2X2 receptor subunit of the adenosine 5'-triphosphate-gated ion channel in the adult and developing rat inner ear by in situ hybridization. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Apr 20; 393(4):403-14. PMID: 9550147.
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      137. Luo L, Bennett T, Jung HH, Ryan AF. Developmental expression of alpha 9 acetylcholine receptor mRNA in the rat cochlea and vestibular inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Apr 13; 393(3):320-31. PMID: 9548553.
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      138. Furuta H, Luo L, Ryan AF, Mori N. Expression of mRNA encoding vasopressin V1a, vasopressin V2, and ANP-B receptors in the rat cochlea. Hear Res. 1998 Mar; 117(1-2):140-8. PMID: 9557984.
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      139. Dulon D, Luo L, Zhang C, Ryan AF. Expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) in outer hair cells of the rat cochlea. Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Mar; 10(3):907-15. PMID: 9753158.
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      140. Dazert S, Baird A, Ryan AF. Receptor-targeted delivery of an intracellular toxin to outer hair cells by fibroblast growth factor. Hear Res. 1998 Jan; 115(1-2):143-8. PMID: 9472743.
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      141. Marcus DC, Sunose H, Liu J, Bennett T, Shen Z, Scofield MA, Ryan AF. Protein kinase C mediates P2U purinergic receptor inhibition of K+ channel in apical membrane of strial marginal cells. Hear Res. 1998 Jan; 115(1-2):82-92. PMID: 9472737.
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      142. Ryan AF, Gloddek B, Harris JP. Lymphocyte trafficking to the inner ear. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 29; 830:236-42. PMID: 9616682.
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      143. Ryan AF. Summary: progress in inner-ear immunology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 29; 830:326-9. PMID: 9616693.
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      144. Staecker H, Dazert S, Malgrange B, Lefebvre PP, Ryan AF, Van de Water TR. Transforming growth factor alpha treatment alters intracellular calcium levels in hair cells and protects them from ototoxic damage in vitro. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1997 Jul; 15(4-5):553-62. PMID: 9263032.
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      145. Dazert S, Battaglia A, Ryan AF. Transfection of neonatal rat cochlear cells in vitro with an adenovirus vector. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1997 Jul; 15(4-5):595-600. PMID: 9263036.
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      146. Housley GD, Ryan AF. Cholinergic and purinergic neurohumoral signalling in the inner ear: a molecular physiological analysis. Audiol Neurootol. 1997 Jan-Apr; 2(1-2):92-110. PMID: 9390825.
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      147. McEvilly RJ, Erkman L, Luo L, Sawchenko PE, Ryan AF, Rosenfeld MG. Requirement for Brn-3.0 in differentiation and survival of sensory and motor neurons. Nature. 1996 Dec 12; 384(6609):574-7. PMID: 8955272.
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      148. Kanjhan R, Housley GD, Thorne PR, Christie DL, Palmer DJ, Luo L, Ryan AF. Localization of ATP-gated ion channels in cerebellum using P2x2R subunit-specific antisera. Neuroreport. 1996 Nov 4; 7(15-17):2665-9. PMID: 8981443.
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      149. Erkman L, McEvilly RJ, Luo L, Ryan AK, Hooshmand F, O'Connell SM, Keithley EM, Rapaport DH, Ryan AF, Rosenfeld MG. Role of transcription factors Brn-3.1 and Brn-3.2 in auditory and visual system development. Nature. 1996 Jun 13; 381(6583):603-6. PMID: 8637595.
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      150. Low W, Dazert S, Baird A, Ryan AF. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) protects rat cochlear hair cells in organotypical culture from aminoglycoside injury. J Cell Physiol. 1996 Jun; 167(3):443-50. PMID: 8655598.
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      151. Merati AL, Bodine SC, Bennett T, Jung HH, Furuta H, Ryan AF. Identification of a novel myosin heavy chain gene expressed in the rat larynx. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 May 2; 1306(2-3):153-9. PMID: 8634332.
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      152. Furuta H, Mori N, Luo L, Ryan AF. Detection of mRNA encoding guanylate cyclase A/atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in the rat cochlea by competitive polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Hear Res. 1995 Dec; 92(1-2):78-84. PMID: 8647748.
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      153. Luo L, Brumm D, Ryan AF. Distribution of non-NMDA glutamate receptor mRNAs in the developing rat cochlea. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Oct 23; 361(3):372-82. PMID: 8550886.
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      154. Housley GD, Greenwood D, Bennett T, Ryan AF. Identification of a short form of the P2xR1-purinoceptor subunit produced by alternative splicing in the pituitary and cochlea. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 17; 212(2):501-8. PMID: 7542879.
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      155. Bikhazi P, Ryan AF. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokines during acute and chronic middle ear immune response. Laryngoscope. 1995 Jun; 105(6):629-34. PMID: 7769948.
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      156. Harris JP, Ryan AF. Fundamental immune mechanisms of the brain and inner ear. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995 Jun; 112(6):639-53. PMID: 7777346.
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      157. Luo L, Moore JK, Baird A, Ryan AF. Expression of acidic FGF mRNA in rat auditory brainstem during postnatal maturation. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1995 May 26; 86(1-2):24-34. PMID: 7544700.
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      158. Keithley EM, Lo J, Ryan AF. 2-Deoxyglucose uptake patterns in response to pure tone stimuli in the aged rat inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 1994 Oct; 80(1):79-85. PMID: 7852206.
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      159. Housley GD, Batcher S, Kraft M, Ryan AF. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits expressed in rat cochlea detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Hear Res. 1994 May; 75(1-2):47-53. PMID: 7520901.
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      160. Koutnouyan HA, Baird A, Ryan AF. Acidic and basic FGF mRNA expression in the middle ear mucosa during experimental acute and chronic otitis media. Laryngoscope. 1994 Mar; 104(3 Pt 1):350-8. PMID: 7510359.
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      161. Ryan AF, Bennett TM, Woolf NK, Axelsson A. Protection from noise-induced hearing loss by prior exposure to a nontraumatic stimulus: role of the middle ear muscles. Hear Res. 1994 Jan; 72(1-2):23-8. PMID: 8150739.
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      162. Lieber RL, Bodine SC, Burkholder TJ, Pierotti DJ, Ryan AF. Cloning and in situ hybridization of type 2A and 2B rat skeletal muscle myosin tail region: implications for filament assembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Dec 30; 197(3):1312-8. PMID: 8280148.
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      163. Ryan AF, Batcher S, Brumm D, O'Driscoll K, Harris JP. Cloning genes from an inner ear cDNA library. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993 Nov; 119(11):1217-20. PMID: 8217081.
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      164. Luo L, Koutnouyan H, Baird A, Ryan AF. Acidic and basic FGF mRNA expression in the adult and developing rat cochlea. Hear Res. 1993 Sep; 69(1-2):182-93. PMID: 7693641.
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      165. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Woolf NK. Fibronectin-like immunoreactivity of the basilar membrane of young and aged rats. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jan 22; 327(4):612-7. PMID: 8440784.
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      166. Ryan AF, Baird A. Growth factors during proliferation of the middle ear mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol. 1993 Jan; 113(1):68-74. PMID: 8442425.
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      167. Ryan AF, Schwartz IR, Keithley EM, Wang ZX. Selective retrograde transport of nipecotic acid, a GABA analog, labels a subpopulation of gerbil olivocochlear neurons. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Dec 15; 326(3):337-46. PMID: 1469117.
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      168. Friedman RA, Ryan AF. Transgenic mice. Current applications to the study of the auditory and vestibular systems. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1992 Oct; 25(5):1017-26. PMID: 1408190.
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      169. Ryan AF, Axelsson GA, Woolf NK. Central auditory metabolic activity induced by intense noise exposure. Hear Res. 1992 Aug; 61(1-2):24-30. PMID: 1326506.
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      170. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Feldman ML. Cochlear degeneration in aged rats of four strains. Hear Res. 1992 May; 59(2):171-8. PMID: 1618708.
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      171. Woolf NK, Koehrn FJ, Ryan AF. Immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin-like protein in the inner ear of the developing gerbil and rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1992 Jan 17; 65(1):21-33. PMID: 1551230.
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      172. Takahashi M, Kanai N, Watanabe A, Oshima O, Ryan AF. Lymphocyte subsets in immune-mediated otitis media with effusion. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1992; 249(1):24-7. PMID: 1533130.
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      173. Ryan AF, Brumm D, Kraft M. Occurrence and distribution of non-NMDA glutamate receptor mRNAs in the cochlea. Neuroreport. 1991 Nov; 2(11):643-6. PMID: 1725725.
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      174. Ryan AF, Watts AG, Simmons DM. Preservation of mRNA during in situ hybridization in the cochlea. Hear Res. 1991 Nov; 56(1-2):148-52. PMID: 1769909.
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      175. Ryan AF, Watts AG. Expression of mRNAs encoding alpha and beta subunit isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in the rat cochlea. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1991 Apr; 2(2):179-87. PMID: 19912797.
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      176. Ryan AF, Simmons DM, Watts AG, Swanson LW. Enkephalin mRNA production by cochlear and vestibular efferent neurons in the gerbil brainstem. Exp Brain Res. 1991; 87(2):259-67. PMID: 1769382.
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      177. Ryan AF, Crenshaw EB, Simmons DM. Gene expression in normal and abnormal inner ears. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 630:129-32. PMID: 1683203.
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      178. Gloddek B, Ryan AF, Harris JP. Homing of lymphocytes to the inner ear. Acta Otolaryngol. 1991; 111(6):1051-9. PMID: 1763625.
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      179. Ryan AF, Miller JM, Wang ZX, Woolf NK. Spatial distribution of neural activity evoked by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. Hear Res. 1990 Dec; 50(1-2):57-70. PMID: 2076983.
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      180. Ryan AF, Keithley EM, Wang ZX, Schwartz IR. Collaterals from lateral and medial olivocochlear efferent neurons innervate different regions of the cochlear nucleus and adjacent brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Oct 22; 300(4):572-82. PMID: 1703174.
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      181. Schwartz IR, Ryan AF. Autoradiographic studies of selective amino acid uptake by neural and nonneural elements in the gerbil cochlea. J Electron Microsc Tech. 1990 Jul; 15(3):225-44. PMID: 1973731.
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      182. Ryan AF, Sharp PA, Harris JP. Lymphocyte circulation to the middle ear. Acta Otolaryngol. 1990 Mar-Apr; 109(3-4):278-87. PMID: 2316349.
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      183. Keithley EM, Krekorian TD, Sharp PA, Harris JP, Ryan AF. Comparison of immune-mediated models of acute and chronic otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1990; 247(4):247-51. PMID: 2375870.
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      184. Bresnick SD, Ryan AF. Modulation of middle ear immune response by gut immunization. Laryngoscope. 1989 Dec; 99(12):1293-8. PMID: 2601545.
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      185. Ryan AF, Braverman S, Woolf NK, Axelsson GA. Auditory neural activity evoked by pure-tone stimulation as a function of intensity. Brain Res. 1989 Apr 3; 483(2):283-93. PMID: 2706521.
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      186. Ryan AF, Barenkamp SJ, DeMaria TF, Doyle WJ, Giebink GS, Hellström S, Kuijpers W, Mogi G, Pelton SI. Recent advances in otitis media. Animal models of otitis media. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1989 Apr; 139:33-8. PMID: 2494928.
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      187. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Woolf NK. Spiral ganglion cell density in young and old gerbils. Hear Res. 1989 Mar; 38(1-2):125-33. PMID: 2708154.
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      188. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Harris JP. Role of the round window membrane in middle ear immune responses. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1989; 457:139-43. PMID: 2929333.
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      189. Ryan AF, Furlow Z, Woolf NK, Keithley EM. The spatial representation of frequency in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 1988 Nov; 36(2-3):181-9. PMID: 3209491.
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      190. Woolf NK, Ryan AF. Contributions of the middle ear to the development of function in the cochlea. Hear Res. 1988 Sep 15; 35(2-3):131-42. PMID: 3198506.
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      191. Helfert RH, Schwartz IR, Ryan AF. Ultrastructural characterization of gerbil olivocochlear neurons based on differential uptake of 3H-D-aspartic acid and a wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate from the cochlea. J Neurosci. 1988 Sep; 8(9):3111-23. PMID: 3171669.
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      192. Ryan AF, Woolf NK. Development of tonotopic representation in the Mongolian gerbil: a 2-deoxyglucose study. Brain Res. 1988 Jun 1; 469(1-2):61-70. PMID: 3401808.
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      193. Ryan AF. Immune-mediated otitis media in an animal model. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1988 May-Jun; 132:24-7. PMID: 3132886.
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      194. Ryan AF, Axelsson A, Myers R, Woolf NK. Changes in cochlear blood flow during acoustic stimulation as determined by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988 Mar-Apr; 105(3-4):232-41. PMID: 3389108.
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      195. Ryan AF, Schwartz IR, Helfert RH, Keithley E, Wang ZX. Selective retrograde labeling of lateral olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem based on preferential uptake of 3H-D-aspartic acid in the cochlea. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Jan 22; 255(4):606-16. PMID: 3819032.
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      196. Wang ZX, Ryan AF, Woolf NK. Pentobarbital and ketamine alter the pattern of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the central auditory system of the gerbil. Hear Res. 1987; 27(2):145-55. PMID: 3610843.
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      197. Ryan AF, Catanzaro A, Wasserman SI, Harris JP, Vogel CW. The effect of complement depletion on immunologically mediated middle ear effusion and inflammation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1986 Sep; 40(3):410-21. PMID: 3731540.
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      198. Ryan AF, Catanzaro A, Wasserman SI, Harris JP. Secondary immune response in the middle ear: immunological, morphological, and physiological observations. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1986 May-Jun; 95(3 Pt 1):242-9. PMID: 3717850.
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      199. Schwartz IR, Ryan AF. Amino acid labeling patterns in the efferent innervation of the cochlea: an electron microscopic autoradiographic study. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Apr 22; 246(4):500-12. PMID: 3700725.
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      200. Harris JP, Woolf NK, Ryan AF. A reexamination of experimental type II collagen autoimmunity: middle and inner ear morphology and function. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1986 Mar-Apr; 95(2 Pt 1):176-80. PMID: 3963690.
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      201. Woolf NK, Ryan AF, Harris JP. Development of mammalian endocochlear potential: normal ontogeny and effects of anoxia. Am J Physiol. 1986 Mar; 250(3 Pt 2):R493-8. PMID: 3953857.
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      202. Woolf NK, Ryan AF. Ventral cochlear nucleus neural discharge characteristics in the absence of outer hair cells. Brain Res. 1985 Sep 9; 342(2):205-18. PMID: 4041821.
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      203. Woolf NK, Harris JP, Ryan AF, Butler DM, Richman DD. Hearing loss in experimental cytomegalovirus infection of the guinea pig inner ear: prevention by systemic immunity. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1985 Jul-Aug; 94(4 Pt 1):350-6. PMID: 2992353.
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      204. Harris JP, Woolf NK, Ryan AF. Elaboration of systemic immunity following inner ear immunization. Am J Otolaryngol. 1985 May-Jun; 6(3):148-52. PMID: 3874563.
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      205. Harris JP, Ryan AF. Effect of a middle ear immune response on inner ear antibody levels. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1985 Mar-Apr; 94(2 Pt 1):202-6. PMID: 3888031.
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      206. Boisvert P, Wasserman SI, Schiff M, Ryan AF. Histamine-induced middle ear effusion and mucosal histopathology in the guinea pig. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1985 Mar-Apr; 94(2 Pt 1):212-6. PMID: 3994241.
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      207. Woolf NK, Ryan AF. Ontogeny of neural discharge patterns in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the mongolian gerbil. Brain Res. 1985 Jan; 349(1-2):131-47. PMID: 3986582.
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      208. Harris JP, Ryan AF. Perilymph antigen and antibody levels following an immunologically-induced middle ear effusion. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1985; 12 Suppl 1:S194-6. PMID: 3835905.
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      209. Ryan AF, Harris JP, Catanzaro A, Wasserman SI. The role of eustachian tube dysfunction in immune-mediated middle ear effusion and inflammation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 1985; 12 Suppl 1:S203-5. PMID: 3835908.
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      210. Harris JP, Ryan AF. Immunobiology of the inner ear. Am J Otolaryngol. 1984 Nov-Dec; 5(6):418-25. PMID: 6400717.
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      211. Harris JP, Woolf NK, Ryan AF, Butler DM, Richman DD. Immunologic and electrophysiological response to cytomegaloviral inner ear infection in the guinea pig. J Infect Dis. 1984 Oct; 150(4):523-30. PMID: 6092483.
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      212. Goodwin PC, Ryan AF, Sharp FR, Woolf NK, Davidson TM. Cochlear deoxyglucose uptake: relationship to stimulus intensity. Hear Res. 1984 Sep; 15(3):215-24. PMID: 6501111.
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      213. Sharp FR, Ryan AF. Regional (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake during forelimb movements evoked by rat motor cortex stimulation: pons, cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord, muscle. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Apr 1; 224(2):286-306. PMID: 19180816.
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      214. Woolf NK, Ryan AF. The development of auditory function in the cochlea of the mongolian gerbil. Hear Res. 1984 Mar; 13(3):277-83. PMID: 6735934.
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      215. Ryan AF, Schwartz IR. Preferential glutamine uptake by cochlear hair cells: implications for the afferent cochlear transmitter. Brain Res. 1984 Jan 9; 290(2):376-9. PMID: 6140989.
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      216. Ryan AF, Miller JM, Pfingst BE, Martin GK. Effects of reaction time performance on single-unit activity in the central auditory pathway of the rhesus macaque. J Neurosci. 1984 Jan; 4(1):298-308. PMID: 6693945.
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      217. Woolf NK, Sharp FR, Davidson TM, Ryan AF. Cochlear and middle ear effects on metabolism in the central auditory pathway during silence: a 2-deoxyglucose study. Brain Res. 1983 Sep 5; 274(1):119-27. PMID: 6616248.
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      218. Schwartz IR, Ryan AF. Differential labeling of sensory cell and neural populations in the organ of Corti following amino acid incubations. Hear Res. 1983 Feb; 9(2):185-200. PMID: 6131879.
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      219. Ryan AF, Schwartz IR. Preferential amino acid uptake identifies Type II spiral ganglion neurons in the gerbil. Hear Res. 1983 Feb; 9(2):173-84. PMID: 6833161.
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      220. Ryan AF, Catanzaro A. Passive transfer of immune-mediated middle ear inflammation and effusion. Acta Otolaryngol. 1983 Jan-Feb; 95(1-2):123-30. PMID: 6681928.
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      221. Ryan AF, Sharp FR. Localization of [3H]2-deoxyglucose at the cellular level using freeze-dried tissue and dry-looped emulsion. Brain Res. 1982 Dec 2; 252(1):177-80. PMID: 6293653.
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      222. Catanzaro A, Ryan AF, Robb JA. Immunologically mediated and nonspecific inflammatory responses in the middle ear. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1982 Sep; 24(3):361-76. PMID: 6889935.
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      223. Ryan AF, Bone RC. Non-simultaneous Interaction of exposure to noise and kanamycin intoxication in the chinchilla. Am J Otolaryngol. 1982 Jul-Aug; 3(4):264-72. PMID: 7149139.
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      224. Ryan AF, Woolf NK, Sharp FR. Tonotopic organization in the central auditory pathway of the Mongolian gerbil: a 2-deoxyglucose study. J Comp Neurol. 1982 Jun 1; 207(4):369-80. PMID: 7119149.
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      225. Bone RC, Ryan AF. Intracochlear microprobe analysis. Laryngoscope. 1982 Apr; 92(4):385-9. PMID: 7070180.
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      226. Ryan AF, Goodwin P, Woolf NK, Sharp F. Auditory stimulation alters the pattern of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the inner ear. Brain Res. 1982 Feb 25; 234(2):213-25. PMID: 7059827.
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      227. Ryan AF, Cleveland PH, Hartman MT, Catanzaro A. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in peripheral blood following introduction of antigen into the middle ear. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1982 Jan-Feb; 91(1 Pt 1):70-5. PMID: 6978671.
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      228. Woolf NK, Ryan AF, Bone RC. Neural phase-locking properties in the absence of cochlear outer hair cells. Hear Res. 1981 Jul; 4(3-4):335-46. PMID: 7263519.
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      229. Ryan AF, Woolf NK, Bone RC. Ultrastructural correlates of selective outer hair cell destruction following kanamycin intoxication in the chinchilla. Hear Res. 1980 Dec; 3(4):335-51. PMID: 7451380.
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      230. Bone RC, Ryan AF. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of intracochlear ion shifts produced by anoxia. Laryngoscope. 1980 Jul; 90(7 Pt 1):1169-90. PMID: 7392752.
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      231. Schiff M, Poliquin JF, Catanzaro A, Ryan AF. Tympanosclerosis. A theory of pathogenesis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1980 Jul-Aug; 89(4 Pt 2):1-16. PMID: 6775569.
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      232. Ryan AF, Wickham MG, Bone RC. Studies of ion distribution in the inner ear: scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cochlear specimens. Hear Res. 1980 Jan; 2(1):1-20. PMID: 7351388.
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      233. Ryan AF, Wickham MG, Bone RC. Element content of intracochlear fluids, outer hair cells, and stria vascularis as determined by energy-dispersive roentgen ray analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg (1979). 1979 Sep-Oct; 87(5):659-65. PMID: 503532.
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      234. Ryan AF, Bone RC. Potentiation of kanamycin ototoxicity by a history of noise exposure. Otolaryngology. 1978 Jan-Feb; 86(1):ORL-125-8. PMID: 114911.
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