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    Alan Hofmann

    TitleEmeritus Professor
    SchoolUniversity of California, San Diego
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address9500 Gilman Drive #0063
    CA La Jolla 92093
    Phone858-822-3811
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      Dr. Hofmann's laboratory is interested in lipid digestion and absorption in health and disease; nutrient absorption; bile acid evolution, pathobiology, and pathochemistry; bile secretion; cholelithiasis; biliary physiology and pharmacology; diagnosis and treatment of digestive and hepatobiliary disease; enterohepatic circulation of endobiotics and xenobiotics; breath tests in diagnosis; defective bile acid metabolism in pediatric constipation; bile acids as modulators of intestinal bacteria.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Satoh R, Ogata H, Saito T, Zhou B, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Two Major Bile Acids in the Hornbills, (24R,25S)-3a,7a,24-Trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oyl Taurine and Its 12a-Hydroxy Derivative. Lipids. 2016 Jun; 51(6):757-68. PMID: 27108034.
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      2. Sato Née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Nakane N, Namegawa K, Sekiguchi S, Omura K, Kurabuchi S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Raines J, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Novel, major 2a- and 2ß-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish. Steroids. 2016 Mar; 107:112-20. PMID: 26768415.
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      3. Spriggs M, Thompson KA, Barton D, Talley J, Volle K, Stasiak I, Beyea L, Guthrie A, Roda A, Camborata C, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Gastrolithiasis in prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou prehensilis): nine cases and pathogenesis of stone formation. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec; 45(4):883-91. PMID: 25632677.
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      4. Omura K, Ohsaki A, Zhou B, Kushida M, Mitsuma T, Kobayashi A, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Improved Chemical Synthesis, X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis, and NMR Characterization of (22R)-/(22S)-Hydroxy Epimers of Bile Acids. Lipids. 2014 Nov; 49(11):1169-80. PMID: 25319478.
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      5. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades. J Lipid Res. 2014 Aug; 55(8):1553-95. PMID: 24838141.
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      6. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Takei H, Nittono H, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Hofmann AF, Pandak WM, Bajaj JS. A simple and accurate HPLC method for fecal bile acid profile in healthy and cirrhotic subjects: validation by GC-MS and LC-MS. J Lipid Res. 2014 May; 55(5):978-90. PMID: 24627129.
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      7. Wang L, Hartmann P, Haimerl M, Bathena SP, Sjöwall C, Almer S, Alnouti Y, Hofmann AF, Schnabl B. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids. J Hepatol. 2014 Jun; 60(6):1259-67. PMID: 24560660.
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      8. Duboc H, Taché Y, Hofmann AF. The bile acid TGR5 membrane receptor: from basic research to clinical application. Dig Liver Dis. 2014 Apr; 46(4):302-12. PMID: 24411485.
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      9. Satoh Née Okihara R, Saito T, Ogata H, Ohsaki A, Iida T, Asahina K, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. N-Methyltaurine N-acyl amidated bile acids and deoxycholic acid in the bile of angelfish (Pomacanthidae): A novel bile acid profile in Perciform fish. Steroids. 2014 Feb; 80:15-23. PMID: 24291417.
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      10. Wang R, Liu L, Sheps JA, Forrest D, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Ling V. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Aug 15; 305(4):G286-94. PMID: 23764895.
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      11. Ogawa S, Zhou B, Kimoto Y, Omura K, Kobayashi A, Higashi T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. An efficient synthesis of 7a,12a-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and its biological precursor 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one: Key intermediates in bile acid biosynthesis. Steroids. 2013 Sep; 78(9):927-37. PMID: 23707572.
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      12. Kelly OB, Mroz MS, Ward JB, Colliva C, Scharl M, Pellicciari R, Gilmer JF, Fallon PG, Hofmann AF, Roda A, Murray FE, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function. J Physiol. 2013 May 1; 591(Pt 9):2307-18. PMID: 23507881.
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      13. Hagey LR, Ogawa S, Kato N, Satoh née Okihara R, Une M, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Hofmann AF, Iida T. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3a,7a,12a,24-tetrahydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster. Steroids. 2012 Nov; 77(13):1510-21. PMID: 22986074.
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      14. Muto A, Takei H, Unno A, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Ogawa S, Iida T, Ikegawa S, Mori J, Ohtake A, Hoshina T, Mizuochi T, Kimura A, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Nittono H. Detection of ?4-3-oxo-steroid 5ß-reductase deficiency by LC-ESI-MS/MS measurement of urinary bile acids. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Jul 1; 900:24-31. PMID: 22695323.
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      15. Mitamura K, Hori N, Mino S, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of S-acyl glutathione conjugated bile acids and their biotransformation by a rat liver cytosolic fraction. Chem Phys Lipids. 2012 Apr; 165(3):261-9. PMID: 22343050.
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      16. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Suzuki M, Shimizu T, Nittono H, Takaori K, Takikawa H, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of S-acyl glutathione conjugates of bile acids in human bile by means of LC/ESI-MS. Steroids. 2011 Dec 20; 76(14):1609-14. PMID: 22019844.
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      17. Hofmann AF. Herbert Falk: a vital force in the renaissance of bile acid research and bile acid therapy. Dig Dis. 2011; 29(1):23-36. PMID: 21691101.
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      18. Hagey LR, Iida T, Ogawa S, Adachi Y, Une M, Mushiake K, Maekawa M, Shimada M, Mano N, Hofmann AF. Biliary bile acids in birds of the Cotingidae family: taurine-conjugated (24R,25R)-3a,7a,24-trihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid and two epimers (25R and 25S) of 3a,7a-dihydroxy-5ß-cholestan-27-oic acid. Steroids. 2011 Sep-Oct; 76(10-11):1126-35. PMID: 21600907.
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      19. Ogawa S, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Krasowski MD, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of the (25R)- and (25S)-epimers of 3a,7a,12a-trihydroxy-5a-cholestan-27-oic acid as well as their corresponding glycine and taurine conjugates. Chem Phys Lipids. 2011 Jul; 164(5):368-77. PMID: 21554864.
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      20. Mitamura K, Sakai T, Nakai R, Wakamiya T, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Synthesis of the 3-sulfates of N-acetylcysteine conjugated bile acids (BA-NACs) and their transient formation from BA-NACs and subsequent hydrolysis by a rat liver cytosolic fraction as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jun; 400(7):2061-72. PMID: 21455648.
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      21. Hofmann AF. Bile acid sequestrants improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a proposed mechanism implicating glucagon-like peptide 1 release. Hepatology. 2011 May; 53(5):1784. PMID: 21520190.
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      22. Denk GU, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, Kulik W, Fuchsbichler A, Fickert P, Trauner M, Hofmann AF, Beuers U. Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of NorUrsodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. Hepatology. 2010 Nov; 52(5):1758-68. PMID: 21038414.
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      23. Mitamura K, Hori N, Iida T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Identification of bile acid S-acyl glutathione conjugates in rat bile by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Steroids. 2011 Jan; 76(1-2):68-77. PMID: 20837038.
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      24. Megaraj V, Iida T, Jungsuwadee P, Hofmann AF, Vore M. Hepatobiliary disposition of 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-cholanoyl taurine: a substrate for multiple canalicular transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Oct; 38(10):1723-30. PMID: 20643783.
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      25. Hagey LR, Lida T, Tamegai H, Ogawa S, Une M, Asahina K, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Krasowski MD, Hofmann AF. Major biliary bile acids of the medaka (Oryzias latipes): 25R- and 25S-epimers of 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid. Zoolog Sci. 2010 Jul; 27(7):565-73. PMID: 20608845.
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      26. Hagey LR, Vidal N, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol. 2010; 10:133. PMID: 20444292.
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      27. Hagey LR, Møller PR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Diversity of bile salts in fish and amphibians: evolution of a complex biochemical pathway. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2010 Mar-Apr; 83(2):308-21. PMID: 20113173.
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      28. Hofmann AF. Chronic diarrhea caused by idiopathic bile acid malabsorption: an explanation at last. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Oct; 3(5):461-4. PMID: 19817666.
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      29. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Krasowski MD. Bile salts of vertebrates: structural variation and possible evolutionary significance. J Lipid Res. 2010 Feb; 51(2):226-46. PMID: 19638645.
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      30. Halilbasic E, Fiorotto R, Fickert P, Marschall HU, Moustafa T, Spirli C, Fuchsbichler A, Gumhold J, Silbert D, Zatloukal K, Langner C, Maitra U, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Strazzabosco M, Trauner M. Side chain structure determines unique physiologic and therapeutic properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in Mdr2-/- mice. Hepatology. 2009 Jun; 49(6):1972-81. PMID: 19475687.
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      31. Hofmann AF. Bile acids: trying to understand their chemistry and biology with the hope of helping patients. Hepatology. 2009 May; 49(5):1403-18. PMID: 19296471.
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      32. Kakiyama G, Muto A, Shimada M, Mano N, Goto J, Hofmann AF, Iida T. Chemical synthesis of 3beta-sulfooxy-7beta-hydroxy-24-nor-5-cholenoic acid: an internal standard for mass spectrometric analysis of the abnormal delta5-bile acids occurring in Niemann-Pick disease. Steroids. 2009 Sep; 74(9):766-72. PMID: 19394355.
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      33. Mitamura K, Watanabe S, Sakai T, Okihara R, Sogabe M, Wakamiya T, Hofmann AF, Ikegawa S. Chemical synthesis of N-acetylcysteine conjugates of bile acids and in vivo formation in cholestatic rats as shown by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Sep 1; 877(25):2630-8. PMID: 19346170.
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      34. Money ME, Hofmann AF, Hagey LR, Walkowiak J, Talley NJ. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea with pancrealipase or colesevelam and association with steatorrhea. Pancreas. 2009 Mar; 38(2):232-3. PMID: 19238028.
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      35. Hofmann AF. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in mammals: form and functions. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009; 14:2584-98. PMID: 19273221.
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      36. Hofmann AF. In memoriam: Dr. Herbert Falk (1924-2008). Hepatology. 2009 Jan; 49(1):1-3. PMID: 19108004.
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      37. Hagey LR, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Iida T, Mushiake K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Oliveira CA, Hofmann AF. A new, major C27 biliary bile acid in the red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens):25R-1beta, 3alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2009 Apr; 50(4):651-7. PMID: 19011113.
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      38. Hofmann AF, Loening-Baucke V, Lavine JE, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Packard CA, Griffin TL, Chatfield DA. Altered bile acid metabolism in childhood functional constipation: inactivation of secretory bile acids by sulfation in a subset of patients. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Nov; 47(5):598-606. PMID: 18955863.
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      39. Hofmann AF, Hagey LR. Bile acids: chemistry, pathochemistry, biology, pathobiology, and therapeutics. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Aug; 65(16):2461-83. PMID: 18488143.
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      40. Reschly EJ, Ai N, Ekins S, Welsh WJ, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF, Krasowski MD. Evolution of the bile salt nuclear receptor FXR in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2008 Jul; 49(7):1577-87. PMID: 18362391.
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      41. Kakiyama G, Tamegai H, Iida T, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Holz P, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus): 15alpha-hydroxylithocholic acid. J Lipid Res. 2007 Dec; 48(12):2682-92. PMID: 17785716.
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      42. Hamilton JP, Xie G, Raufman JP, Hogan S, Griffin TL, Packard CA, Chatfield DA, Hagey LR, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. Human cecal bile acids: concentration and spectrum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jul; 293(1):G256-63. PMID: 17412828.
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      43. Hofmann AF. Why bile acid glucuronidation is a minor pathway for conjugation of endogenous bile acids in man. Hepatology. 2007 Apr; 45(4):1083-4; author reply 1084-5. PMID: 17393523.
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      44. Hofmann AF. Biliary secretion and excretion in health and disease: current concepts. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Jan-Mar; 6(1):15-27. PMID: 17297425.
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      45. Keely SJ, Scharl MM, Bertelsen LS, Hagey LR, Barrett KE, Hofmann AF. Bile acid-induced secretion in polarized monolayers of T84 colonic epithelial cells: Structure-activity relationships. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):G290-7. PMID: 16901996.
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      46. Paulusma CC, Groen A, Kunne C, Ho-Mok KS, Spijkerboer AL, Rudi de Waart D, Hoek FJ, Vreeling H, Hoeben KA, van Marle J, Pawlikowska L, Bull LN, Hofmann AF, Knisely AS, Oude Elferink RP. Atp8b1 deficiency in mice reduces resistance of the canalicular membrane to hydrophobic bile salts and impairs bile salt transport. Hepatology. 2006 Jul; 44(1):195-204. PMID: 16799980.
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      47. Sehayek E, Hagey LR, Fung YY, Duncan EM, Yu HJ, Eggertsen G, Björkhem I, Hofmann AF, Breslow JL. Two loci on chromosome 9 control bile acid composition: evidence that a strong candidate gene, Cyp8b1, is not the culprit. J Lipid Res. 2006 Sep; 47(9):2020-7. PMID: 16763287.
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      48. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Hayashi H, Onuki R, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y. Inhibition of bile acid transport across Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1) and bile salt export pump (ABCB 11)-coexpressing LLC-PK1 cells by cholestasis-inducing drugs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep; 34(9):1575-81. PMID: 16760228.
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      49. Hofmann AF, Huet PM. Nasobiliary drainage for cholestatic pruritus. Hepatology. 2006 May; 43(5):1170-1. PMID: 16628631.
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      50. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. J Lipid Res. 2006 Jul; 47(7):1551-8. PMID: 16648547.
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      51. Hofmann AF, Eckmann L. How bile acids confer gut mucosal protection against bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12):4333-4. PMID: 16537368.
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      52. Fickert P, Wagner M, Marschall HU, Fuchsbichler A, Zollner G, Tsybrovskyy O, Zatloukal K, Liu J, Waalkes MP, Cover C, Denk H, Hofmann AF, Jaeschke H, Trauner M. 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid is superior to ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of sclerosing cholangitis in Mdr2 (Abcb4) knockout mice. Gastroenterology. 2006 Feb; 130(2):465-81. PMID: 16472600.
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      53. Hofmann AF, Zakko SF, Lira M, Clerici C, Hagey LR, Lambert KK, Steinbach JH, Schteingart CD, Olinga P, Groothuis GM. Novel biotransformation and physiological properties of norursodeoxycholic acid in humans. Hepatology. 2005 Dec; 42(6):1391-8. PMID: 16317695.
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      54. Combes B, Emerson SS, Flye NL, Munoz SJ, Luketic VA, Mayo MJ, McCashland TM, Zetterman RK, Peters MG, Di Bisceglie AM, Benner KG, Kowdley KV, Carithers RL, Rosoff L, Garcia-Tsao G, Boyer JL, Boyer TD, Martinez EJ, Bass NM, Lake JR, Barnes DS, Bonacini M, Lindsay KL, Mills AS, Markin RS, Rubin R, West AB, Wheeler DE, Contos MJ, Hofmann AF. Methotrexate (MTX) plus ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Nov; 42(5):1184-93. PMID: 16250039.
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      55. Iida T, Kakiyama G, Hibiya Y, Miyata S, Inoue T, Ohno K, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of the 3-sulfooxy-7-N-acetylglucosaminyl-24-amidated conjugates of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, and related compounds: unusual, major metabolites of bile acid in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1. Steroids. 2006 Jan; 71(1):18-29. PMID: 16197972.
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      56. Moschetta A, Xu F, Hagey LR, van Berge-Henegouwen GP, van Erpecum KJ, Brouwers JF, Cohen JC, Bierman M, Hobbs HH, Steinbach JH, Hofmann AF. A phylogenetic survey of biliary lipids in vertebrates. J Lipid Res. 2005 Oct; 46(10):2221-32. PMID: 16061950.
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      57. Hofmann AF. Increased deoxycholic acid absorption and gall stones in acromegalic patients treated with octreotide: more evidence for a connection between slow transit constipation and gall stones. Gut. 2005 May; 54(5):575-8. PMID: 15831896.
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      58. Hofmann AF. Detoxification of lithocholic acid, a toxic bile acid: relevance to drug hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct; 36(3-4):703-22. PMID: 15554243.
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      59. Hofmann AF. Douglas B. McGill, 1929-2004. Gastroenterology. 2004 Jun; 126(7):1890-2. PMID: 15188184.
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      60. Kakiyama G, Iida T, Yoshimoto A, Goto T, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T, Hagey LR, Hofmann AF. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its taurine and glycine conjugates: a major bile acid in the rat. J Lipid Res. 2004 Mar; 45(3):567-73. PMID: 14657194.
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      61. Hofmann AF. Inappropriate ileal conservation of bile acids in cholestatic liver disease: homeostasis gone awry. Gut. 2003 Sep; 52(9):1239-41. PMID: 12912852.
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      62. Porter JL, Fordtran JS, Santa Ana CA, Emmett M, Hagey LR, Macdonald EA, Hofmann AF. Accurate enzymatic measurement of fecal bile acids in patients with malabsorption. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Jun; 141(6):411-8. PMID: 12819639.
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      63. Lorenzo-Zúñiga V, Bartolí R, Planas R, Hofmann AF, Viñado B, Hagey LR, Hernández JM, Mañé J, Alvarez MA, Ausina V, Gassull MA. Oral bile acids reduce bacterial overgrowth, bacterial translocation, and endotoxemia in cirrhotic rats. Hepatology. 2003 Mar; 37(3):551-7. PMID: 12601352.
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      64. Zeh N, Rossi SS, Hofmann AF, Steinbach JH, Hagey LR, Oliver D, Stange J, Hassanein T. The effect of extracorporeal albumin dialysis on plasma phospholipid fatty acids in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Int. 2003; 23 Suppl 3:34-8. PMID: 12950959.
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      65. Iida T, Hikosaka M, Kakiyama G, Shiraishi K, Schteingart CD, Hagey LR, Ton-Nu HT, Hofmann AF, Mano N, Goto J, Nambara T. Potential bile acid metabolites. 25. Synthesis and chemical properties of stereoisomeric 3alpha,7alpha,16- and 3alpha,7alpha,15-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Oct; 50(10):1327-34. PMID: 12372858.
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      66. Meng LJ, Wang P, Wolkoff AW, Kim RB, Tirona RG, Hofmann AF, Pang KS. Transport of the sulfated, amidated bile acid, sulfolithocholyltaurine, into rat hepatocytes is mediated by Oatp1 and Oatp2. Hepatology. 2002 May; 35(5):1031-40. PMID: 11981753.
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      67. Hofmann AF. Cholestatic liver disease: pathophysiology and therapeutic options. Liver. 2002; 22 Suppl 2:14-9. PMID: 12220297.
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      68. Hofmann AF. The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Dec 13-27; 159(22):2647-58. PMID: 10597755.
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